Orchid is extremely popular. It comes from hot and humid countries, but also on the windowsills of a temperate climate also feels pretty good. The plant is very strong and tenacious, but requiring proper care and watering. If the conditions are not observed, it begins to hurt and rot. How to cure a flower and prevent the death of an exotic beauty?
Causes of decay
Orchid diseases are divided into three groups:
The first two can be dealt with, but if some virus infected the flower, then the plant will have to be destroyed. Even the most experienced gardeners are sometimes unable to understand these diseases. The most common disease is rotting of the core and leaves. They begin to deteriorate from the bottom. Such a place becomes wet or various spots begin to appear. In addition, the following are noted:
- appearance worsens;
- the turgor is lost;
- growth stops;
- photosynthesis is inhibited.
The main thing is a timely noticed deviation and the right diagnosis in time. It is important to understand why this happened. Here are the reasons why the orchid is rotten:
- mistakes in leaving;
- bacterial infection;
- very dense soil;
- unsuitable fertilizers.
The solution to the problem of improper care is:
- in revising the irrigation system;
- it is worth raising the temperature;
- lack of humidity;
There are many types of rot, it is necessary to carefully examine the plant and understand which of them hit the flower:
- Fusarium - leaves become soft, on which a characteristic pink bloom appears, and after it marks with pink halos;
- pitium - leaves begin to rot in the middle, turn yellow and fall off;
- late blight - black or dark brown rot appears, then turning into watery areas;
- wet bacterial - the appearance of dark wet spots on the leaves;
- gray - a fungal disease, locally gray fluffy islets appear;
- black - if you keep the plant in a cold room, black spots appear at the base.
The reasons that the orchid is rotten may be mechanical damage or frostbite. They damage the beauty with a transplant, a peduncle holder or just a flowerpot could drop. In such cases, wounds need to be treated with bactericidal substances:
- powdered activated or charcoal;
- ground cinnamon;
- brilliant green.
You can frostbite a plant during improper watering during the cold period. Beginning flower growers arrange orchids with steam showers, and then put on the windowsill. The remaining moisture and streams of cold air create conditions for the core and leaves to deteriorate. This also helps poor lighting with a lack of sunlight.
The source of trouble can be wet, not having time to dry the substrate or soil. Since it may be incorrectly selected. Unsuitable bark is heavy and dense, poor air circulation occurs in it, the water here does not have time to dry out.
It is in such a humid environment that all pathogenic bacteria begin to develop, and the flower rots.
Excess fertilizers, which create a glut of nitrogen, can also cause harm, leading to cracking. Gradually, the flower withers and decays in the presence of various parasites in it, since they skillfully hide. In this case, the hardest thing is to find out exactly who settled in the flowerpot. To determine the type of insect:
- a piece of apple or other fruit is left in the flowerpot overnight;
- the plant is immersed in a container of water.
The most common parasites include:
- nutcracker bug;
- powdery worm.
The nutcracker bug can get from the street, feeds on the root system. Therefore, bringing a new plant into the house, they keep it separately to check whether there are harmful insects or not. An incorrectly established diagnosis can lead to confusion between infection with parasites with a fungal infection, anthracnose. With it, a plant dies very quickly if it has low immunity.
When such problems arise, the plant is isolated from others in quarantine and processed. Plants located nearby are also examined.
In order not to bring to a similar state, acquiring a plant, it is necessary to study the microclimate features, the nuances of care, illness and ways to prevent them.
How to save from decay?
Careful attention is required if the growth point rots, a different core. Since most species of orchids are monopodial and belong to the Phalaenopsis group. The growth point is the central part of the plant. Its defeat is very dangerous, since when it dies, the upper part and roots are immediately bent away, there is nothing to do here if the disease has gone very far. The death of phalaenopsis may occur, as the flower will no longer grow up.
At the initial stage of the disease, rotted parts are cut with a knife treated with a bactericidal agent. Sprinkled with activated charcoal or cinnamon. If the point is not touched, the plant very quickly leaves the top sheet. If the lower leaves have fallen, it means that decay has begun at the base or neck.
There are no great difficulties in assisting in such a situation; simple but necessary actions must be performed. The flower needs to be transplanted.
For regeneration and quick recovery, the plant may need a greenhouse. To do this, cover the flower with a bottle or bag, to create a thermal effect, and under the middle of the flower lay a foam, which will protect the beauty from excessive moisture. To protect the roots, you need to be careful with watering. Its abundance causes rot. In stores inside the flower, under the neck there is a spongy cup that accumulates moisture. It can also cause damage to the organs of the flower, so at home you need to transplant an orchid, remove all excess and fill the flowerpot with sterile soil.
In addition, phalaenopsis can receive heat stroke. In this case, it will turn yellow and lose its tone. In order to reanimate the leaves, the pot is cleaned inside the room. During the first hours he needs peace. After a while, when the plant has cooled, it is sprayed. It will take several days to recover. Do not put the pot in its original place and try to avoid direct sunlight, which can cause a burn.
Orchid treatment is a very slow process, it may take 2 to 6 months to recover. The most difficult is healing if the central part begins to deteriorate.
And it is better if this will be the beginning of the disease, then the chances of saving the plants are very high.
In order to stop the infection that has begun and to combat the vital activity of bacteria, fungicidal agents will help. It is with their help that diseased plants or soil are sprinkled during transplantation and are well restored. The composition includes compounds:
- organic matter.
Great preference is given to natural and organic means, as they are effective and, if desired, the treatment can be repeated without harm to the plant and soil. There are many of them on the market of drugs, it is important to choose the most effective ones.
- Fitosporin is a great protector against fungi and bacteria. They sprinkle a plant freed from rot, they can be added even to a new substrate, for disinfection.
- Trichodermin - used for prevention. Fights infections leading to rot.
Inorganic preparations are sharper and more effective, but the dosage must be observed here.
- An inorganic compound known as copper sulfate. Used to feed adult orchids.
- Bordeaux copper-based fluid treats the affected area. Thus, healing takes place, and the roots are not burned.
Do not forget about nutritional vitamins.
- Succinic acid. It acts as an antioxidant. It neutralizes toxins and strengthens the immune system. The solution is sprayed with leaves, trunk, peduncle, as well as moss or sphagnum, which is applied to the plant.
- B vitamins strengthen immunity, promote leaf growth and photosynthesis.
Applying the listed funds in care, the treatment of a tropical flower is accelerated.
Do not neglect the advice of traditional medicine, they can also be effective in the fight against diseases.
- Soap solution. Soap or other detergent is taken, which needs to treat the entire body of the flower.
- An infusion of tobacco is made. 30 g of tobacco goes to 1 liter, stirs, the day is insisted.
- Rub the onion on a grater, boiling water is added to it. Then it is infused for 7 hours and watered for 3 days.
A sick beauty needs to choose an effective drug and a method that will cure and save from problems. Such care will be required every day.
How to transplant the affected orchid?
It is necessary to carefully examine the flower and determine in what condition the neck or base, and then carefully remove the plant from the flowerpot. Clear the roots of the substrate. The flower stalk is cut off. Remove any rotten or dry unnecessary parts to a healthy tissue. The resulting wounds need to be sprinkled with a bactericidal agent, as well as the necessary drug to combat rot and disease.
The orchid is transplanted into a new pot with a clean substrate. You can’t water immediately, it takes time. A resuscitated plant needs to be constantly monitored.
The flower must be removed from the sun's rays and observe the condition in the greenhouse. No watering required.
There is a way to save orchids with a lost growth point. The cleaned plant must be processed and immersed in a vase with water at room temperature, while the upper part should not come in contact with moisture. They put on a well-lit place. Unlike core processing, there is no need to overdo it with cutting the rotted roots, as they may not recover, and new leaves will not grow with them.
The lower part must be tried to restore. The soft damaged velamen is removed; springy cores, called cords, are left. These are the true roots of phalaenopsis, if they are still elastic, then you need to leave their length. If the plant begins to remain without the upper part, no need to wait. The orchid gets out of a flowerpot, the lower part is examined. A sick flower is placed in a greenhouse, placing a piece of foam, moist moss under it. After these procedures, a new root system will appear and the leaves will grow again.
To protect against diseases, the plant needs to strengthen immunity. In this case, many diseases are not afraid of him.
- Periodic dressing with mineral fertilizers is required.
- Protect from direct sunlight. Since there is the possibility of burns.
- The room temperature in the summer should be + 20 to + 25. In winter, the minimum is +15. A sharp drop should not be 5 degrees.
- Humidity should be 50%. The beauty is sprayed or glasses are placed next to them with water.
- In winter, limit watering as much as possible. Need to monitor the condition of the roots and bark. Before the next watering, they must be dried completely.
- Daily airing of the room.
- Transplant once every 2 years only into a disinfected substrate.
Orchid requires care, as any violation of the "discipline" in the care can lead to death or long restoration of the plant.
You can learn more about how to treat wet bacterial rot in an orchid.