For thousands of years, hearths and fireplaces have been decorating and warming our homes. The crackling of firewood and the game of flame mesmerize and create an atmosphere of comfort and relaxation, set in a romantic mood. Although electric fireplaces, infrared and gas have now been invented, it is firewood that is very popular. This is a classic that has been tested for centuries.
Features and Benefits
Today there is a huge variety of types and models of wood fireplaces and their accessories. You can buy them already ready in the store or make them to order, or you can build them yourself and decorate them to your taste and desire.
Strict fire safety requirements do not allow to install a fireplace with an open firebox in an apartment, but in a private house or in a country house, the fireplace acts as an oasis of peace and cozy relaxation, especially in dank winter weather.
A real wood fireplace has the following advantages and functions:
- able to heat a room with an area of 20-25 m2;
- some models can be used to dry food and wet items;
- serves as an adornment of any interior and creates a unique atmosphere of comfort in the house;
- easy to maintain and operate;
- able to work on different types of fuel
- helps ventilation of the room.
He also has disadvantages:
- It is only an additional way of heating;
- due to fire hazard requires caution in use;
- there is a need for a supply of fuel and a special place for their storage in the house;
- to install or lay out a fireplace correctly is a laborious and costly business;
- it is necessary to constantly clean the chimney.
These minuses may not exist if you use the fireplace correctly and carefully care for it.
Types and designs
A fireplace is a stove, only with a firebox open to the side of the room. It consists of a portal, which frames the fireplace and performs a decorative function, a firebox, in which firewood burns, a chimney, into which the smoke draws. To remove gases and fumes, the furnace is equipped with a chimney and chimney - a special vertical pipe that takes combustion products out of the furnace to the street using a chimney pipe.
Despite the simplicity of design, there is a wide variety of types of wood heating systems. For fuel, you can use all combustible material, for example, firewood, cardboard. Especially for fireplaces firewood of long burning is made - pellets.
There are foci at the installation site for street and home. The first are mounted on the street and are used for cooking in the barbecue area, heating water and, of course, for decorating the site in front of the house. The second - internal for installation in rooms.
Separation is also by the method of placing the furnace in the room. Island structures are placed in the middle of the room at a distance from corners and walls. This method is considered the most time-consuming, but such an island looks impressive, it is often bilateral and heats a much larger area than other types. The hanging fireplace, the furnace portal of which can be both glass and open, looks unusual.
Corner fireplaces fully justify their name and are placed in the corner of the room, usually they are floor mounted. They give less heat than island ones, but they create a real corner for relaxation and look very elegant. Laying out such an oven is easier than a freestanding one.
The wall version is the lightest in execution. Such a fireplace is built into the wall, most often bearing. It saves the space of the room, but part of the heat goes into the wall, so it has less thermal efficiency than other types. Mounted models are also placed on the wall, wall-mounted or portable, which can be installed in any safe place of the room at the request of the owner.
According to the type of execution, indoor fireplace designs are divided into several groups:
- Classical performance. This is a stove laid out of traditional natural materials using standard, proven technology over the centuries. The furnace portal is rectangular or square.
- A model in a modern design with a variety of forms of furnaces and made of metal, glass and other original materials.
- The specific D-shape with a wooden beam at the top looks impressive and reliable.
According to the method of use, fireplaces are distinguished, which, in addition to their main decorative function, also perform additional household tasks:
- fireplace stove, on top of which there is a hob and you can cook food;
- fireplace-boiler, which is used as a boiler, water heater;
- heating type of the furnace, almost smokeless, which is the main heating element in the room. Ready-made stoves with the possibility of connecting a heating circuit, wood pellet boilers are produced.
Furnaces are made with two types of furnaces - open and closed. The first option is very popular because of the sensation and aroma of an open flame, the second is more secure, in it the flame is closed with refractory glass.
Principle of operation
The principle of operation of the fireplace is similar to that of a conventional stove. Firewood or other solid fuel is placed in the firebox. Firewood burns, emitting radiant thermal energy in all directions. The temperature of the burning layer is 800-850 degrees. Part of the heat goes into the room, and part gets on the back wall and side parts of the fireplace, then it is reflected from the walls and enters the room, but in a smaller amount, the indicators are reduced by about half. Heat is released while the combustion process is in progress.
To prevent by-products and harmful combustion products from entering the room through the open front of the furnace, a special air stream is created, which enters the furnace through the blower and then goes into the smoke box. Smoke and gases that are formed during combustion, as well as part of the heat, are drawn into the chimney by a draft and removed to the street through a pipe. To maintain combustion, air is drawn directly from the room, natural ventilation occurs.
There are combined ways of working - you can turn on the electric, or you can firewood.
For the manufacture of fireplaces, both traditional natural materials, the use of which has a thousand-year history, and modern, innovative, invented recently, are used.
The choice of material is determined by its special properties that are necessary for safe and efficient operation:
- thermal conductivity, heat transfer;
- vapor permeability and gas permeability;
- heat resistance, heat capacity;
- shrinkage, volume changes during temperature and humidity surges;
- incombustibility, fire resistance, fire resistance;
- ductility and elasticity;
- chemical stability when exposed to alkalis, acids, gases.
Traditional materials, such as fireclay refractory brick, stone, have excellent characteristics for use in laying out furnaces for various purposes. Finnish fireplaces are made of talc magnesite of volcanic origin. Mammoth stone, as it is also called, has excellent thermal conductivity and natural beauty.
Of modern materials, refractory tempered glass is most often used, with which the furnace portal is closed so that the flame is visible. Manufacturers offer glasses that work stably at a temperature of about +750 degrees. To obtain such properties, heat-resistant glass is additionally tempered. There are quartz glasses, the temperature limit of which is +1000 degrees. They can be laminated and tinted at the request of the client.
Steel fireplaces constitute a worthy alternative to stone and brick. This material has the following advantages:
- Compact and light weight compared to other types. Such furnaces can be installed without foundation, moved from place to place.
- High rates of heat transfer. A room with a steel fireplace will quickly become warm, but such a fireplace will also cool down quickly.
- Ease of care. It is easy to wipe metal, it can be washed with special means.
Sheet steel is easier to process than cast iron, so designers can give these fireplaces complex fantasy forms.
Artificial stone imitates natural analogues, but is more affordable. They are faced with portals of classic fireplaces. Artificial stone can be used to lay entire walls and panels framing furnaces.
Sizes and shapes
Decorative stoves and wood-burning fireplaces come in a wide variety of sizes and be huge stone, with panels and a chimney to the ceiling, which are the undoubted impressive center of the entire interior. Around them, the remaining decor items and furniture are formed.
If the footage of the room does not allow you to place a large structure, you can choose more compact, portable or suspended, wall-mounted models. Such types do not clutter up the space and look easy in the interior. Even mini fireplaces are sold, they are usually mobile and create a corner of relaxation and comfort anywhere at the request of the owners.
In any case, when choosing, it is necessary to take into account the size of the room so that the fireplace looks proportionate to other objects in the room.
The shape of the fireplace is determined by the features of its design. The firebox and chimney dictate the shape of the stoves stretched to the ceiling, built into the wall or corner. Round fireplaces look super modern and stylish, they require placement in the center of the room and visibility from all sides. Such structures are placed or suspended in spacious rooms. Today it is possible to manufacture the most bizarre and exquisitely decorated hearths.
Classical rectangular fireplaces are usually of solid size and with their whole appearance are designed to emphasize the impressiveness and monumentality of the hall or hall in which they are located. They can be recessed into a niche or protrude from the wall.
Cylindrical ovens are often located on the street, in the recreation area and are used for barbecue.
Styles and Design
Any fireplace, of course, is the central object of the interior, and it is he who determines the general style of the room. If the cottage, living room or office is already ready and has its own unique style, then a huge variety of models of stoves will allow you to choose a suitable design and harmoniously fit the fireplace into the overall composition.
Traditionally, private homes have country or rustic fireplaces. These fireplaces are faced with natural or artificial stone, wood. They often have a niche for storing firewood. Mantel shelves are decorated with family photos in cute frames, vases, decorated in a rustic style.
A rectangular firebox, columns or bas-reliefs in decoration, marble or stone cladding - all these are elements inherent in the classics. Such solutions will look great in the same classic setting.
Various ancient heroes and mythical animals, plant bas-reliefs, white marble and columns create a luxurious and refined Empire style. Furniture, curtains and room decor should be in harmony with such an original fireplace.
Art Nouveau is characterized by the use in decoration of unusual forms and non-standard combinations of materials, for example, wood, steel, glass. Such fireplaces amaze imagination and give the room a modern and fashionable look.
High-tech style is directed towards the future and combines the clarity of lines and the geometric correctness of forms. Refractory innovative materials used in the decoration of such hearths attract attention and fit perfectly into high-tech or minimalistic interiors. Steel and glass give the structure transparency and lightness, leaving a feeling of open space and airiness in the room.
Along with well-known manufacturers in Europe with a century of history, whose fireplaces are in the best houses of Paris and London, new manufacturers are entering the arena, whose products are not inferior to the masters of this field in quality and reliability. Russia is an active consumer of the goods of these companies. The Polish company Kratki, Italian Palazzetti, French Supra , Spanish Fugar give warmth and comfort to people and offer a wide selection of fireplaces for any, even the most demanding, taste.
There are also companies in Russia that deservedly occupy leading positions in the market and receive excellent reviews from customers who have been using furnaces for many years.
The company "Vesuvius" specializes in the production of cast iron and steel fireplaces of various sizes and shapes. These foci are decorated in different styles and are available both with a closed firebox and with an open fireproof tempered glass. All products are tested before sale, which gives customers confidence in the reliability and durability of the Vesuvius furnaces and furnaces.
Meta has been operating in the domestic market for 20 years. Specialists use the latest technologies for production and guarantee the high reliability of their fully certified products. Buyers note the comfort in using and caring for the models of this company. The Meta Group also produces accessories and components for furnaces.
Stylish ideas in the interior
In the modern high-tech style living room, the fireplace is the main decoration and is located in the center of the spacious room. Thanks to the glass screen and the open firebox, the flame can be seen from any corner of the room. The hearth enlivens the cold geometric interior and gives it a warm touch.
The entire living room is designed in antique style. White marble columns, ornament and shape of chairs emphasize the sophistication and luxury of the interior. A beautiful fireplace, faced with the same marble, and columns repeat the details of walls and furniture. The firebox of the hearth is recessed into a niche; in front, it is closed by a glass screen. The design of the chimney is in harmony with the general style of the room and creates a beautiful ensemble.
A lovely lounge in a country style country house. The proximity of nature and fresh air, the forest behind huge windows, natural materials in the decoration of the room and in the center of the composition - a huge stone fireplace with mantelpieces, benches, and decorative elements. The flame energizes and gives a feeling of blissful warmth and comfort.
See how the wood fireplaces work in the next video.