Today, the abundance and variety of indoor plants is simply amazing. There are flowers that deserve especially close attention, for example, peperomia. Available varieties and various varieties of this plant will be discussed in this article.
Peperomia is a flower of the pepper family. Often called decorative pepper without fruit. The plant has a compact shape, as well as a rather non-standard appearance. Its sizes can be completely different, but in any case, the flower is quite unpretentious to the growing conditions. This houseplant has several varieties that differ from each other in almost all key parameters.
The main feature of this potted plant is its versatility. Peperomia grows beautifully, not only nearby, but even in the same pot with almost any plant.
In addition, the flower has the following features.
- It allows you to make a certain variety in the home flower garden. Both the appearance of the flower and the light aroma of its leaves resemble some varieties of pepper, and visually it is very different from other indoor plants.
- It is generally accepted that peperomia has a beneficial effect on the aura in the house and improves the relationship of the spouses.
- Also, it is this houseplant , and more precisely, its leaves and flowers, that are actively used in folk medicine to treat various diseases of the gallbladder and mammary glands.
Do not forget that the flower itself is extremely unpretentious to the conditions of its growth, especially to the composition and quality of the soil. Therefore, it can be grown in almost any room.
Modern species of this plant are simply amazing. Among them there are separate groups with the same characteristics for each particular species, and flowers, which are a mix of several subspecies at once. The names of the varieties of this indoor flower to a greater extent characterize its appearance. For example, small-leaved or variegate peperomia. There are also subspecies such as Angulata and Rubella.
There are three main groups of peperomia, and each of them includes several subspecies of this indoor flower.
A plant of this species has a rather high stem. Its maximum length can reach half a meter. The main characteristic is the presence of thick and rather fleshy leaves of different sizes.
This group of peperomia includes the following species.
- Gravelolens is a plant up to a quarter meter high. In appearance it is quite similar to sea corals. The leaves are oval, slightly bent up. Their upper part is painted in green tones, and the lower - in coral or burgundy. Graveolens blooms with bright yellow small bell flowers.
- Ferreira refers to a variety of succulents, as it has the ability to make abundant supplies of water in its leaves. Often it is this type of peperomy that chooses some other plant as a support. For this reason, it is sometimes referred to as epiphytes. The stem of this flower is straight, and on it staggered leaves are often folded in half. Their color is from light green to deep dark.
- Kluzelistny peperomia differs from other flowers of the species by miniature petioles and very large leaves located on them. The color of the leaves is dark green, with a bright purple border around the edges. Sometimes you can also find variegated indoor plants of this species. Their color is green, purple, red and light green alternating. Leaves grow at the bottom of the stem, but due to their large size, they create a kind of hat on its crown.
- Perescelial peperomy. A distinctive feature of this flower is small leaves that grow on the top of the stems in a bunch of several. Their color is dark green, and to the touch they are quite tough. The ancestors of this plant today grow in the wild in Venezuela, Nicaragua and Colombia.
- Watermelon peperomia is so called due to the color of its leaves. They are round, their shape resembles that of an ostrich egg, the color is identical to the color of the peel of a normal watermelon, except that it is slightly dull. Stems are red in color and not more than 15 cm high.
- Happy Bean - a compact plant with a height of not more than 25 cm. The main highlight of the species is the shape of its leaves. They are bent, like the pods of green beans or peas, but this is only an external illusion.
Inside the leaves, of course, there is nothing. Color - light green, glossy. The stem in color does not differ from the leaves.
- Chisel peperomia ( dolbriformis) is a rosette-shaped plant. The older it is, the harder and more stony its leaves become. The brightest representative of succulents among indoor flowers of this species. The stalk is thick, fleshy, no more than 12 cm high. Its leaves are round, folded in half, and there is a small gap between the halves.
- " Columella . " This type of plant in our country appeared relatively recently. It has a unique look - a stalk up to 20 cm high, rather thick and fleshy, the leaves are small and densely smoothed to the stalk against its growth. In appearance, such a plant, or rather, its leaves, resembles scales. Color - from light green to greenish purple.
General characteristics of these subspecies of indoor flower: the ability to well accumulate water, fleshy leaves, as well as a small height - up to 30 cm.
Peperomies of this species, as the name implies, have a bushy shape, and yet they all do not grow in height more than 15 cm. That is why they can be grown even in the smallest rooms.
- Shriveled peperomia is a compact bush with beautiful wavy leaves of maroon color with a slight green tint. The stem is short and therefore the foliage located on it, like a cloud, reliably hides it from prying eyes. At the end of winter and the beginning of spring, tall spikelets-buds appear, which bloom into dazzling white flowers of small size.
- Rosso has a short flowering period, which occurs once a year, but its appearance attracts attention. The leaves are large, oblong, the upper part is green, glossy, and the bottom is saturated red. The stalk of dark green color is reliably hidden from prying eyes, and all due to the fact that the leaves are located on it in the shape of a star.
- Lilian is a beautiful houseplant with thin leaves in the shape of hearts of dark green color. The flowers are located on tall stems, and in their shape resemble ordinary lilies, their color is from white to golden yellow. Often on the leaves you can find a small waxy coating on top of them.
- Silvery peperomia got its name because of the color of the leaves. The plant itself reaches a height of 14 cm, while it has very large leaves up to 8 cm wide and up to 15 cm long. The silvery color of the leaves slightly dilutes the dark green color of their veins. The color of petioles is dark purple.
- Peperomia gray-haired got its name not because of color, but because of the frequency of leaf growth - they are rarely located. Their color is matte, green, average size - about 3-5 cm. Young plants of this species have light upright shoots. With age, their color darkens, and they themselves begin to sag. The leaves and stems are covered with a small fluff of silver tint.
- Peperomia multistem or " Reindrop " . The leaves have a conical shape, their color is dark green, the surface is as if covered with a thin layer of wax. The height of the flower itself never exceeds 20 cm. The flower stalks of the plant are thin, tall, have a dark brown color, and the flowers themselves are small and painted in yellow.
Despite the variety of colors and shapes of the leaves and stems of the peperomia of this species, all these plants have one thing in common - their flowers are spike-shaped, and peduncles always rise above the leaves and stems.
A distinctive feature of plants of this subgroup are long stems of various colors and thicknesses.
- Creeping peperomia at home will feel great, growing in one pot or in close proximity to another, larger plant. It has thin and long stems, the color of which ranges from light green to rich purple. The leaves are small, oval, green.
- Head-peperomia got its name because of its shape. You can grow it as a creeping plant, and as an ampelous. The color of the stems is from dark green to light purple, the leaves themselves are green. The peculiarity of this flower is that in the more lighted place it grows, the more bright the color of its leaves becomes. The second name for this species is Glabella.
- Round-peperomia is the smallest plant in this group. It has thin delicate stems and very small leaves. The color of the flower is light green, glossy. The leaves are egg-shaped and have a very delicate texture.
- Whorled peperomia. The leaves have a rounded or rhomboid shape, their color is gray or dark green. Petioles are almost completely absent, and the leaves are collected in whorls. Peduncle tall and rather thick.
- Climbing peperomia ( “ prostate ” ) is perhaps the most popular subspecies of this indoor flower. Leaves change shape and color with age. At first they are rounded and light green, then they become oblong and gray. The plant is absolutely unpretentious in care, and in the warm season it grows well even in the garden.
- Peperomia of rotundifolia grows in the form of a bush, its height is not more than 30 cm. The color of the stems and leaves is dark green, with a glossy surface. The leaves are arranged in pairs and have an oblong shape, with age dark gray veins appear on them.
A distinctive feature of the ampelic peperomy of any subspecies is its leaves, which always very beautifully frame the edge of the flower pot.
How to choose?
Having familiarized themselves with the wide variety of species of this indoor flower, many people simply come to a standstill, because they do not know which plant to purchase. In order not to make a mistake with the choice, the following important factors should be remembered.
- The area of the room where the flower will grow. This is an important, if not key, choice. In a small room, a large plant will look out of place, and vice versa, if the room has a large area, then too small a flower may simply get lost in it.
- Light intensity. There are peperomies who like bright and plentiful sunlight, and there are types of this flower that, on the contrary, are bright and intense light is strictly contraindicated.
- General interior design. It is very important that the plant fits into the general style of the room and is well adjacent to other potted flowers that already grow in it.
- Availability of free time. Another important factor, because among the subspecies of this flower there are those that need regular care, and there are those that quickly die or start to get sick without proper attention.
And, of course, do not forget about the reason for acquiring such a plant. If you choose a flower just for the home and your soul, then it is better to choose upright plants. If the flower is purchased exclusively for decorative purposes, then it is worth paying attention to the ampelous types of peperomia.
Basic content rules
But it’s not enough just to choose a plant. In order to enjoy its beautiful appearance, proper growth and development for a long time, it is necessary to know and follow the basic recommendations for its cultivation at home.
- All types of peperomia are epiphytes, so the soil in which they grow must be loose. A combination of forest soil, peat, sand and humus in the proportions of 3: 1: 1: 1 is considered ideal.
- Before planting a plant in the ground, it must be disinfected. For this, the mixture for the flower pot is poured in an even layer on a baking sheet and heated in the oven for 1 hour at a temperature of 100 degrees. Then it is cooled and only then used for its intended purpose.
- Be sure to need a drainage layer in the pot. At the same time, its height should be at least 6 cm. It is best to purchase a special mixture in specialized plant growing stores.
- Particular attention should be paid to watering peperomia. It should be timely, but not too meager or plentiful. The ideal time for watering is considered to be the moment when the top layer of soil dries 1 cm deep. After watering, in no case should the water remain in the pan of the pot.
- Lighting is another important factor. Despite the fact that peperomia is a tropical plant, not all of its species love intense lighting. Therefore, depending on the specific type of flower, it is necessary to choose the place of its installation.
- The air temperature in the warm season is from 22 to 25 degrees above zero , in winter it is from 18 to 22. At the same time, the temperature of the soil itself should never fall below +17 degrees and rise above +19 degrees.
In addition to the basic conditions for the maintenance of peperomia of any kind, for its proper growth and development, several other recommendations must be observed.
- Irrigation water is used only filtered or settled. Its optimum temperature is considered an indicator from 23 to 30 degrees, that is, on average - 5 degrees warmer than the temperature of the substrate itself.
- It is highly recommended not to use mineral (even without gas) or distilled water.
- With proper care of the plant, watering is carried out once every 3-4 days.
- Peperomia needs regular fertilizing . Any ready-made mineral-based mixes can be used. At the same time, the dosage indicated by the manufacturer is recommended to be reduced by half.
- It is important to know that during the growing season fertilizer is applied once every 15 days, and during the rest of the year, with the exception of winter, once every 35 days. But in the cold season, peperomia is not fed.
Only following these recommendations will allow the flower to provide the most favorable microclimate, which will positively affect both its appearance and health.
This manipulation is carried out for the first time in the 4th year of life, and in the future at least once every two years. It is during the first 3 years that the root system is formed in peperomy, and in the future, for its normal development and functioning, the flower should be transplanted more often. A few days (preferably weeks) before the procedure, it is necessary to prepare a new soil and a new container for the plant, thoroughly wash and disinfect them.
Next, the sequence of actions will be as follows:
- the plant is watered and carefully removed from the old pot;
- a layer of drainage is poured at the bottom of the new container, and a layer of soil 3 cm high is placed on top and the root system of the plant is carefully set;
- The prepared substrate is poured into the remaining free space.
There are several important points here.
- A new container for a plant should be at least 30% larger than the previous one.
- The first watering of the flower after transplantation is carried out only 4 days after the procedure.
- The roots of the transplanted peperomia should be covered by two centimeters of soil, and the distance from the roots to the walls of the container should not be less than 3 cm. Only in this case will the flower grow and develop normally.
Compliance with all these simple, but really important recommendations will allow you to grow beautiful and healthy absolutely any kind of peperomia.
An overview of the types of peperomia see in the next video.