Bath procedures have a very positive effect on human health. They perfectly warm the muscles, joints, prevents the occurrence of colds, improve blood circulation. But for a comfortable and healthy stay, the bathhouse should be properly equipped.
Usually in the standard model of a Russian bath there are two tanks for water. One of them is designed for cold, and the other, respectively, for hot. A comfortable stay in the bathhouse directly depends on which tank for hot water is selected, how it is installed and how much it has. These issues should be treated carefully and with utmost responsibility.
Although today there are a variety of heating devices for water, but the usual tank for hot water in the bath remains still relevant. A rather significant advantage of this device is a decent savings on heating water from gas or from electrical appliances. Also one of the positive aspects of the hot water tank in the steam room is that it increases the level of humidity in the air.
The main thing before buying a tank is not to miscalculate its volume. To approach the choice of the tank correctly for its subsequent reliable and long-term operation will help some important rules. In particular, it is worth considering that for one person in the bath you will need from 20 to 25 liters of hot water. Therefore, if the bathhouse is small and designed for two people, then a standard fifty-liter capacity is quite enough. And in the case when the area of the bath allows you to relax in it with a whole company, then there is an indispensable stolitrovy reservoir.
Hot water tanks are represented by various models. Among the most common types of structures, an integrated tank, a remote tank and a tank on the pipe are distinguished. Each of the presented models has both its positive and negative sides.
Previously, built-in type constructions were made in bathhouses immediately during their construction. The lower part of the water tank was connected to the firebox, and then the liquid was heated from the fire in the stove. This is a familiar and standard design that has been used for a long time. Its big plus is that the water in the tank heats up pretty quickly and it does not have much trouble with the option of heating the water. The liquid from such a reservoir is taken using a bucket, lifting the lid or installing a crane in the barrel. However, such a tank may be of small capacity. The volume in this case directly depends on the dimensions of the heater or boiler. And also, most of the heat from the furnace is spent on heating the container with liquid, which reduces the level of heat transfer in the steam room.
The main convenience of this type of design is that the tank can be installed anywhere, depending on the convenience. This capacity is most often located in the washing or in the shower near the steam room. As a heating device, a heat exchanger is used, which is located in the stove, which is connected to the tank using pipes made of copper and brass. The principle of operation is that cold water flows through the heat exchanger, while hot water rises back.
On the pipe
It is advisable to use these models when the steam room is used for a rather long time. In this case, the water tank is located above the pipe. Installation of such a design is more complicated than the others, but has more advantages. A water tank is usually installed in the attic. Heated water maintains its high temperature for a long time even after the furnace has been stopped. The design itself does not clutter up the space in the bath, as it is located in the attic. This design is good to use in a bath with a large number of people , because the tank contains a large volume of water, and its heating is carried out in an extremely short time.
Another tank for hot water on the pipe is usually called samovar because of its principle of operation. Usually stainless steel is used to produce samovar systems. Thanks to this material, the water in the tank warms up very quickly. But it is extremely important to prevent boiling of the liquid in the tank. This rule applies to all types of systems.
Also quite popular are the mounted type tanks. This is a very convenient design, which is installed directly above the furnace, which allows you to warm the water. Such a tank is very convenient to use in a small bath, as the water tank takes up little space. But their most typical drawback is that people in the steam room can accidentally touch the hot walls of the tank and get serious burns. In addition, the volume of such tanks is not always large and the water in them can quickly boil. To do this, it is recommended to periodically drain the water and fill in the cold. Moreover, such tanks are equipped with taps for draining water.
The corner water tank is installed in the corner of the steam room. This is a plus, since such a design does not clutter up the space in the bath.
Horizontal water tanks are oval and more like a barrel.
There are also tanks with the so-called TEN. Heating elements are heating elements that provide water heating from electricity. TENY recently also gained special popularity. Even many bath stoves now work not with wood, but with the help of these devices. Their leading manufacturers are Harvia, Helo , and the Yermak campaign is popular among domestic manufacturers. In addition, there are complex devices in which water can be heated both from the mains and from the heat of the stove.
Another worth mentioning is such a model as expansion tanks. The main function of such a device is to compensate for excess pressure in the heating system. This always happens with increasing water temperature. That is, the bottom line is that such a storage tank helps maintain optimal pressure in the system. Often expansion tanks are used for large heating systems , for example, for public baths.
An attached hot water tank is also considered one of the most popular. To heat the water, the tank is simply attached to the partition of the furnace, and the water in it is heated.
When choosing a tank in a bathhouse or when making it yourself, an unmistakable choice of material for its manufacture is extremely important. The time of heating the liquid, the period of its cooling and the duration of operation of the apparatus itself will depend on this. Among the most widely used materials, cast iron, stainless steel and enameled steel are used in large quantities.
Previously, only cast iron tanks were used for hot water tanks. Cast iron tanks are time - tested and have a number of positive aspects. In particular, a cast iron tank will keep the water hot for a long time. Corrosion does not appear on them and the water in this tank will always be clean. Such material is very resistant to temperature changes. And finally, the shelf life of the cast iron tank is very long, since this material is not susceptible to corrosion. Currently, not many manufacturers are manufacturing cast iron tanks. But it is quite possible to buy a used tank at a lower price. In this case, it will be necessary to process it and give it a pleasant appearance.
Of the minuses, one can emphasize a rather long time for heating water in the tank. Cast iron tanks are heavy and sometimes need to be installed on a special foundation. If the tank is located above the stove, its fastening requires additional reinforcement. To make such a tank yourself will also be a very problematic event.
Stainless steel tanks are now used quite often. This material has replaced the cast iron tanks. The owners of the baths appreciated their high positive qualities. For such tanks, additional protection against excessive humidity is not required. The water in the stainless steel tank is heated in an extremely short period of time. Stainless steel has good resistance to sudden changes in temperature and, accordingly, does not rust, which already follows from its name. Of the minuses, it can only be noted that the water in it cools quickly.
Enamelled steel tanks are also a popular version of this design. The special enamel coating on such tanks reliably protects them from the effects of corrosion. The main thing is to prevent damage to the enamel, otherwise the tank may begin to rust. Although it is quite problematic to damage the enamel layer, since such a coating is resistant to all kinds of damage. If necessary, a tank of such material can be very easily cleaned. Enamel of various colors is presented on the market.
For cold water, individual tanks are now rarely used, since it most often enters the room through the water supply. But if there was a need to put a container for cold water, then there is much less trouble with it than with a hot water tank, since there are no particularly strict requirements for it. You can even use wooden tanks , such as an oak barrel. Plastic containers for cold water are also popular. But such containers can not be placed in the steam room, and even more so near the furnace, because plastic is sensitive to high temperatures and can become deformed when heated. Also, such a tank can be completely made with your own hands.
A homemade container can be welded from several sheets of aluminum. You can also use galvanized surfaces, which additionally protect the tank from corrosion.
Quite a lot of attendants with experience recommend making stainless steel containers. Most of its advantages were listed above and all of them indicate great convenience in using such material. But it is worth considering that the stainless steel has different brands, and not everyone can be suitable for making a water tank in a bath. One of the best options is the brand 08 X 17 (430) and 812 X 18H10 (304). These are very reliable surfaces that do not require special care and will last a long time.
Usually purchased tanks have a wall thickness of 1 mm. But in the manufacture of containers, it is best to use metal sheets of slightly larger thickness. The dimensions of the sheets are selected according to the tank capacity.
Often, craftsmen use a stainless steel pipe. In this case, the capacity is similar to a barrel. And this is a rather convenient option, because you do not have to spend a lot of time calculating the size and joining the sheets. To make such an iron barrel, the following steps must be performed:
- First you need to cut the necessary piece of pipe with a grinder.
- Places for cutting pipes must be carefully processed. You can use a regular file for this. To simplify the task and save a lot of time, a drill with special nozzles will help.
- Then you need to start installing the bottom and top cover of the tank. Actually, for this you need to find a stainless steel sheet. Usually the thickness of the upper and lower parts is greater than the walls of the tank itself. On the sheet you need to draw an even circle in accordance with the diameter of the pipe. The necessary circles are cut out and processed again. If the chimney will pass through the tank, then additional holes are made in the lower and upper parts in accordance with the diameter of the pipe from the stove.
- The next stage of work is the connection of the cut parts with the main part of the future capacity. To do this, use a welding machine or soldering method (which is much more complicated and longer). After joining, again, you need to process the welds well. By the way, if necessary, and for convenience, it is not necessary to weld the upper part. It can be bolted to the case or made in the form of a cover so that it can be removed. This is done when the tank is not connected to the water supply and the water is filled in manually.
- The next stage of work is the most painstaking. It is necessary to install a crane and nozzles on the tank. To do this, you need to drill a stainless steel bottom and top in places where the cranes will be. Sometimes the pipes are simply welded to the container so as not to make special threads.
- Then work is done to install the tank. More details about them are described below.
How to install and connect?
In the process of installing and connecting the tank in the bathhouse, one of the main priorities is to resolve the issue of how the water will be heated in the tank. The water in the tank can be heated either from the heat of the furnace in the steam room, or with the help of a heating element. Here, the main factor is the number of people visiting the steam room and their need for hot water. The thickness of the tank will also affect the heating rate of water.
Water tank connection diagrams may vary. If there is a water supply in the room, it is necessary to use a closed-type water supply system. For this purpose, it is most advisable to use a furnace that has a coil, and which, in turn, will be connected to a water tank and heat the liquid. The container itself can be equipped on the wall. Sometimes tanks are mounted directly above the furnaces, but with this type of installation it is best to use lighter and smaller structures. For containers that have a water circuit, stainless steel or galvanized sheet is often used.
You need to connect using the following instructions:
- The tank itself should be installed in the steam room and connected to the pipes using a coil.
- To achieve good circulation, it is worth connecting the upper part of the tank with the upper tap of the coil, and the lower part of the tank, respectively, with the lower. For this reason, cold water will flow from below, and hot water will flow out from above.
- At the place where cold water will flow into the tank, a safety and non-return valve is used.
- Then you need to set the threshold pressure for the valves at which they will operate. Drawings are presented below.
Thanks to this principle of operation, the liquid in the tank will be heated using a coil. And after it is used, the tank will be filled again with cold water.
If hot water is in the tank for a long time, then the pressure rises in it. But in this case, the so-called "fuse" is installed on the tanks, which releases pressure automatically.
Many owners of baths need to paint the water tank. Moreover, if this product is made by yourself, then you definitely need to give it a beautiful and presentable look. To begin with, before painting it is recommended to thoroughly clean the surface of the container, both inside and out. To do this, you can use various abrasive products. Also, the surface must be degreased, so that during subsequent painting a good adhesion of the surface and paint is ensured. If an old container is used, then rust residues will probably be present in it. This can be dealt with using a brush for metal or an electric drill with a special nozzle. A drill can save time, effort and clean rust more thoroughly.
Immediately before painting, it is necessary to ensure complete drying of the surface of the tank and perform a primer. For painting, a respirator and rubber gloves must be prepared in advance for safety reasons. For the process itself, you can take a brush or spray.
Paint should be applied in several layers. This will protect the surface from the penetration of water into its structure.
Currently, manufacturers offer a wide range of different paints for any surface. Many paints also contain substances that help protect the tank from corrosion. Therefore, painting the tank provides him with additional protection and increases the service life. Specifically for a bath, it is better to choose a paint with heat-resistant properties. Such paints create a special layer on the surface of the tank, which provides it with protection against high temperatures and the appearance of rust. Therefore, choosing a paint for the tank will not be a problem and their prices are quite reasonable.
For cold water, a storage tank is often used, which pumps water inwards according to the principle of a pump. When the tank is full, the pump shuts off automatically. It is important to note that such constructions create noise during operation. Therefore, for a comfortable stay, it is not recommended to install storage tanks in the steam room. Moreover, high humidity can harm such a system.
A crucial factor for the tank is the proper water outlet equipment. He should pay special attention and choose pipes made of quality material so that they do not leak. Otherwise, the water will drain continuously and will not have time to heat up well.
It is also worth properly installing the water drain from the steam room. To do this, a drain hole is usually made in the street, and a drain pipe is installed in the bathhouse. The floor in the washing is done at a slight angle so that all the water flows into the pipe.
It is best to make a small partition between the furnace and the metal tank. You can use a sheet of asbestos. This will not damage the tank walls with high temperature from the stove, due to this, the metal will last for a long time.
If the weight of the furnace and tank is large, then a special foundation must first be prepared. Usually it is done when the weight of the structure exceeds 600 kg. Cement mortar is not used for masonry furnaces. Instead, sand and clay are used. Clay is soaked in water, and then sand is added to it.
So, above were considered various models of water tanks in the bath. Each design has its own advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, the choice of design depends on the individual preferences of the owner of the bath. For the correct choice of a container of water in the bathhouse, you need to determine the design and volume of the tank. They can be built-in, remote and samovar on the pipe. Among the materials, cast iron and stainless steel are popular. It is quite possible to make a container yourself, without putting much effort and time and money.
See how to make a remote water tank in the next video.