To this day, wood-burning stoves work in country houses, which is why such devices as wood splitters are in great demand. They significantly facilitate the process of chopping logs, which manually is much more difficult and physically difficult.
What it is?
Wood splitters in a country house or in a private house solve a rather big problem. It's no secret that chopping wood is a very hard, exhausting physical work, which also takes quite a lot of time. That is why more and more residents of suburban and rural houses purchase wood splitters or make them on their own, using various parts and components from old household appliances and unnecessary machines.
Today, the industry offers two basic varieties of these tools. This is a cleaver and a cone splitter - they differ in the features of the working part. In the first version, it is represented by a sharp plate located horizontally or vertically, which, under the action of the pusher, pushes and literally cuts the chock. This cleaver is called a rack cleaver.
In the conical version, the working surface is a special screw thread. While rotating, such a cone cuts into a log according to the principle of a screw and simply splits it into 2-4 parts.
The cone splitter is characterized by the highest technical and operational qualities , exceptional functionality and ease of use.
Typically, the unit for harvesting firewood in a screw splitter has a fairly compact size, and when necessary, it can always be moved from one place to another.
A distinctive feature of the cone splitter is its truly significant working resource. In the production of such garden tools, extremely strong and wear-resistant materials are used, thanks to which it easily withstands even the most elevated loads.
It can be used in a wide variety of climatic and weather conditions, while the splitter does not require any special maintenance.
Any mechanism that is designed for the procurement of wood fuel must certainly meet the technical requirements, and this applies to any type of splitter: hydraulic, as well as mechanical and conical.
Let us dwell in more detail on the main technical and operational characteristics of the latter:
- optimal working length (distance between the wedge and the piston part) - 50-55 cm;
- the splitting power required for uninterrupted splitting of the wooden billet - at the level of 5-8 tons;
- the rotation speed necessary for the application of force to wood fibers is at least 400 rpm, but not more than 600;
- piston movement - another speed parameter - corresponds to 4 m / s in forward motion and 7.5 m / s in the opposite direction;
- motor power - 3.4 kW.
For screw wood splitters, the optional stroke limiter is of particular importance.
The cost of a screw splitter starts at 20,000 and reaches 130,000 p., While the last installation is able to split a workpiece of 40 cm in just a couple of seconds.
Design and principle of operation
The structural features of the cone hole punch are based on the working interaction of the nut and screw, where soft wood acts as the nut. On a solid metal platform, a gear motor with a tip made in the form of a single or double cone screw is fixed. It rotates at a speed of 250 to 400 rpm.
At the same time, the thrust bar starts to move from the engine; it pushes the block standing on the end onto the moving cone. As a result, the screw sticks into the side of the workpiece, and the wood immediately splits along its fibers.
There are two basic structural schemes for these splitters. In the first, a two-way cone is mounted directly on the shaft of a low-speed electric motor with power parameters of 4-5 kW and the number of revolutions not exceeding 500.
In the second version, two-handed pulleys of several sizes are used, as well as flexible drive straps, while a small pulley is attached to the engine shaft, and a large one to the wood splitter shaft.
The most simple of the above mechanisms is considered a wood splitter - it is an elementary diagram without any complex nodes. It includes an engine, a screw cone, and in addition, a gearbox, shaft and two bearings. Moreover, the gearbox can be either a factory one with a gear transmission, or a chain or variable one.
The bearings are directly fixed to the tool in a special steel or cast iron housing, it can be common to both parts or separate for each bearing.
The bed is usually quite strong, assembled from steel pipes or corners fastened by welding.
The engine of the 220-volt screw splitter is made of dense tool steel, quite solid. It is impossible to make it yourself even for an experienced turner at home - it can only be assembled at the factory.
Particular attention should be paid to threading, it must be left-handed, because when screwing a screw into a tree, it must pull the log toward itself, in fact, with the help of threaded notches, the chocks are translationally moving.
Advantages and disadvantages
The main advantage of any wood splitter is to minimize the effort required to chop wood. With the purchase of such equipment, you no longer have to bend over, since the unit can be adjusted to your height.
If you have a need to prepare firewood, all that is required of you is just to turn on the installation and put in chocks - and the rest of the mechanism will do without your participation.
The principle of operation of the cone splitter is so simple that even a woman or an elderly person can cope with the work.
The design is quite simple, while sufficient power is low - no more than 3-4 kW. For use at home, a screw with a parameter of 80 mm is enough, and a sufficient installation length is 250 mm. Such products are quite compact and mobile - they can be installed anywhere, and when there is such a need to carry.
Among the shortcomings, a rather low degree of safety and the need to bring wood blanks on their own should be noted. This does not completely eliminate the occurrence of fatigue, although it significantly reduces its severity, while significantly accelerating the process of chopping logs.
A conical screw splitter is usually performed in a mobile and stationary version. In the latest version, the frame is equipped with an axle with a pair of wheels, due to which the device can be easily moved from the storage location to the place of log splitting.
By the drive method, all screw devices are divided into gasoline, electric, in addition, on sale you can find industrial models that work due to the rotational movement of the tractor shaft.
Electric models usually operate from a single-phase network, but there are products that operate from a three-phase.
But you need to understand that it’s quite problematic to bring the three phases to your personal site - this will cost a "tidy" amount, so most homeowners prefer less powerful, but much more practical single-phase options.
Gasoline models are optimal for working in summer cottages, remote from the place of connection to the AC network , and in addition, in places where electricity is not supplied.
Maintenance of such installations does not require special expenses, they are distinguished by increased functionality and efficiency.
Combined - such devices work both on electricity and on gasoline. They are optimal for domestic use, but are often used in industrial conditions.
According to the method of supplying firewood, several types of screw wood splitters are distinguished.
- Horizontal - in this case, the chocks fall into a special gutter and move towards the screw cone. There is a second option, when the log remains in place, and the cutter moves towards him.
- Vertical - while the workpiece is fed in a vertical direction, usually the pricking surface moves towards the chock.
- Mixed - These models combine several different types of log feed.
Depending on the configuration, devices with a replaceable cone and without it are distinguished.
The best models
The cone splitter “Splitter” is very popular. This technological device allows you to chop logs with a diameter of up to 50 cm.
The speed of the conical screw varies from 150 to 400 rpm. The productivity of the installation is 1 cubic meter. m / h, and power - 1.5-3 kW.
The mass of the unit is 90 kg.
The woodcarving screw "Carrot" is very popular . This mechanism is simple, but at the same time effective, and thanks to the electrical principle of operation, such a mechanism can be used in almost any household.
The power of the wood splitter leaves 2.2 kW, the rotation speed is 3000 rpm.
The working part of the bed has dimensions of 40x70 cm.
The heavy flywheel creates a fairly powerful kinetic energy, so with the help of "Carrots" you can stack the most complex logs without loading the motor. At the same time, the splitting of the chocks is so effective that the logs literally “break”.
However, when splitting logs, the main thing is not to make money, since a wood splitter is a rather dangerous construction and can pull the sleeves of your clothes onto your cone in a matter of seconds.
The cone splitter “Screw” works according to a simple principle : rotating, the cone enters the wood like a screw, splitting it into pieces.
Often, such devices are built independently. However, when working with this wood splitter, basic safety precautions must be observed.
How to choose?
When choosing a factory-made wood splitter, several important parameters should be taken into account.
Impact force is one of the main characteristics that are of fundamental importance when choosing a wire. It is measured in tons, while for household use there are more than enough models with a parameter of 5-6 tons. This parameter is enough to quickly chop wood for kindling a bath or a small stove.
The industry uses wood splitters with an indicator of 10 tons, they are optimal for boiler rooms or in large woodworking industries.
To work with large volumes of wood, it is worth choosing models for 12 tons.
Keep in mind that the higher the force, the higher the power should be. Some unscrupulous manufacturers claim that weak motors can create significant effort to split - this is a hoax. Power parameters less than 3 kW can be enough only for a force of 4-5 tons.
Of particular note is the selection of parameters such as single-phase or three-phase motors. Three-phase devices are considered more powerful, they require professional wiring with a voltage of 380V. Such devices are optimal for large industries with a high intensity of use, but in everyday life it is worthwhile to limit yourself to single-phase mechanisms. They can be connected to a standard power supply and have built-in surge protection.
An important parameter is the largest log size that it can split. This parameter directly depends on the characteristics of the piston stroke. For horizontal mechanisms, it should be no more than 40 cm, for vertical - not more than 50 cm.
Pay attention to the presence of a travel stop - this is an optional device that is not available on all models. Such a device allows you to work with short logs, since the mechanism independently blocks their movement back.
An overview of the range of screw wood splitters in the video below.