There are many types of garage doors that are reliable and comfortable during operation. The most notable among them are lifting (folding) structures, which during opening rise to the ceiling of the room. Such gates have several advantages.
Lifting gates are gaining more and more popularity among motorists. They do not occupy the area in front of the garage, which is often very important in a metropolis.
Overhead gates have advantages:
- the sash rises vertically during opening;
- the garage doors are strong, breaking them is not an easy task;
- while lifting the sash, the mechanism operates silently;
- this type of door is easy to install, it is not necessary to cast the foundation for the rails, set the roller mechanisms;
- lateral space is not required, while when sliding gates are installed, it is necessary;
- the cost of lifting gates is low - this is also an important factor.
To make lifting gates on their own is a very feasible task for a person who has the skill to handle the tool. You can also purchase a ready-made set of lifting gates; a large number of offers from different manufacturers are presented on the market.
Before starting work on their installation should be prepared:
- get acquainted with the features of lifting garage doors;
- make a drawing;
- calculate the amount of material;
- prepare in the garage the place where the structure will be located.
It is recommended to take into account and select the desired option in advance. Sheathing gates are sheathed with profiled sheet, plywood or plastic, PVC insulation or technical wool is laid between the layers, and a gate is often made in the casement.
The vertical lifting structure is divided into two types:
- Lifting sectional . The canvas is composed of several blocks, they are fastened together by a rigid frame. Rising up, they bend and gather.
- Swing gates . In this case, the web rises up along a curved path.
Advantages of the first option:
- can be used in rooms with any doors;
- installation technology is simple;
- no additional space is required in front of the garage;
- it is possible to use the "dead" space under the roof;
- the sash is a one-piece design, which positively affects the safety factor;
- the garage will be warm in winter without additional heating, if the door is properly insulated;
- lifting gates can be mounted in double and single boxes;
- You can complement the design with automation.
Lift gates have few design flaws, but they are:
- in case of damage to the leaf, it will be necessary to change it completely;
- the gates can only be square or rectangular;
- when installing the insulation, the weight of the product increases, a significant load falls on the mechanical components, which leads to their wear.
Principle of operation
The main elements of the lifting gate are:
- lifting mechanism.
The design can be either automatic and open using the control panel, or manual, when the opening / closing cycles are implemented in manual mode.
There are two types of overhead gates:
- rotary lifting.
In both cases, the gates do not go outside the premises when they are open. A sectional view is made of longitudinal metal structures, their width does not exceed 50 cm, they are attached using hinges.
The mechanism is based on the principle where each section moves in two planes:
- first, the sash goes up the vertical fastener;
- then it moves horizontally along special guides located under the ceiling.
The rotary lifting gate is an integral quadrangular structure in which the leaf, turning, is pulled upward, moving along special runners.
When the gate is open, the sash is located under the roof parallel to the ground.
After installation, the springs should be adjusted before starting work. The effort to open the gate should be minimal . Such a factor will be a good guarantee that the mechanism will work for a long time.
After the completion of the main work, you can install additional devices:
- electric drive;
- anti-hacking mechanism.
When assembling the structure, it is important to ensure that:
- the guides were precisely positioned along the horizon, otherwise the automation will malfunction;
- minimal friction should arise only from the functioning of the hinge nodes;
- spring regulation is done by tightening the nut or by changing the location of the spring itself;
- when using counterweights, safety rails that can be adjusted must be fixed;
- to prevent the gates from falling unexpectedly, ratchet couplings should be used.
The lifting mechanism can be of several types:
- Spring-lever . The gates in which such a device is present have the greatest recognition among motorists. In operation, such a mechanism is trouble-free, it has excellent performance quick-lift. When setting up, the springs must be correctly adjusted and the guides correctly positioned.
- Hoisting winch . Sashes are often insulated with technical wool. From the outside, a metal profile is mounted, which is additionally sheathed with plastic or plywood.
Often, the sash in such circumstances becomes difficult. Additionally, a winch with a counterweight is attached, which is attached to the other edge.
Sectional vertical doors are in great demand. The canvas in them is composed of several blocks that are interconnected by hinges on hinges. Each panel is a width of not more than 50 cm. During the opening of the section, forming an arc, are shifted.
There are two types of sectional doors:
- for garages;
- industrial purpose.
The advantage of this design:
- reliability in work;
- convenience in operation;
- resistance to mechanical damage.
The market has a large selection of sectional doors in various formats. It’s easier to buy a ready-made kit, since making such a product with your own hands is a difficult task.
The functioning scheme of sectional doors is quite simple: the sections are connected to each other by hinges that move upwards along special tires. Between the two layers is laid insulation of PVC or mineral wool, the outer surface is sheathed with profiled sheet. The thickness of the panels is about 4 cm , which is enough to keep the garage warm during the cold season.
- space saving;
- aesthetic appeal;
- economic expediency.
Sectional doors also differentiate according to the type of lift:
- normal is the most common type of gate;
- low - this type of gate is mounted with a small lintel size;
- high - makes it possible to save space in the area of the lintel;
- inclined - horizontal guides have the same angle of inclination as the ceiling.
Vertical ascent is when the gate moves vertically along the wall. Spring extensions - sectional doors in this case are designed for a 10 cm lintel and are the smallest. In the lifting mechanism there is a special spring (torsion or simple), which makes it possible to find the optimal mode necessary for closing and opening.
The mechanism can be controlled remotely using the remote control. Sandwich panels are interconnected by special locks, which allows the design to be monolithic.
Hinged gates were very popular. This type of gate allows you to avoid the "invisible zone" when leaving the garage, often this factor is the cause of accidents.
When there are no swing wings, the view is much larger. Advantages of folding gates:
- are inexpensive;
- easy to operate.
The gates are assembled from two frames that close the doorway. There is a main support on which the guides are attached. During operation, the main part moves upward on the bearings until it is in the region of horizontal beams. At the same time, compensation springs or counterweights are actively involved.
Louvre designs are found in a wide variety of options. The principle of the device is simple: a flexible roll-up curtain during operation is wound on a special shaft, it is located in the jumper area.
The end of the flexible web is fixed to the shaft. During the opening, the roll of curtain curtains, which lie tightly on top of one another, continuously increases.
- are inexpensive;
- have a small weight;
- consume minimal amount of energy.
Among the shortcomings, it can be noted that the turns of the web, being in a roll, rub against each other, microparticles have an undesirable mechanical effect on the coating layer.
Such a node has the advantage: when the length in the levers of the consoles is the longest, the drive voltage can be slightly weakened.
During the opening period, the effective shoulder becomes shorter, the canvas enters the central part of the gate. This factor explains why energy costs are minimal. The load on the electric drive itself is noticeably reduced, which contributes to its reliable operation and durability . Another positive quality is that the speed of such gates is high.
Often, instead of a metal frame, a frame is made of bars treated with a special antiseptic primer. The device of a wooden frame will cost less; in terms of stability and reliability, it will differ little from a metal one.
A door often crashes into a vertical gate, technically simple. The folding gate, unfortunately, is not possible to equip with a door.
Before you start purchasing materials and preparing a place for future construction, you should draw a diagram - a drawing. The most important thing is to decide on the basic dimensions of the lifting gates.
Standard sizes vary:
- from 2450 mm to 2800 mm wide;
- from 1900 mm to 2200 mm in height.
Each garage has its own characteristics, with the exact dimensions you will need to be determined on the spot. It is very important to understand what material the door leaf and door frame will be made of.
First of all, the manufacture of gates will require:
- bars 100 x 80 mm and bars 110 x 110 mm for the ceiling;
- fittings to secure the frame;
- corners 60 x 60 x 4 mm to strengthen the frame;
- corners for the manufacture of rail 40x40 mm;
- channel 80x40 mm;
- spring with a diameter of 35 mm;
- rebar 10 mm;
- canvas to make sashes;
- automatic drive.
The design of the automatic drive is simple, you can do it yourself, also a similar device can be found on the market, knowing what the width, height of the future garage will be, as well as an approximate list of materials that will be required.
It is also easy to calculate the estimated amount of money that will be necessary for the implementation of the project. In the process, the amount can be adjusted, but if the plan is drawn up correctly, then it will be insignificant (no more than 10%).
Of the tools for mounting the gate you will need:
- welding machine;
- two meter level;
- water level;
- adjustable wrenches.
You can take ready-made drawings, this will significantly reduce the cost of developing your own project. There are various plans, including from world famous manufacturers.
Recently, gates with a wicket, as well as automatic lifting gates, are in great demand. Kits and accessories for automatic gates can be bought in an online or ordinary store . Adjusting the control unit is not difficult, it can be done independently.
When buying, pay close attention to such details:
- Guides should have the same section as in the drawing. The gap between the bearings and the guides is also important, it must also comply with the standards.
- It is important to pay attention to the joints. All nodes of the structure should move freely at the point of transition from the vertical direction of opening to horizontal.
At the bend points of the web segment, a protective seal is always present. It performs several useful functions:
- provides gate integrity;
- prevents fingers or edges of clothing from getting into the gap.
At the bottom of the gate, a synthetic sealant should be attached so that the blade does not freeze . It is important to calculate the thickness of the panels, it should be optimal.
If there is a need to put an electric winch, you should correctly calculate:
- necessary effort;
- electric motor power;
- gear ratio
You should pay close attention to the locks and handles, they must be of high quality . The control panel must also be airtight and withstand mechanical stress.
Entrance lifting gates can be made independently, while saving a significant amount, but it is recommended to follow all technological requirements. For rolling gates, the thickness of the strips must be at least two centimeters. The width of such gates is permissible no more than five meters .
The optimal opening height should be done more by 30 centimeters of the top point of the car roof . The ceiling and shoulders are located in the same plane. The ceiling can be from 30 to 50 cm, the shoulders - more than 10 cm.
For external cladding, aluminum is sometimes used. The weight of this metal is three times less than iron, the load on the drive will be noticeably less. It makes sense to use steel sheets, where there is a large intensive traffic of vehicles . In sandwich panels it is permissible to use special metal profiles that are not crackable. Steel parts should not be less than two millimeters thick, they should be coated with zinc.
It is better to purchase automation from a well-known manufacturer, since it is difficult to make such a unit with your own hands. Drive, control panel, combination lock - all this is better to buy from one manufacturer, otherwise there is a risk of node incompatibility. It is recommended that the drive be purchased with more power , otherwise the risk of breakage increases. Carefully study bearing markings. They bear the weight that this part is able to withstand.
Torsion drum must be made of high strength aluminum. It is necessary to strengthen the metal corners of the lintel and wall, as well as the opening itself. The difference in floor level in the garage is permissible no more than 5 mm . Tires are mounted at the edges of the opening, they go under the ceiling. On these nodes sections will move.
During operation, safety precautions should be followed; use glasses, gloves, and hard hats.
The dimensions of the opening are measured at several points in width and height, usually the maximum value is taken for the first parameter, and the minimum value is taken for height. The frame size corresponds to the opening parameters. If you need to connect the parts with brackets, then the profiles are sawn at an angle of 90 degrees.
Perforated profiles are reinforced without fail with trims . In such circumstances, jumpers and guides are cut so that a small tip remains, it will be required to fix the parts.
The frame is exposed using a plumb line. After the design meets the required level, it is fixed. Vertical guides are fixed using brackets. It is wise to use mobile fixation so that the part can be adjusted in the desired position. Horizontal guides are inserted into corner mortgages and fixed.
To reduce the size of the package, the vertical rails are sometimes divided in two . The parts are interconnected using a corner. There should not be any differences between the metal profile at the installation site by the angled rail , otherwise the rollers may jam.
There are two types of nodes for balancing:
- torsion shaft;
- spring for tension.
They work on the same principle, only their location is different.
The automatic mechanism with a bulk drive has great power, it can work with heavy gates. Automation in this case is equipped with a chain mechanism.
For a lifting unit, it is permissible to use an alarm for a car. The reverse winch can serve as a drive . She works from a network of 220 volts and she is able to raise the gate to 125 kg.
Exterior painting of the gates can be quite simple. For example, monochrome gray color is very suitable for this kind of design.
Gate should be made as small as possible . Compact flaps are more stable, which significantly reduces the possibility of blocking.
Before installing the gate, it is necessary to redecorate the garage - to level the surface of the walls and ceiling so that the guides do not have any deviations.
The frame should go a couple of centimeters into the floor, but it doesn’t matter much, it’s home-made gates or factory-made ones. Concrete screed pouring can be done when it is fixed vertically.
After the layout of the shield, it is tested: put on the finished folding guides and check the work.
The completion of work is crowned by the installation of accessories:
Correct installation of accessories is very important, it depends on how much the gate will last. Often handles are made both from the outside and from the inside, which increases the functionality of the doors.
You can do all this work yourself, including correctly adjusting the lifting mechanism. If the gate is purchased in a store, it is recommended that you carefully study the information that can be found in the instructions.
If there is a gate in the door leaf, it is imperative to put a latch . Locks will also be useful if the garage is not in the homeownership.
Exterior finish is primer and paint. Its stages can be divided as follows:
- frame preparation and assembly;
- installation of rollers;
- sash installation;
- installation of fittings.
The frame takes on the lion's share of all the loads, so it must be done first. The bars are inexpensive, the frame of the bars can equally replace the metal frame. This will be an economical option, but if everything is done correctly, the principle of operation and structural strength will not be affected.
This is done as follows:
- The plane on which the installation takes place must be perfectly flat. To prevent distortions, prepared bars are placed on it.
- At the connection points, metal corners are used, which are fastened with self-tapping screws.
- The lower part of the beam is immersed in the floor by at least two centimeters.
- After installation is complete, testing begins. The box is placed in the doorway, checked using the level (vertical and horizontal) of the position of the structure.
If no questions arise, then the frame is fixed with fittings, its length can be 25 centimeters . One running meter accounts for one such mount.
Then, in the area of the ceiling, guides are placed parallel to the horizon. After completing the installation of the frame, you can mount the mounts for the rollers.
The rail is fixed with bolts with a diameter of 1 cm. It is important to note that during installation, the level should always be used. At the edges of the rail, clamps are mounted in the grooves, which allow you to control the movement of the gate.
The canvas can be made of a variety of materials. Often the gates are sheathed with durable plastic or stainless steel sheets . Insulation, which is located between the sheets, effectively reduces heat loss.
Automation in a lifting gate cannot work without connecting a good engine. Thanks to his work, the gate opens and closes quickly. Automatic mechanisms must have self-locking mechanisms that will not allow the gate to open if there is no power supply. Such devices are quite durable and reliable.
Good examples and options
There are several gate models on the market that are made with high quality and are inexpensive. It is recommended to pay close attention to the automatic Alutech Classic street gates designed for a garage with a height of up to 3100 mm and a width of up to 6100 mm. The largest area of the blocked opening is 17.9 square meters . Torsion springs are designed for 25,000 cycles.
Sectional quick-lifting constructions, in which the frame is made of extruded aluminum profiles, come with double acrylic inserts - this is the best choice for private households.
Alutech products manufactured in Belarus have the following advantages:
- nice appearance;
- simple principle of action;
- quality and reliability in work;
- violation of the spring does not threaten the fall of the canvas;
- all parts are well fitted;
- gates can be put in any opening on the street.
The Alutech Classic automatic gates have a panel thickness of 4.5 cm. The gates operate silently. They are safe and inexpensive, but, nevertheless, they can be called elite in terms of workmanship.
There is protection against moisture around the perimeter thanks to seals made of special EPDM elastic material, which retains its properties even at a temperature of -30 degrees Celsius.
There is a built-in gate (height 1970 mm, width 925 mm), which allows you to enter the room without opening the main sash. There is also a block for manual lifting.
More details on the design of overhead garage doors are described in the next video.