When performing finishing work on wooden surfaces, water-based paint is the best option for paintwork. For external and internal repair work, several types of water-soluble dyes are intended. Their difference from nitro paints, alkyd and oil coloring compounds is that these water-based paints do not contain toxic volatile compounds hazardous to human health. In addition to the fact that water-based enamels are odorless paints, they, unlike the above analogues, do not contain combustible compounds and therefore are fireproof dyes.
Varieties and features of coloring compounds
The binder component along with the coloring pigment in such paints dissolves in ordinary water, therefore, all these dyes belong to the group of water-dispersible, while the rest of the species are based on chemical solvents. Paint on wood is called water-based, if the binder component in it is liquid.
In the manufacture of paints of the water-dispersion group, latexes are used. They can be both polymeric artificial resins and natural rubber. The formation of a resistant film on a painted wooden surface occurs due to the bonding of latex molecules to each other during the evaporation of water when the painted coating dries.
The division into types of water-dispersion paints and varnishes depends on the nature of the binder component in the paint composition.
Their difference lies in the operational characteristics of these dyes. Some of them, due to poor moisture resistance, can be used exclusively for interior woodwork, while others are also suitable for outdoor, outdoor walls and decoration.
Acrylic painting compounds are characterized by an optimal ratio of price and quality. They consist of pigments, polyacrylates and fillers. The latter serve to create a smooth painted surface, and protect the tree from mold and other microorganisms. The composition of acrylic paints also includes defoamers, flame retardants and other auxiliary additives.
The advantage of this type of dyes is their versatility and low cost compared to other water-dispersed paints and varnishes. Acrylic paints on wood dry very quickly (so that several layers can be applied per day) and are durable.
After drying, acrylic forms a dense layer, characterized by resistance to ultraviolet radiation, moisture, temperature extremes and mechanical stress.
Such paint can be black or white in color, in addition, it is possible to add any other colors to it. The acrylic coating lays on the surface with a thin layer and allows you to save the wood texture. However, along with the manifestation of the texture, all defects of the wooden surface are revealed, which is an undoubted disadvantage of such a dye.
When choosing an acrylic dye, which is suitable for both external and internal repair and finishing works for the above reasons, it should be borne in mind that after drying, its color changes. Therefore, to avoid mistakes, paint a small surface with it and see how it will look after the paint dries.
Polyacrylates are a type of synthetic latex, but in this case, latex paint refers to a material based on styrene butadiene. Such water-based formulations are cheaper than acrylic, but they also create a less durable coating.
Styrene butadiene is moisture resistant, resistant to wear and elastic. They can work on uneven surfaces, painted wooden walls or ceilings. It can be washed, and the service life of such a coating is quite long.
However, latex paint cracks from temperature changes and turns yellow from ultraviolet radiation, so it can be used exclusively indoors.
Coloring materials on pure latex are not so common. Typically, in order to reduce the cost of a product and maintain its quality characteristics, different types of artificial rubber are mixed in one composition. An example is acrylic latex paint. In its composition, butadiene-styrene is connected to acrylates, so it can also be used for outdoor work.
These are formulations based on polyorganosiloxanes or silicones. Polymers of this class are most resistant to moisture. They are able to create a layer of hydrophobic self-cleaning film on a wooden surface painted by them. Therefore, such dyes are used for finishing facades.
These dyes are elastic and effectively protect the tree from mold and other microorganisms, they are vapor permeable and antistatic. The surface coated with silicone paint is resistant to temperature changes and does not deform at extreme temperatures. The service life of silicone dyes reaches 25 years, during which these paints, which are distinguished by their universal application, retain their original brightness and color saturation. Like acrylics, silicone coatings are sold in white, but they can also be painted with any RAL palette.
Pure silicone in its pure form is a very expensive material, so conventional acrylic dyes with a small amount of polyorganosiloxanes added to them are in mass production. This allows you to significantly improve the operational characteristics of a standard water-dispersion paint with a slight increase in its cost.
This type of water-based paint composition is one of the best materials for interior woodwork. The properties of polyvinyl acetate coloring compounds depend on the plasticizers added to them, and their general characteristics are fire safety and resistance to chemical influences, elasticity and wear resistance. These paints are resistant to ultraviolet radiation and form good adhesion with a wooden surface.
Differing from other latex materials in their most striking color, they have a relatively low price.
However, the list of disadvantages of this type of dyes is also very wide:
- The main one is low moisture resistance. If other water-dispersed coloring compositions can be dissolved in water only until they dry, then polyvinyl acetate dyes can easily be washed off with water even after several years of surface painting.
- They are also afraid of low temperatures, so this type of dye for outdoor use is completely unsuitable.
In addition to the above materials, the production of water-dispersed coloring compositions can occur on the basis of isoprene, urethane and other synthetic types of rubber and various combinations of these polymers. On the properties of coatings, this fact is slightly reflected. All of them have proven themselves when working on wood: they protect it from decay, easily give it the right color and do not poison the air with harmful fumes. For this reason, these dyes are an ideal finishing material.
Aft of paint, there is another coloring water-soluble material for wooden surfaces - stain. She can not protect the tree from damage, but gives it a beautiful shade while maintaining its texture. Therefore, stain is among the finishing materials. The surface painted with stain is additionally exposed with varnish.
About the features of water-based paint, which contains wax, see below.