Basalt insulation is in its own way a unique material used in construction. The main advantage of the material can be called its origin - recycled rocks are used in production.
The technological process of processing raw materials allows you to get one of the safest types of insulation - basalt.
Basalt insulation as a natural material is highly valued for effective energy saving, which is achieved due to the sufficient amount of air in its fibrous structure. Thus, the basis of the insulation is, of course, created air cushion, which protects against the penetration of cold into the room. Its second name is stone wool. The characteristic features of basalt material are usually considered together. This type of insulation passed the test of time, consolidating its position among analogues in the construction market for a long time.
Basalt insulation has several main features.
- It does not lose heat because it is characterized by low thermal conductivity. Basalt material does not consist of strictly oriented fibers. They are located extremely randomly, which affects the structure and features of the material. There is a natural air cushion. Due to the large number of ducts or interlayers between the stone fibers, a natural heat insulator is formed. The base material has a low coefficient of thermal conductivity (in the range of 0.032 - 0.048 watts per 1 meter per kelvin).
- By some parameters, basalt insulation can be compared with a combined material of cork, foamed rubber, conventional or extruded polystyrene foam. Modern heaters can also be compared taking into account different technical parameters of heat insulators. So, to compare similar indicators, you can take 10 cm of basalt insulation with a density of 100 kg per 1 m³ and a ceramic wall with a thickness of 117 cm. To meet the required parameters of thermal insulation, the brickwork (clay brick) must be at least 160 cm thick.
- Does not absorb moisture. Another property of the material is hydrophobicity. When water enters the insulation layer, moisture does not penetrate inside, but remains on the surface, preserving the heat-insulating properties of the material. If we compare the insulation with mineral wool, it will be noticeable how on the latter the water gradually passes inside, leaving no chance. With such a heater, the thermal conductivity will be much higher. If you need to insulate a room with a high level of humidity, then you should not use, for example, glass wool, it is better to give preference to basalt insulation. Water in this case, as it were, flows around the fibers of the material, since during production the insulation is impregnated with special compounds (oils).
- Does not interfere with steam transmission. Vapor permeability is an excellent property of the material, due to which basalt fibers become vapor permeable, regardless of density. The moisture contained in the air calmly passes through the insulating layer, not allowing the condensate to linger. Vapor permeability is a significant criterion in the selection of material for warming a room with high humidity. The basalt layer does not get wet, which makes it possible to maintain the desired temperature for a comfortable stay in the room. The vapor permeability of the basalt insulation is approximately 0.3 mg / (mh · Pa).
- Not afraid of fire due to its high resistance to fire. Basalt material (basalt wool) meets fire safety requirements. Fibrous material refers to non-combustible substances. Moreover, modern high-quality basalt material is able to withstand fire. In order for the melting point to come, the temperature must reach a mark greater than +1114 degrees. Therefore, it is often used to isolate various devices that operate in elevated temperatures. Basalt material belongs to the group of NG in accordance with the classification of non-combustible materials. Thus, basalt wool is used in buildings of various types and designs, both insulation and insulator.
- Almost soundproof. Basalt insulation has such an equally important property as soundproofness. The material provides a good level of sound insulation, given its natural origin. Basaltic wool can muffle sounds (vertical waves from internal walls). This is a great way to isolate yourself from extraneous sounds and neighboring noises. Sound waves are absorbed by the material, reducing reverb.
- Lasting. The random arrangement inside the fibers in the structure of the basalt insulation and part of the vertical fibers provide the material with a sufficient level of density. Thanks to this, the basalt insulation is able to withstand significant loads. Even 10 percent of the deformed surface has a compressive strength with a spread of 5–80 kilopascals. More specific indicators can be obtained depending on the complex of conditions and taking into account the brand of material. The stronger the properties of basalt wool, the better its heat-insulating qualities. Such material will last a long time, without changing in size and shape throughout the entire period of operation.
- Inactive biologically and chemically. Basalt insulation is classified as a material with passive chemical activity. This is one of the main advantages of building material. It can be laid close to a metal surface without fear of rust. The insulation does not respond to an aggressive biological environment. Rotting and mold does not take basalt cotton wool, therefore it can be asserted with confidence that this material is distinguished by a number of characteristics in terms of strength and resistance to external factors. Even biological factors such as the spread of mice and rats will not affect the quality of the insulation, since they will not bite it. The material is safely used in the isolation of various technical structures in difficult conditions.
Dense basalt material with a fibrous structure has unsurpassed thermal insulation characteristics. Modern basalt insulation varies by species. Although the main difference between the material is reduced to the type of fiber: continuous and staple fiber. The main parameter of the staple fiber remains the diameter.
It is taken into account when dividing materials into the same groups as:
- microfine fibers - 0.6 microns;
- ultrafine fibers - 1.0 microns;
- superthin fibers - 1.3 microns;
- fine fibers - 9-15 microns;
- thickened fibers - 15–25 microns;
- coarse fibers - 50-500 microns.
When choosing a warming basalt material, attention should be paid to the thickness and length of the fiber, because many qualitative indicators of the product depend on this.
Basalt fiber insulation is also divided into soft, semi-rigid and more rigid options. There is always a basalt slab, cotton wool, slab or bulk insulation, a roll wall insulator, a heat insulator in bags or mats on sale. Specific differences relate to the surface - it is a foil or non-foil product that is easily or difficult to cut with a construction knife. In general, the considered insulation is usually divided into several types.
Foiled tile insulation can significantly reduce heat loss. Today, more and more homes are covered with foil mineral wool or basalt wool, which is suitable for most types of premises. And also this insulation allows you to save on additional shelter during the heating period. Building material significantly reduces heat loss. This is an excellent heat insulator, consisting of a double protective level, reflecting heat inside the room.
A material with a foil surface, in addition to thermal insulation properties, is distinguished by its sound absorption ability , therefore it provides an additional level of environmental sound insulation. The life of the insulation is up to 40 years or more. Basalt (foil) mineral wool is applicable for both internal and external decoration. It is used to avoid the possibility of rotting, mold, as a hydro and vapor barrier. It is applicable in both non-residential and residential premises. The material is suitable for insulation of floors, walls and ceilings, as well as for sheltering ventilation systems, various tanks.
The general name mineral wool often implies the use of high quality mineral wool - this is the so-called stone wool, glass and slag. Increased strength is associated with a dense fiber structure of the material. For the production of basalt mineral wool, two types of rocks are used. There are no synthetic impurities in its composition. Natural origin adds positive qualities to the insulation. The finished building material from basalt mineral wool is characterized by a small thickness and minimal mutual friction of the fibers (prevents sound vibrations).
Inorganic product is resistant to high temperature. Basalt wool is fireproof, it is used for fire insulation. Non-combustible slabs do not shrink. They do not change their original properties even over time. Basalt wool slabs can be used to prevent moisture condensation on the supporting walls of the building.
Mineral wool does not emit dust or various volatile compounds. Building material is considered one of the most effective and environmentally friendly.
The use of stone wool from basalt rocks today is also widespread. Basalt fiber insulation is a special type of mineral wool. Gabbro-basaltic rock is used as a raw material in the production. Due to the natural origin of the building material is called stone or mineral. Although we are talking about one product. Basalt is a volcanic rock that is processed at the highest temperatures. After which, upon separation, the product acquires its recognizable fiber content.
Properties and characteristics
Basalt-fiber insulation acts as basic thermal insulation. When choosing a material, you always need to look at its technical parameters and characteristic features. Stone microfiber actually has a fossilized structure, it stably and for a long time retains heat due to a layer of natural ventilation. The material also allows you to protect the room from wind and moisture. If additional insulation is required, it is provided by ventilation gaps and water-resistant cladding on the outside. Usually, a single layer of insulation having a high density and medium size is sufficient. But often insulation is carried out with a heater in several layers with the presence of overlapping seams in order to increase technical characteristics.
A special film is laid on top of the basalt mats, which additionally protects the basalt insulation 5 cm thick from condensation. When installing the insulation externally, remember the sensitivity of the material to drafts and winds. In this case, the effectiveness of the insulating material will not exceed 40 percent of the indicators that were originally. The main properties of a quality insulation that does not require additional protection should be called their combination - this is an acceptable thermal insulation, a stable level of diffusion of water vapor, sufficient resistance to damage by a fungus, and a long service life.
The thickness of the insulation layer of 15 cm is sufficient to provide the room with a high level of insulation (heat, hydro, noise insulation) with a film thickness of 20 mm, 30 mm or 100 mm.
When decorating walls and laying basalt insulation, it is worth considering that pieces or mats do not adhere well to the wall surface. The primer in this case will not save the situation. It is better to use the nozzle on the dowels. The practical use of basalt fiber insulation is recommended when laying the material on any surface. During installation, the material is usually cut into segments from 20 to 25 cm wide. Thus, the material can maintain its strength and performance.
Initially, material from natural raw materials has the necessary qualities to cover the walls inside and out. In addition, the material is used for thermal insulation of chimney exhaust or chimneys, bath stoves, while their number does not play a role. In such cases, there is no need to fear high temperatures. It is worth considering that, depending on the brand, basalt mats, when laid on the ground, draw water from the contact surface. The latter should be treated with a hydrophobic composition in constant contact with moisture, so you should not use basalt cotton wool to isolate the foundations, even if the material is characterized by high thermal conductivity, but the floors - it is quite possible and necessary. Basalt insulation perfectly resists shrinkage, because the structure of the material is tough, protective from rodents. Basalt slabs are purchased in packs of several.
Thermal insulation material from basalt fibers, like other types of building materials, in addition to positive properties, can cause concerns. Many do not know whether basalt fiber carries any harm. It is worthwhile to understand this in more detail. In the process of production of basalt fiber, companies demonstrate the resistance of the insulation to fire. The experiment is carried out, for example, under the flame of a propane or acetylene burner. However, do not completely rely on the fire resistance of the material. When the house is completely covered in fire, it will not work to escape, hoping for an insulator. Modern quality material is really able to block the path to the spread of fire, but this is a matter of time.
Another important point when choosing a natural insulation is that the material is still not without harmful qualities.
It is worth considering them too.
- Thermal insulation material during movement, transfer, stacking or cutting can lead to the formation of dust, although by itself it does not leave dusty traces. The thing is in contact with other surfaces in the quality of production. In any case, when working with mineral materials, it is important to observe safety precautions: wear special glasses and gloves, work in a respirator.
- The material itself does not burn, but in case of severe fire or fire, the material releases gases (fumes and resins may be the result of an adhesive base).
- Manufacturers of basalt insulation use auxiliary materials to improve their insulation properties - they use phenol-formaldehyde resins, the harmfulness of which is obvious to everyone.
There are more unpredictable consequences of using additional compounds in the production of stone fiber - this is the radiation background of the rock.
It is clear that we are talking about the places of extraction of raw materials, so it is worth asking where exactly the rock was mined, if there could be compounds of heavy metals and isotopes in it. In the process of processing harmful substances are practically not destroyed. When choosing basalt mats, it is always necessary to monitor the quality of the goods.
How to choose?
Any buyer of building materials is interested in the fact that basalt insulation possesses the necessary properties in the maximum volume, so it is selected for a variety of reasons. Insulation, of course, must comply with modern technical requirements. Mineral wool is suitable as the main material for thermal insulation, but today it is better to buy basalt slabs.
When inspecting products, close attention is paid to the density of the material (D).
- Lightweight material - D up to 35 kg / m³ - suitable for light load structures. For example, for pitched roof structures or for the arrangement of attic and attic rooms.
- Plates - D 35-50 kg / m³ - are suitable for the construction of structures made of light alloys and for sound insulation during the design of facades of low-rise buildings.
- Material - D 50–75 kg / m³ - designed to finish floor surfaces and the ceiling, thick internal partitions. In addition, a heat insulator layer is needed to equip a three-layer wall structure in low-rise buildings (it is the middle layer).
- D 75–100 kg / m³ - as a heat-insulating material is used for decoration of external walls or in the organization of ventilated facades. The high density of the fibers allows the use of the material for the installation of two-layer thermal insulation of external walls.
- Plates - D 125–150 kg / m³ - are required for the construction of soundproof partitions. The wall can be insulated with plaster.
- Basalt slabs - D 175 kg / m³ - are used as a layer of independent heat-insulating material for the arrangement of partitions, walls, facades based on reinforced concrete surfaces.
- Plates - D 175-200 kg / m³ - suitable for sound insulation of the floor under the screed.
Scope of application
Properties such as heat and noise insulation are inherent in a number of basalt fiber insulation with a structure of hard fiber. Thermal insulation in a modern design using the technology of laying tile insulation is applicable for the design of walls, attics, roofing structures, the facade of the building, pipes. Mineral wool (or basalt wool), slabs and basalt rolls will be needed when installing heat-insulating layers for processing various building elements (wooden, brick, aerated concrete, concrete), for decorating objects of complex configuration (using special equipment, when laying pipelines). Laying basalt cotton wool in damp rooms, many builders resort to additional windproof, hydro- and vapor barrier materials.
Basalt material is applicable for residential and non-residential buildings, many parameters depend on the manufacturer and product brand, for example, Bazalit shows some of the best sales results on the construction market of modern heaters.
In order to avoid heat loss at home, it is important not only to choose the material, but also the correct installation. Stone wool (as usual, builders call basalt insulation) is suitable for sheltering a facade, walls or for a roof. Layers are stacked in stages and sequentially. Professional skills do not play a special role here. The main thing is to carry out the installation of plates, achieving accurate matching of the segments between themselves. Even a small construction experience and a creative approach to business will allow us to complete the entire range of installation work on laying basalt insulation precisely and on time.
It is necessary to purchase rolls or plates in advance, as well as stock up on the following tools:
- insulation (basalt material, for example, in the form of plates);
- wooden slats;
- construction knife;
- grinding grater;
- polyurethane foam;
- nails and a hammer.
Initially, it is necessary to close the detected gaps, cracks and crevices on the treated surface. For this, construction foam is most often used. Although often roughness is covered with felt or tow as a cheap option. Next, waterproofing is done, a vapor barrier layer is laid so that condensation does not remain on the insulation. For greater strength and improved product quality, natural ventilation is provided. If the roof is insulated from the inside of the room, then a special film is used as a vapor barrier.
A gasket made of vapor barrier material provides natural ventilation of the space and traps water vapor. The vapor barrier is glassine, foil or film. For fasteners, a construction stapler is used. For example, if the waterproofing of a house is carried out under the roof, then the necessary barrier is obtained, which prevents moisture from entering the room. Installation of a heat-insulating layer is usually performed on the rafters with a stapler.
Under a dense layer of basalt plates, a crate is installed, which is made of thin wood battens. For fastening the insulation material, in addition to a special stapler, screws, mastic and construction glue are used.
It is worth considering the example of the roof, how the installation of basalt insulation in the form of plates is carried out.
- First, a metal cornice is built on the house, it is mounted on a load-bearing wall with dowels. Due to the cornice, it is possible to reduce the load of the insulation and at the same time protect the material from external influences.
- On the prepared cornice, insulation plates are fastened with polymer-cement glue for reliable fixation to the wall base. The adhesive is neatly and evenly distributed over the entire surface of the basalt slab. Then the material is pressed tightly against the base of the wall (onto the structure). It is better to carry out the installation of basalt material (plates) from bottom to top, moving from right to left. This ensures uniformity of coverage. Yes, and work so much more convenient. First, whole plates are mounted, and then the remaining sections are covered with cut pieces from the plates.
- After the main work, the wall surface is leveled using a grinding grater. This stage of work is necessary for the installation of a ventilated facade in the future.
The process of installing basalt insulation does not differ in complexity and energy consumption. Nevertheless, to obtain a result, it is necessary to follow all the tips for choosing a material in terms of density and size, for choosing tools and the nature of the work. The technique here is pretty simple, so even a beginner can do it. At the same time, do not forget that you can only maximize the quality of insulation at home only in winter.
Pros and cons of basalt wool - in the next video.