Electric saws are used in construction and finishing work on sawing and making the necessary openings in various materials. The design features of the reciprocating saw allow it to cut off the protrusions flush with the wall. These saws are lightweight and easy to use.
Reciprocating saws are used for cutting materials of various densities: chipboard, fiberboard, non-ferrous metals, cast iron, ceramic, concrete, stone surfaces. The canvas is a steel file with pointed teeth located at an angle from the cutting side of the nozzle. The teeth also affect the cut quality of the material. Saws vary in pitch, degree of sharpening of the teeth, their shape, size. Large teeth accelerate the sawing of the treated surface, but do not guarantee the quality of this procedure. To get a neat cut, canvases with a small set of teeth are used.
Cutting elements are divided into milled and grinding models. The latter type of file is used for processing soft materials, while milled ones interact with hard surfaces: stone, metal, hard wood. The shanks of the files are unified, which allows them to be used on various models of reciprocating saws. By the type of movement of the canvas are translational and pendulum. The pendulum view allows you to remove sawdust during operation, protects the canvas from overheating. The color of the canvas indicates the use of alloy materials.
Each file has a marking on its surface that characterizes the parameters of the working blade. Consider these characteristics in more detail.
Most manufactured files have a universal shank. Some products are only suitable for branded saws. To facilitate understanding of which tool this file is suitable for, a letter marking has been created.
- M - Makita;
- F is the Fein standard.
The first digit following the letter of the shank indicates the size of the working blade. The next two or more digits indicate the specific size of the instance. The canvas value is expressed in millimeters:
- 1 - short, up to 75 mm;
- 2 - medium, up to 90 mm;
- 3 - long, up to 150 mm;
- 4 - the longest, more than 150 mm.
The letter after the digital designation is responsible for the size of the teeth in ascending order. You can consider the letters from A to D. The last letter characterizes the additional parameters of the canvas:
- F - bimetallic working part;
- O is a narrow back;
- P is the exact cut;
- X is a progressive tooth pitch;
- R - reversible teeth.
Information on the material for which it is intended, as well as the speed of the blade, is indicated on the surface of the file.
This abbreviation refers to a web made of high carbon steel. HCS files are used for cutting soft materials: fiberboard, particleboard, rubber, plastic, aluminum, sheet or profile metal. Files on wood differ in the arrangement of the teeth. Most models are presented as standard with the same pitch of the cutting elements. Variable pitch is used for surface treatment with the presence of foreign objects, such as nails. The length of the working part averages no more than 400 mm.
The canvas is presented in a curved and curved shape. Design features of the product allow for through cuts of material. The length of the working file is 300 mm. The main manufacturers of HSS paintings are DeWalt, Metabo.
BIM sheets are made of bimetallic material. These files have increased strength, flexibility, long life. They are used in the processing of materials of various density - from aerated concrete to wood with nails.
HM and CV
The HM canvas is made of an alloy of vanadium carbide, CV is made of chrome vanadium steel. Both blades are used for cutting porous materials with increased abrasiveness or hard surfaces: fiberglass, ceramics, aerated concrete, tiles, concrete, steel, fiberglass. CV saws are more wear resistant than HCS.
Some files have a wide range of work with various materials, but for a better cut you should use specialized blades.
On aerated concrete
For work on stone, concrete and aerated concrete, hard alloy blades with the marking HM, CV and a reciprocating saw with a power of at least 1 kW are used. The use of a powerful tool is necessary for high-speed and high-quality material cutting. Component Metabo companies have established themselves as effective blades for working with abrasive materials.
Saws for wood processing most often come with a saber saw. Cloths are made of high carbon steel with the addition of carbon. The alloy is characterized by increased wear resistance, reliability. These characteristics affect the price of the files. The canvases can either be part of the sets of cutting tools, or they can be sold separately. They are designed for processing soft materials, marked with the letters HCS. The location of the teeth on the cutting edge is different, and depends on the type of workpiece. Most models are made with equidistant teeth.
Files with HSS marking deal with cutting cast iron structures, aluminum, steel products, pipes and other materials. The tip of the file is equipped with a special tip of a special shape that allows for through cuts. The curved shape of the files provides high-quality and quick cutting of the material along a curve or flush with the wall. Some specimens have an additional diamond coating, which improves the quality of cut and increases the life of the saw blade.
Reciprocating saw practically can not cut a metal product on its own. To facilitate work, you must first make a through hole on the product and then proceed to sawing. When processing pipes, the surface is cut by the method of complete capture of the diameter of the product with a saw blade. HSS marked components are manufactured by DeWalt, Metabo.
For work on tiles, bricks, foam blocks and other materials with a similar density, HM sheets made of hard alloys with the addition of chromium or carbide are used.
Universal canvas is marked BIM and is able to work with any materials. Such files, made by combined technology, are durable, durable and flexible. Most of the tools presented in specialized stores are made using this technology.
To choose a file for a reciprocating saw, it is necessary to take into account not only its belonging to work with a certain material, but also pay attention to the following factors.
- Reciprocating saw power. On average, the value fluctuates around 600 watts, such saws are manual. A hacksaw with a power of 800 W or more is used for gardening and construction work, and is not considered a universal power tool. The power of cordless saws depends on the capacity of the power, it also affects the duration of the work.
- The file system. The pendulum system reduces wear on the work surface and improves productivity. When performing work with increased accuracy, the power tool must be equipped with a vibration frequency regulator.
- The number of moves per minute. The higher the number, the less time it takes to cut solid materials. Also, the number indicates the density of products that the tool can handle. It is advisable to purchase saws with the ability to adjust the stroke.
- Types and type of teeth of the cutting surface. Cloths with small or wavy teeth provide a better and cleaner cut. Types of teeth of a file are also selected proceeding from the processed material. Blades with carbide teeth work better on dense materials: metal, stone and others.
- Saw file compatibility with chuck. In sets the files are mainly presented with a universal shank; they are suitable for electric saws and hand saws. Specific connectors are marked with a letter and are intended for use with professional equipment.
- Manufacturer. It is recommended to purchase files from trusted brands such as Bosch, DeWalt, Metabo.
- Convenience of operation. Comfort depends on the type of handle, the presence of an anti-vibration system, a switch for the saw blade speed, the ability to replace cutting blades without the use of special tools, or a battery indicator.
Subtleties of use
Before using the tool, it is necessary to adjust the support shoe, while the length of the web blank should be minimal. This procedure allows you to save the teeth that are not used in the cut, from wear. It is strictly forbidden to make blind cuts! This may cause damage to the gear unit. It is especially worthwhile to work with metal pipes, they are most often subject to deformation. It is also necessary to remember that the use of bent files affects the quality of work and the productivity of equipment.
To extend the life of saw blades, it is recommended to minimize the possibility of impacts of the cutting blade on various surfaces and objects.
Possible problems and tool repair
When working with a reciprocating saw, problems may occasionally occur due to breakage of the tool or a stuck working blade. What to do if the canvas is stuck or crashes, how to pull it out and sharpen it? Use the following guidelines to fix and identify the problem.
The cause of the emergence or jam of the file is the wear of the retainer. This problem is found in cheap tools, it rarely appears in professional assemblies. If there are no problems with the lock, it should be remembered that the shank of the blade may not stay in the groove due to a fake consumable. The diameter of the hole and the shank of the blade do not match the original, which leads to the flight and jam files. The solution to this problem is to replace the saw retainer. The jammed blade can be pulled out with pliers, having pre-lubricated the shank of the file and the clamp. If it is impossible to get the blade, the tool should be disassembled.
The occurrence of vibrations during tool operation
The cause may be the appearance of backlash. The bushings moving the rods are usually made of brass and wear out over time. Troubleshooting is only possible by replacing parts.
Noise when the tool is running
The reason is the wear of the bearings associated with insufficient lubrication of the parts or its absence. The solution is to replace grease or parts.
When sharpening the working blade, refer to the instructions that came with the tool and files. If it is absent, wiring should be done according to standard rules.
- The width of the departure of the cutting edge should not exceed one and a half or two thicknesses of the blade.
- Exceeding the parameters is permissible only for distributing wet wood or cutting material along the fibers. When such wood is treated with a blade with teeth located at a small distance from each other, a section jam occurs.
- Wide wiring of more than 2 thicknesses is not applied when processing wood across the fibers. When working with such a canvas, you have to apply more effort, the cut turns out to be sloppy, uneven.
- Sharpening of teeth is carried out using a file or file. The canvas before the procedure should be fixed at an angle of 45 degrees. The tooth processing is done on each side in turn.
- Checking the quality of sharpening is carried out by the control cut method of wooden material. If an uneven cut and nicks are detected, the teeth of the blade should be sharpened again.
See how to choose and install reciprocating saw blades in the next video.