Tile is the most practical option for flooring in “wet” areas: bathroom, toilet, corridor and other places with high humidity. If the coating is made of high-quality ceramic, it is easily cleaned of impurities and serves for a long time without losing its original appearance. Many strive to do the facing work with their own hands: it will cost much less than inviting the master. If a person plans to do this for the first time, he needs to become more familiar with such a question as tile laying. Knowing the intricacies of the process is very important in order to approach the issue correctly and make the right choice of tiles, correctly calculating the amount of materials.
Tile as a finishing material has its own characteristics and advantages, which you should familiarize yourself with before buying to be sure of the right choice of a worthy and wear-resistant option for flooring or walls.
First of all, it is a high-strength material, which, when testing the tensile strength, gives a compression rate of up to 300 MPa. The tile can withstand a large load, is not subject to deformation and does not bend under the weight of a person's body or heavy objects. It is not subject to fires, and if it heats up, then the release of harmful substances does not occur, because it is based on natural components. It was the fire resistance of ceramics that became the reason for beautifully and tastefully lining furnaces, fireplaces and places close to electric and gas stoves with its help.
Ceramics also have excellent heat-conducting characteristics and quickly become warm: this property is no less important when facing a stove or an existing fireplace.
If such material is laid on the floor, it should be borne in mind that without additional heating, the floor will always be cold, so you should either walk on it in shoes or provide additional heating, for example, bring the “warm floors” system. The tile is resistant to fading, its color characteristics do not change over time, unlike other coatings. It does not conduct current and is not an electrostatic storage device. It does not accumulate harmful microorganisms. This is the best material for decorating swimming pools, saunas, operating rooms in hospitals.
Unlike laminate and parquet, ceramics have an enviable resistance to chemicals, in addition to hydrogen fluoride compounds. Tile resistance to household chemicals has a division into five levels: AA, A, B, C, D. For example, the double letter A means that the material is not affected by most of the chemical compounds, single A means high resistance to them, and so on.
The wear resistance indicator of a tile is a leading factor: it determines the service life of any coating. According to the European standardization system, there are five levels that determine the class of wear resistance. It is measured in groups - from first to fifth, and should always be indicated on the package.
Testing ceramic tiles for wear resistance is carried out in a very interesting way: the material is placed in a device that looks like millstones in appearance, and coarse-grained chips are poured on its surface. Water is supplied, the millstones begin to rotate, thereby abrading the tile, creating an imitation of the natural conditions for its use. Depending on how many rotations of the millstones the material can withstand without the formation of visual defects on it, this or that class of wear resistance is assigned to it. Based on this indicator, in the future, tiles are sorted by the type of its use in rooms with different requirements for decoration.
In addition to resistance to wear, there are a number of parameters that must also be taken into account when selecting tiles for different rooms. For example, the ability of a ceramic coating to absorb moisture (or moisture absorption). The moisture absorption level can be measured as a percentage of the weight of the material.
According to international standardization, on the packaging of the goods there is an indication of a certain letter in combination with the designation of the technique for molding ceramic tiles.
The ability to absorb moisture directly depends on its resistance to cold (or frost resistance). If the tile is slightly porous, it will hardly pass moisture, therefore, it has high frost resistance. The first and second groups are frost-resistant, and the third is not. The third group is intended only for use in warm rooms.
The specifics of the production of tiled materials is such that the concepts of caliber and tone should also be taken into account so that there are no misunderstandings. The tone means the same thing as “color”, but, unlike other types of materials, where the color is usually monochrome and has no discrepancies, the production of ceramics is not easy to achieve the same color. There is always a slight difference in shade, therefore, during the sorting process, the tile is distributed according to the tone, which is marked with the corresponding letter: A, B and so on.
Caliber is the size of ceramic tiles, indicated in millimeters. As in the case of the tone, the size cannot be completely accurate - usually there are slight deviations, therefore there is the concept of nominal size and actual. For example, the nominal batch size is 20x20 mm, and the actual one is indicated by the English letter W and is indicated by three decimal places: W 198x198 (19.8 mm), and in general - caliber 01.
In addition, there are indicators such as resistance to slipping and cracking. If visually a small "cobweb" is found on the surface of the tile - this is a marriage. Based on the number of defects in a given batch, an indicator such as the sort of tile is formed: the first (marked in red), the second (blue) and the third (green). The safety of the coating depends on how great its resistance to slipping. The higher the coefficient of friction, the safer the surface. Most often it is measured using the German method - based on the value of the angle of inclination of the floor at which the object begins to slide on the ceramic surface.
Of course, it will be incorrect to talk about which tile is “ideal” or “universal”. Speaking about the peculiarities of ceramics, the first thing to pay attention to is its functionality, technical differences in the application of its various types, as well as whether it is suitable for the room in which it is planned to carry out cladding.
Many people ask how ceramic tiles and tiles differ from each other. Customers who first encounter these two names often at first think that these are two different materials, but they are not. There is no difference between ceramic and tile.
Tile is one of the names of tiles made of ceramics, a type of wall cladding.
Tile, cotto, clinker - all these definitions are clarifying for one large segment of ceramic tiles , which may differ from each other on the basis of manufacturing technology, quality of materials used, strength indicators and purposes of use. Translated from Greek keramos means "burnt clay." All types of such tiles, without exception, are made of clay with the addition of certain impurities, for example, quartz chips or feldspar. Water and sand are also added to the material.
Types of tiles may differ from each other based on the materials used, the specifics of firing and the level of porosity. It is made from various types of clay (red or white), its base can be dense or porous, and the front side can be glazed or unglazed.
Single-fired ceramic tile material may have low porosity and is most often used to create durable flooring. Laying is allowed to be carried out both indoors and outdoors. The tile is resistant to cold and high traffic conditions. Highly porous coatings using a single firing involve the use of technological compositions, due to which the shrinkage during firing becomes less.
High porosity tile is designed only for wall cladding, because it is not a material of increased strength.
The most common variety of such coatings is porcelain ceramics. Its better known name is porcelain stoneware, it is also called tile from gras or colormassa. It is characterized by an almost glass front and high density, which eliminates the need for craftsmen to glaze it. Contaminants are very easily removed from it, and the resistance to mechanics of porcelain stoneware is excellent, which is why this type of tile is most often used as flooring with high strength.
Conventional floor tiles and clinker varieties can not be compared with porcelain stoneware in terms of resistance , hardness and other characteristics. Porcelain tile is polished and matte. Its matte variety is the most durable, but polished looks more beautiful and attractive. Matte porcelain stoneware is ideal for laying tiles outdoors, in difficult operating conditions. It can often be found on steps that, when faced in this way, will last a very long time without losing any practical properties or appearance.
If we compare porcelain stoneware with ordinary granite, having a natural origin, natural stone can begin to deteriorate due to temperature differences or harsh weather and climate conditions. Despite the fact that natural granite is considered quite durable, porcelain stoneware is much better than it in all respects. The tile made of ceramic granite looks uniform, its surface is smooth, it does not care for any chemicals and reagents, with the exception of hydrofluoric acid. In an ecological sense, porcelain stoneware tiles are as safe as natural stone.
Glazed types of tiles are not only ordinary tiles having a shiny glossy surface.
If the glaze layer is thick enough, it can also be used as floor coverings in places with a high level of patency.
The technology of double firing, which is applied to all varieties of ceramics, at cost is much more expensive than a single firing of the material. The surface, which has undergone double firing, has a pleasant smoothness and shines. Such a tile is universal: it can be used both for walls and for floors. If firing is performed once, the gas passing through the surface “remains” on the front side in the form of cosmetic irregularities. When using double burning, this does not happen. Of course, this type of tile costs more, but it looks aesthetically more attractive, although a lot depends on the place and on the laying technique itself, because if you wish, part of the irregularities can be visually hidden.
Clinker types of tiles are made from different types of clay , to which dyes based on oxides, fluxes and fireclay are added. Chamotte is nothing more than clay, which is burned until the final loss of ductility. Depending on the manufacturing technology, the front part of the clinker can be either glazed or without the use of glaze. Most often, single firing is used in the production, which results in a low-porous material that is resistant to chemicals and severe weather conditions. When laying clinker tiles, you should always leave a wide seam, because shrinkage occurs as a result of firing and the edge of the clinker always has irregularities that must be compensated for in this way.
Cotto-type ceramic tiles are used for flooring. It is unglazed; when laid, it forms a relief surface that prevents slipping. This front side was called rusticated. In the production of cotto, extruded mixes are used, consisting of several varieties of clay. In this case, careful sorting and mixing is not carried out. This technique of creating tiled materials has been known since antiquity and is still relevant for facing work.
For those who care about the high aesthetics and the impeccable quality of laying tile materials, you can offer such an option as seamless tile. Does this happen in reality? In fact, she has seams, but during the manufacturing process the material is subjected to rectification: its edges are carefully trimmed using a special machine. As already mentioned, during firing (both on one and on both sides), the deformation of the tiles occurs, due to which technical overlays may occur during operation due to mismatch in size and shape.
In the case when the material undergoes correction in the form of rectification, there will be no deviations and all parameters will ideally match.
Rectified tiles provide a beautiful aesthetic effect in the form of a smooth monolithic surface. Often the impression is that there are really no seams and joints. This picture looks advantageous in a large space, so the "seamless" tiles are produced in large sizes - 60x60 centimeters or more. It can be laid both on the floor and on the walls.
The prospect of acquiring such material looks very tempting. However, before buying it is important to consider some of its features. The first is the cost, which is usually very high compared to conventional ceramic tile options. Rectification is a very time-consuming process, and only one gives a price premium of at least 20-30 percent. Of course, it will be cheaper than using natural stone, such as marble or granite, but in comparison with reliable porcelain stoneware, the “seamless” option is much more expensive.
Rectified tiles have specific styling details. If ordinary ceramics are more “unpretentious” to flaws in walls and floors, their possible irregularities and roughnesses, in this case, surface preparation should be carried out especially carefully: it is best if it is perfectly even or as close as possible to these parameters. In addition, experience is required to work with this type of material, so it is best to trust the professionals, because a beginner, unfortunately, will not be able to cope with such a delicate job.
The very concept of “seamlessness” should not be taken literally. Even if the seams are not visually visible, they, of course, are still there. Between the tiles a small gap is always left with a width of one and a half to two millimeters. The effect of a monolithic canvas is created by the maximum and finest fit.
If you don’t leave any seams at all, minimal roughness will immediately spoil the whole picture.
Ceramic tile is by far the most common material for cladding floors, walls, fireplaces and more. Its different types (as a rule, having high wear resistance) are also used for facing street sidewalks. However, in order to create a reliable and durable coating in street conditions, there is not only ceramics. Probably, many have already heard about rubber tiles, which are widely used in flooring for country paths and playgrounds. In some cases, a rubber coating can be a good alternative to ceramic, especially if you do not need to create a “ceremonial look”, and you can use a simpler material.
The rubber tile is made of mass, which is a mix of rubber, polyurethane and colored filler. Often recycled materials are used in the form of crumb rubber, the basis for which are old car tires. This material, contrary to popular beliefs, is durable and highly resistant to wear. If you touch such a tile, it will be soft and slightly rough to the touch. In winter, a layer of ice crust will form on it, which easily breaks off without harm to the coating. At high and low temperatures, the rubber tile remains as bright in color without losing its original properties.
The material also has a resistance to deformation, perfectly dampens, and if any defect appears on it, the damaged segment is easily replaced by a new one. Very valuable properties of rubber tiles - it never slips and dries very quickly after rain, repels dust and dirt.
The scope of this type of coating is wide: from playgrounds and sports areas to the arrangement of garden paths in private areas, especially in places of high humidity: near fountains, wells, pools.
The rubber coating passes water well, which ensures the absence of moisture on its front side.
Rubber tiles are laid on a surface that must be very well prepared. Usually this is a smooth asphalt pavement, concrete screed, and if the surface is uneven, it can be adjusted using special leveling mixtures. Installation work should be carried out in dry and clear weather at a temperature of five degrees and above.
Correctly calculate the number of tiles for any room will help that the master will decide in advance on the answers to simple but important questions. First of all, you need to decide what color will be used, whether you need to customize it according to the drawing, whether additions in the form of decorative elements are needed. It is important to know that when measuring the facing surface, calculations should be made, taking into account those tiles that are to be cut. You cannot do without this, because there are rarely rooms without protrusions in the walls, tricky corners and places for the output of communications.
There are several recommendations for calculating tiles. Regardless of the place where it is planned to be laid, first the length and height of each wall where the cladding will be carried out are measured. The length and width of the floor are also measured, and the door (or bath) indicators are necessarily deducted from the dimensions of the wall where the door (or bath) is located. Next, you need to determine the parameters of the tile plates. They are 30x30, 33x33 and 40x40 - these are standard sizes for the floor, and the facing usually has parameters 20x30 and 25x33. Based on these indicators, you need to make preliminary calculations in square meters.
For greater accuracy, all tiles are counted individually.
It is recommended to calculate the amount of materials without using popular online programs, but manually, because in the case of tiles, they often make big mistakes. For example, an online calculator cannot take into account the width of inter-row seams, moreover, in any such program there are always indications that it is better to recalculate all the indicators yourself later.
What should be the thickness of the glue?
For beginners, this question may seem insignificant, but it is precisely this that represents one of the main tasks. The thickness of the adhesive directly depends on the type of material used.
Also, factors such as tile dimensions and level of surface preparation for cladding influence thickness.
If the dimensions of the tile and its weight are small, the minimum thickness of the adhesive should be two millimeters. For heavy models of laying material (such as porcelain stoneware), it is recommended to apply a layer of glue of at least 4 or 5 millimeters. When the surface has significant irregularities and depressions, the thickness of the adhesive may be greater: in this they are all marked alternately and the adhesive layer is adjusted depending on their depth and size, because it will be necessary to fill all the dimples and depressions with the adhesive solution. However, the maximum layer is not recommended to be made more than ten millimeters when laying tiles on the walls, and the thickness of the adhesive solution when working with ordinary floor tiles can be 15 mm.
As for porcelain stoneware, since this material is distinguished by its large weight and strength, the thickness of the adhesive during its installation should be appropriate: from 20 to 22 mm, but not more. If you overdo it, this will lead to the fact that the adhesion between the surfaces will deteriorate significantly.
When laying tiles on the wall, you should also pay attention to how the irregularities are located on it. It has already been said that ten millimeters is the optimal level of thickness of the glue, but if the wall is relatively even, without large tubercles and depressions, the initial layer can be applied less: three to four millimeters, and as the condition improves, worsen the condition of the wall to increase or decrease it. So gradually the correction of all irregularities is carried out.
The technology for applying the adhesive also varies. Sometimes glue is applied both to the walls (floor) and to the tiles. Some experts say that if the glue is of good quality, it is enough to apply it only on the floor or walls or on the material. In order to save glue, you can use its single-layer application, however, beginners will feel more comfortable when the glue is applied to both surfaces: the tile can be easily aligned and moved in the right direction.
What to put on?
There are two methods for laying tiles on the floor. In the first case, cement-based mortar is used, and in the second - specialized glue. When working with cement, the technology of laying tiles is carried out by the so-called “sealing” of it to the floor, and if glue is used, the material is carefully applied to the surface.
Laying on the wall is carried out on the prepared surface , which should be smoothed out and primed as much as possible.
It is better to lay the tile on a putty surface, especially putty is relevant in the corners, because with its help you can smooth out their irregularities.
And, finally, even walls are an important factor that determines, in this case, the quality of work. If the walls are very curved and it is impossible to level them with a primer or an additional adhesive layer, the use of plaster or drywall will help, after which you can safely work with any tile material.
First of all, the wall should be “healthy and free from fungal infections.” The uneven surface will need to be leveled, and if the plaster crumbles or peels off, it must be removed with the subsequent cleaning and leveling. Of course, one always wants to hope that only a part of the stucco layer will have to be dismantled, but its “avalanche-like” peeling often happens - along the entire perimeter of the wall, for which the master should always be ready.
If the wall is brick, and the layer of plaster "sits" tightly, you should clean the surface of old coatings: whitewashing, painting, wallpaper. At the slightest sign of a fungal infection, the wall must be “cured” before it can be tiled: otherwise, all efforts will sooner or later go down the drain. You will have to purchase special compositions that are guaranteed to cope with fungi. Before treating the wall with an antifungal solution, the loose layers of plaster are removed, after which not only the affected areas of the surface are processed, but also all the walls are sure to avoid the re-emergence of microflora. In advanced cases, processing can be carried out several times.
After carrying out antifungal measures, it is necessary to treat the walls using a deep penetration composition with an antiseptic content. In this case, double priming is desirable. The second layer is applied after the first is finally absorbed into the wall and dries.
The alignment of the walls includes minor repairs in the form of eliminating small flaws.
If there are cracks and cracks on the wall, their size will have to be increased to ten millimeters in width, after which it should be filled with putty “all the way” and leveled, focusing on the general surface plane.
You can correct the walls in various ways , including plastering them completely, filling or using drywall or plywood. At the same time, a slight roughness of the walls is allowed and even desirable: the wall and tile will better adhere to each other when applying the adhesive composition. As already mentioned, small defects are putty, and if it is planned to wall the walls with massive porcelain stoneware, drywall or plywood will create an ideal base for it.
To prepare the floor surface with your own hands, the first requirements will be the same as when preparing the walls for cladding: cleanliness, treatment with antifungal substances (if necessary), leveling, elimination of defects. The most time-consuming will be checking and preparing a concrete screed, if any. The screed must be tapped completely to identify unstable areas. Those fragments that, when tapped, make a booming, “banging” sound, should be removed. It is impossible to leave the “loose” parts of the screed, everything must be cleaned up to the “healthy” layers of concrete. Of course, such work is very tiring, but it should be brought to the end, if necessary. After removing the old screed or its sections, a new one is poured, leveled horizontally, and after its drying, tile lining is already carried out.
If the screed is in good condition, if necessary, minor repairs are carried out in the form of repairing cracks and eliminating large tubercles, which should be removed, focusing on the general level of the concrete base.
After the work is completed, you need to do the cleaning of the room, dust the entire surface, and then prime it, preferably twice in a row.
For beginners, the question sometimes arises as to whether it is possible to lay a new tile on an old tile, using it as a basis. Of course, there is such an opportunity, but only when the tile is strong, solid, and the floor is flat and it does not need to be aligned horizontally. The method of laying on the old tile is quite common for the simple reason that it is very tiring to dismantle the old one, and communication can be hurt. However, if the old tile is unstable and “dancing”, a new laying on it cannot be carried out. Unfortunately, there is no alternative but to completely remove the old coating.
If the old tile does not cause serious concern, before conducting a new cladding, it is necessary to conduct an audit of the floor by tapping each tile for its stability. Those areas that produce a dull sound need to be removed, cleaned the formed recesses to a concrete base, and then primed or treated with the same adhesive composition that is planned to be used for further work. The surface of the old tile is degreased to ensure maximum adhesion. For this purpose, you can use a conventional organic solvent.
Old tile joints are also tested for strength. In the process of checking, the most loose and cracked ones are removed, after which the seams are cleaned as deep as possible, followed by priming, preferably with a composition like Concrete Contact: it is the tile adhesive that always lays on perfectly.
If the base of the floor consists of wood, it is also possible to lay ceramic tiles on it, of course, if it is strong and in good condition. Testing the wooden floor for suitability for tile work is carried out by identifying "floating" and creaking fragments. Weak areas of the floor are removed, the logs under them are checked for rotting of the tree.
If necessary, worn areas must be replaced, followed by treatment with an antiseptic solution.
In the case when the floor is plank and paint is preserved on it, its remains must be removed with any abrasive substance. You can use chemical washing and heating with a building hair dryer. After this, you need to conduct a check of the floor for strength. If you plan to lay the tiles directly on old boards, you will need waterproofing, which is used as a latex impregnation, designed for wood materials. The impregnation is applied with a wide brush, after which the floor is immediately covered with a masking net made of durable fiberglass.
When the impregnation is dry, the mesh is fixed with dowels, an additional layer is created on the floor so that the tile adhesive reliably “grabs” with the wooden base. The composition of the layer usually includes silicate glue, coarse-grained peeled sand and water in a ratio of 2: 2: 1. When the mixture hardens after application, the base for the tile will find the necessary rough texture and strength necessary for high-quality lining.
There are different ways to create a solid base for tiles on a wooden floor: it can simply be covered with wide sheets of OSB. This will facilitate the work in the sense that it will not be necessary to remove old paint. A waterproofing impregnation layer is placed on the OSB sheets or an ordinary film of dense polyethylene can be used. GVL sheets are an alternative to OSB: they are made from gypsum and cellulose fibers and are able to withstand heavy loads. They are laid in the same way as any others, and their advantage is that no additional layers and treatments are needed, except for priming.
The use of GVL sheets contributes to the fact that the fastest lining will be carried out with savings in both time and effort.
Before you start laying tiles on the wall, you need to markup and prepare a place for the first row. A rail or a corner made of plastic is attached at the bottom of the wall - this is the basis for the emphasis of the entire first row. Then you should draw a straight line vertically in order to control the correct masonry. In order to clearly draw the line, you can use the laser level or plumb.
Mark the surface of the floor by drawing a line of the spaced edge of the first row. It is necessary to note the location of the tiles, which differ from the others in the event that there is a need to compare the picture. The installation process itself is recommended to start from one of the farthest corners of the room.
It is important to carry out all calculations, taking into account not only the size of the material itself, but also the gaps and seams between the tiles.
In order to lay the tile on the wall or floor, the master will need the following tools and available tools:
- laser or construction level;
- a screwdriver or hammer with a nozzle in order to mix the mixture;
- tape measure and two spatulas (rubber and gear);
- wide brush;
- tile cutting tool;
- marker or pencil for marking,
- two separate containers for the adhesive mixture and primer.
How to cut tiles?
No matter how ideal the walls or floor are, tile work can never do without trimming the material. You can cut the tile with an ordinary glass cutter or a special tool with a diamond cutting wheel. If the tile is trimmed mechanically and manually, in this case the principle is the same as when cutting glass. This simple method is used in the case of light tile: the cutting wheel of the tool is sent to the marking line on the front side of its fragment, and after the cut, the material is accurately broken along the drawn line.
Floor tiles are much heavier and larger, so a glass cutter is not suitable for it. For heavy types of ceramics, a tool called a machine tile is used. It has a platform and limiters with marking on the ruler, which makes cutting much easier. The limiters must be moved to such a distance that the marking line coincides with the line located in the middle of the tile cutter.
The upper part of the tile cutter is equipped with a carriage, which has two guides, and a wheel for cutting and an emphasis with folding petals located to each other at a certain angle. Nearby is a lever. The carriage must be taken to the far edge, put the wheel to the edge of the tile fragment, gently press and draw them along the marking. Then place the carriage stop in the middle of the cut and split the tile with a light pressure.
Installation technology has its own subtleties and nuances, depending on the location and stages of work.
On the wall, laying is done without any difficulties. First you need to apply the adhesive mixture to the wall surface with a wide spatula and remove excess glue. On the inside of the tile, glue is applied with a thickness of about three millimeters, the edges are carefully smeared, and the excess is removed with a notched trowel. After this, you need to put the tile on the wall and gently press it.
Leveling is carried out by applying a building or laser level, and crosses are placed between the tiles so that the row is even and neat and the tiles do not “float”. There are usually five crosses at one intersection: one in the middle and one for each seam. It is impossible to keep them in the seams for a long time in order to avoid setting with glue.
Laying on the floor is a more time-consuming process. To lay the floor tiles themselves, an adhesive mixture is collected on the even side of the spatula and applied at an acute angle, first on the floor itself. The glue must penetrate deeply into all small cracks so that there are no gaps and voids. Then, with a toothed spatula, the glue is leveled so that the "furrows" are of the same height (the adhesive layer is three millimeters).
If ceramics are laid on the floor, it is advisable to “start” from whole tiles, filling the gaps with scraps. Each tile is firmly pressed to the floor, well coated with glue, and the excess mixture must be removed from the seams with a rag. As well as when working with wall tiles, the size of the seams and the accuracy of the masonry are adjusted using crosses between the joints.
It is important to ensure that the butt line is straight.
When facing a fireplace, as a rule, decorative types of materials are used (natural and artificial stone, resistant porcelain tile, terracotta tiles). It is impossible to clad the stove with tiles: it may not withstand heating, adhesion to glue will deteriorate and it will simply disappear. Surface preparation will be required: jointing, dust and plaster cleaning. A primer is then applied to improve adhesive adhesion. If a brick surface is revetted or restored and it begins to crumble, a mesh of reinforcement is attached to it.
As glue, only heat-resistant mixtures are used, which can be prepared independently according to the instructions. Laying starts from the bottom. Using an even spatula, glue is applied to the surface of the fireplace so that several fragments of the cladding can be laid immediately. Then, on an even layer, you need to go with a notched trowel, attach the tile, press and gently tap on it with a rubber hammer. The level of the tiled row is controlled by the building level. To veneer corners and ledges, special curly parts are used.
Between the rows are usually trimmed, and after facing the entire surface of the furnace is varnished with high heat resistance. It will protect the tiles from dirt, soot and moisture.
Masonry patterns apply to floor tiles.
There are several options:
- “Seam to seam” is ideal for beginners, it is understandable and simple: the laying of parts of the tiles is carried out one after another, and the rows are straight and even. All masonry runs parallel to the walls;
- “Diagonally” - the masonry is not parallel and the corners of the tiles are directed towards the wall surface, as if they are “looking” into it. The option is less economical, more labor-intensive, but aesthetically beautiful and attractive;
- “Jogging” - tiles are placed one above the other, without coincidence at the seams, by analogy with brickwork.
It sometimes happens that a tile is required to be joined with linoleum or a parquet board in an adjacent room without a door sill. In order to neatly dock, it is important to consider the different thicknesses of ceramic tiles, adhesives, different substrates and, for example, parquet boards. You need to calculate this: first, the thickness of the glue and the tile itself is added. Then separately the thickness of the floorboard, glue and plywood (if any) is added, and the key number is the difference between the two numbers. It determines the height difference at the junction.
If the height difference was “remembered” late, you can always correct the situation by acquiring a docking profile, which can be of different levels.
Grouting is done after the completion of the laying of tiles on the walls or floor. This process is called jointing and in order to carry it out correctly, it is necessary to wait until the glue has completely dried. For grouting, mixtures based on cement, epoxy, sealant or silicone are used. The selection of the mixture is carried out on the basis of the color scheme of the cladding. The cement-based grout will need to be diluted with water right before use, and the silicone and epoxy mixtures are available ready to use.
Before grouting the finished cladding surface is thoroughly cleaned with a vacuum cleaner. If silicone-based or epoxy-based grout is used, you need to glue the edges of the tiles using masking tape: this will help to avoid the mixture getting on the glazed front side. The mixture is applied to the seam with a rubber spatula and slightly pressed through in depth. Then the spatula is placed across and the excess is removed, which provides comparison of the seams. Masking tape is removed from the lining after the grout mixture has completely dried.
How much does it dry?
When all the work on laying the tiles on the floor has been completed, there is a great desire to start walking on the new floor as soon as possible. It should be noted right away that there are a lot of factors that affect the drying time. Also, the composition of the adhesive affects this process no less.
Manufacturers always indicate the drying time on the packaging of adhesives, but it should be borne in mind that this time is extremely arbitrary, because much depends on environmental factors. As for the terms written on the package, after which you can begin to walk freely on the lined surface, it is important to understand that we are talking about some ideal parameters that are very rare in a real environment. For example, a temperature of 20 to 24 degrees without weather changes with a stable humidity of 40 percent.
If the owners of the new coating are lucky and the weather conditions are favorable, you can walk on the coating after 24 hours. In other cases, you have to wait for the moment when the drying is complete.
The higher the indoor air temperature, the faster the lining will dry. However, it is impossible to heat the room artificially using electric heaters, because this can fatally affect the physical characteristics of the tiles.
The whole process of drying out, no matter what, should take place in a natural environment, even if for some reason it is delayed.
Of course, if you carry out laying work in the summer, the tile will dry much faster than in winter. It is important to remember that work should be carried out at a temperature of 20 to 25 degrees. In the warm season, the cladding can finally dry in the period from 24 to 36 hours, and in winter time increases by at least 12-16 hours.
Room humidity also plays a significant role. The higher the humidity, the slower the glue dries. If it is very high, then the drying time of the floor can take up to a week, which must be taken into account.
Whatever the accompanying conditions for drying, you need to learn how to determine if the glue has dried or not. You can verify this with two simple methods. The first is a light tapping of the tile with a hammer in the corners. If it remains completely motionless and does not "walk" - the glue is completely dry. The second way - you can just try to detach the tile from the base. It is advisable to conduct a test in the corners, because in these places bumps are eliminated much easier.
In any case, you need to wait until the glue has completely dried, so as not to damage and move the tile when walking, because it will be very annoying and troublesome to fix defects.
As already noted, in good conditions, the adhesive mixture dries completely during the day. However, depending on its variety, this time may fluctuate. For example, glue intended for light tiles is universal and dries in the period from seven to fourteen hours. The glue intended for heavy porcelain tile and other options for flooring dries from a day or more.
Adhesive mixtures with a high level of frost resistance, designed for use in outdoor conditions, dry in 36 hours. Moisture-resistant compounds used for wall and floor cladding in baths, saunas and pools dry for 24 hours, ideally, wait two to three days, and the white glue for glass tiles is designed to dry up to 36 hours.
Floor or wall tile looks great anywhere: in an apartment, in an office, in an administrative office, especially considering the variety of color options and design solutions. It would seem that choosing the right tile is very simple, but this is not entirely true. The main thing is not to fall for low-quality goods, which can "show" themselves not from the best side even when they are being laid.
Making the right choice, taking into account the features of this coating, you can focus on the appearance of the product. First of all, the material of the tile should be smooth to the touch, not have paint stains.
It is important that there are no cracks and chips on the surfaces: unfortunately, if a lot of material is required, it is easy to skip the marriage in the total mass, so you should pay special attention to this.
In order to avoid difficulties during fixing and fixing and tightness of the parts of the tile to each other, you can attach one part to another already upon purchase. This will help to verify the absence or presence of gross gaps, which once again shows the level of quality of the goods. When buying, there is always the opportunity to test the tiles for slipping with water, moistening the front part. When it comes to choosing tiles for the floor, it should not be slippery to avoid injuries and falls: its surface usually has ribbing and roughness or dusting from corundum chips. Slippery tiles often have a strong shine and are well suited for wall cladding in the bathroom, but not for the floor. Those who do not have experience in the choice of material will not hurt to know about this, so as not to make mistakes in the future.
Of course, no matter what quality the tile is, you need to buy it with some margin, because it is fragile. You can briefly calculate the required amount of material by dividing the floor or wall area by the area of one of the coating samples. For a random marriage or "in reserve" is usually added ten to fifteen percent.
If you plan to clad the wall, you can opt for a lighter and less thick tile, but in the case of the floor, you should always give preference to heavier and more durable models that will be resistant to accidental damage and can adequately withstand different loads.
Before buying, you should be aware that according to the hardness coefficient, all types of tiles are divided into several levels, each of which corresponds to a certain marking. For example, if you need floor tiles, you need to choose among the levels from the third to the fifth.
It is no secret that the best and most durable material is porcelain. At a cost it is more expensive than others, but it is very easy to stack and it serves much longer than cheaper tile options.
With the small size of the kitchen, small format tiles, for example, 10x10, are suitable. If the room is large, you can lay a large one, so visually the room will look smaller.
Curly tile implies that you will need to buy its special shape in order to beautifully lay out corners, plinths and borders.
Beautiful examples in the interior
Due to the wide variety of ceramic tiles, you can create a unique and inimitable interior in your home that will serve for a long time, pleasing the eye with its unpretentiousness and beauty. Since different collections of tiles are being produced now, combining different types of the same style, you can create an amazing picture, including with your own hands. If earlier ceramic products in the form of a simple tile were used only in bathrooms (toilet and bathroom), now this facing material is present everywhere, striking in its diversity and naturalness.
To give the interior style and modernity, it is allowed to use fragments having not only different sizes, but also shapes during cladding. You can successfully combine large and small tile models, square and rectangular, provided that their quality and design will harmoniously complement each other. By the way, a combination of a matte and glossy cladding will look very impressive anywhere.
Now a variety of tiles is being produced, successfully simulating wood, stone, brickwork. Such options will ideally look everywhere, especially in the corridor and in any places where there is high traffic and the tendency of the room to increased pollution. Tiles with similar patterns are unpretentious, no spots are visible on it, and all the dirt is very easy to clean with a soft damp cloth.
Any tile with a “monolithic” name porcelain stoneware can be successfully used, including for facing street space. If perfect seamless patterns are used, the picture will look most holistically and harmoniously, especially if it is planned to cover large surfaces.
From time immemorial, mosaic-shaped tile is considered a beautiful decoration for bathrooms. Of course, its installation is associated with a certain difficulty and scrupulousness of the process, but the efforts are worth it: you can lay out a whole mosaic picture or a panel, of course, if there are certain skills for this.
Recently, for decorating bathrooms (and not only), tiles of non-standard sizes and shapes have become popular - polygons, hexagons and octagons, as well as other geometric shapes that represent the variegation of modern style solutions. Of course, such styling is complex and requires the presence of professional craftsmen.
The patchwork technique has been known for a very long time, and in the case of ceramic tiles it is one of the newest, because earlier models with complex patterns were very rare. If there is a desire to design a bathroom or even a living room in a country style, you simply cannot find the best option.
As for the already mentioned imitations of stone, wood or brick masonry tiles, all this was called the "loft", whose roots are in the United States. If you prefer to simulate plaster or unprocessed walls, this can be easily created using tiles. Looking at such a work of art, it is difficult to imagine how much work was put into its creation, and only a close look and close examination captures the masonry and imitation.
The classic combination of black and white elements is always a win-win. In this case, it is necessary to conduct a correct assessment of the area of the room and the height of the ceilings so that the overall picture does not look disproportionate, and the room or bathroom does not seem smaller than they really are.
There are types of ceramic tiles that have the ability to self-clean due to the fact that they are based on a special chemical composition. Such options are ideal for kitchens with high traffic and constant cooking conditions - in catering establishments, canteens, cafes, restaurants.
Simple and concise varieties of ceramics can favorably shade the overall picture of the interior. Glossy tiles in the form of hexagons or rhombuses, shiny mosaic elements, simple models imitated in marble or granite - such solutions organically fit into any interior style, they will not need to be changed if, for example, it is planned to change furniture or curtains.
Elegant and bold Art Deco style implies a difficult combination of patterns with bold geometric shapes and complex patterns that carry ethnic motifs. If the tile in the Art Deco style is large, it will be universal: it can decorate both the walls and the floor, and if it is small, it can be used to highlight, for example, the area near the stove in the kitchen or to revetment a fireplace or stove.
A tile of bright colors is not only a bold, but also a spectacular solution , such an interior will always look rosy, warm and optimistic. Of course, not every owner will decide on such an experiment, but for creative natures it is always an advantage, especially when it comes to designing not only residential premises, but also various art spaces. In this case, the tile will quickly justify its costs: it will not fade, like wallpaper, its color will always look bright and catchy. The only difficulty that you usually encounter is the selection of furniture, but if you want to finish the job to the end, it is always possible to pick it up. One of the simplest solutions - a headset for colored or bright tiles is better to buy white, cream or any other tone that is close to pastel.
Laying tiles is always a difficult process, especially if a person has to do this work for the first time in his life. Of course, looking at a lot of examples that depict the most complex styling options, I want to quickly learn to do something similar myself. In the event that the novice master has to deal with the simplest styling option, the result will always please him in the end.
At the present stage, even a simple quadrangular tile for the bathroom can be made so beautiful and unusual that it will not take your eyes off it when all the work is finally completed.
See how to properly lay tiles on uneven walls in the next video.