Balsam is one of the most popular garden plants. It is widely distributed in the temperate and tropical zones of Europe, Asia, North America and Africa. The variety of species and varieties allows you to cultivate it in various regions of our country, both at home and on the street. At the same time, growing balsam through seedlings is popular.
Balsamins belong to the family of annual and perennial herbaceous plants, sometimes they are semi-shrubs. They can not be called unpretentious when growing seedlings, because there are certain rules to get a good result. If you observe them, then the balsams can please the flowering even of a beginner grower.
There are a lot of varieties of balsam. They are grown both indoor and garden plants. The timing of planting and the characteristics of the care in many respects depend on the variety: fertilizer, cultivation, watering. At home, seedlings need to create a comfortable environment for preparing its planting in open ground. Balsamines can have jagged or rounded leaves in various green shades. The fruit is a multi-seeded box. If you touch it, then it easily opens, and the seeds fall out.
The color scheme of balsamins is very diverse. White, pink and red copies are popular. Flower petals can be smooth, semi-double or double. Flowering occurs sparingly. Often, along with withered flowers, you can see buds forming or blooming flowers.
Seeding dates for seedlings
It takes 3 to 4 months to grow balsam seedlings from seeds. Reinforced seedlings can be relocated to street beds when the threat of a return to subzero temperatures disappears. Tentatively this period begins in May. Given this fact, it is possible to calculate the time when it comes to sowing balsam for seedlings.
Usually in the southern regions, sowing takes place in the first half of February, and in central Russia in March.
How to plant with seeds?
Seeds for seedlings are planted many varieties of balsam. A good result is obtained using seeds native to Siberia, Kuban and New Zealand seed material. The most popular of them: “Tom Tamb”, “Camellia”, “Super Elfin”.
This variety has a very large bush and large flowers. The variety is suitable for the formation of flower beds, lawns, flower beds, street vases. The height of the variety “Tom Tamb” usually does not exceed 25 cm.
One of the new varieties of garden balsamines, which looks very impressive and has large double flowers. Often planted in mixed flower beds. The height of the bush reaches 25 cm, and the diameter of the flower can reach 4 cm.
This is a dwarf variety of balsamins, which is known to many as "Vanka wet . " The variety is unpretentious and has long flowering. Before sowing balsam seeds of any of the varieties for seedlings, the soil should be properly prepared. There are several options for its preparation.
For example, 1 part of vermiculite, 1 part of sand, 1 part of leafy earth and 2 parts of lowland peat are mixed. You can also take in equal proportions only peat and vermiculite. At the same time, it is not necessary to adhere to exact proportions, but it is important that the substrate is loose, absorbs water well and allows air to pass through.
Then you can proceed directly to the planting of seeds.
- Seeds must be treated for several minutes in a weak solution of manganese.
- Then they are soaked for 1 day in warm water.
- The seed tray must be selected at least 8 cm.
- The bottom of the tank must be perforated to drain excess fluid.
- The bottom of the tank is laid out with a layer of drainage - expanded clay or fine gravel. The height of the drainage layer is 2 cm.
- Then, prepared soil is poured into the container.
- To disinfect the soil a day before planting, it is calcined in an oven or spilled with Fitosporin.
- Seeds are deployed on the soil surface at a distance of 3-4 cm from each other. Sprinkle them on top of the ground should not be, because for their germination requires light.
- Then the already sown seeds are sprayed with water using a spray gun.
- From above, a container with sown balsam seeds is covered with glass or film, constructing a mini-greenhouse.
- The container with the seeds is put in a warm place and periodically ventilated by opening the film or sliding the glass.
If the seed material is not too much, it can be sown in peat tablets. After disinfection and soaking of seeds, planting is carried out as follows.
- The tablets are saturated with moisture until they completely swell.
- After that, seeds are sown one by one on the surface of the soil, do not bury in depth, but simply gently pressed to the substrate with a toothpick or match.
- Then the container is covered with plastic wrap and installed in a warm, bright place, avoiding direct sunlight.
How many days does it rise?
In anticipation of seedling of balsam seeds, it is important to maintain the correct temperature. The optimum temperature for seedlings is in the range from +18 to +22 degrees Celsius. If the temperature is lower, then peeling of the seeds may be postponed for some time or not at all.
It should be noted that balsams are unprofitable during seedling. At the same time, some specimens may already have 2 true leaflets, while others only begin to peck. On average, the germination period lasts from 1 to 3 weeks. There is such a pattern: the fresher the seeds, the less they spend time on seedlings. Reasons why balsam may not sprout:
- the soil is too cold, so the seeds continue to sleep;
- if the temperature of the soil warms above 25 degrees Celsius, the seedlings will die in the embryos;
- too heavy soil does not contribute to seedlings;
- expired seeds can cause zero seedlings;
- germination is reduced if acidic soil is used for germination.
Features seedlings care
Reproduction of balsam will be successful if you deal with seedlings daily. Taking care of seedlings at home is quite simple. Subject to all the rules, a beautiful and healthy seedling grows, which subsequently turns into a chic bush with generous flowering. Depending on the variety, seedlings are planted in open ground or left to grow at home.
Optimal step-by-step care looks like this.
- As soon as single shoots begin to appear, the bag is opened and ventilated, and the accumulated condensate is gently shaken so that moisture droplets do not fall on the sprouts. Otherwise, the probability of fungal infection of seedlings is high. This procedure is performed daily in the morning and evening hours.
- On the fifth or sixth day after seed emergence, the package is completely removed, and the soil is moistened by spraying. In the morning and evening hours, as well as on cloudy days, it is recommended to use additional seedling illumination. For these purposes, use luminescent and phytolamps.
- If the roots become visible on the surface, they are sprinkled with a moistened substrate. To moisten the soil, it is best to use a pallet. Then the root necks of the roots will remain dry and protected from decay.
- When seedlings grow by 1.5 cm and subject to the presence of two full leaflets, they are planted in individual cups. Drainage must be placed at the bottom of the containers: expanded clay or small pebbles. The stems and root system of balsam are still fragile, so picking must be done very carefully.
- If the plant is very long, then during a dive it is planted deeper. With experience, the prerequisites of plants for stretching are determined even before the beginning of enhanced stem growth, the situation is being corrected promptly. For example, an insufficient amount of sunlight contributes to the drawing of balsam.
- A week after a dive, balsam seedlings must be pinched with your fingers or with scissors. This will provoke the growth of additional shoots from the sinuses of the lateral leaves and enhance the decorativeness of the bushes.
- In the future, balsam seedlings require moderate watering. Fertilizers are applied in small quantities, not more than once a week.
The use of complex fertilizer is possible after the appearance of the first full leaf or a week after diving seedlings.
Diseases and Pests
Balsam seedlings can be infected with fungal diseases. For treatment and prevention, seedlings are watered with Phytosporin fungicide. A spider mite can also attack balsam. This usually occurs with insufficient watering.
To get rid of the spider mite, chemical preparations are used.
Growing seedlings in a greenhouse
Sometimes, before planting balsam seedlings in open ground, it needs to be grown. For mature plants, the temperature in the greenhouse during the day should be in the range from +16 to +18 degrees Celsius.
The night temperature should not drop below +15 degrees Celsius.