A good harvest with minimal losses is important for both farmers and summer residents. If the plot is quite large, then a potato digger can come to the aid of potato harvesting. Prices for a potato digger can range from 6.5 to 13 thousand rubles. Making a potato digger on your own makes sense for small sown areas. Industrial equipment is usually bought at various trading floors.
For work, the following materials and tools will be required:
- alloy steel pipes with a diameter of 4 cm;
- corners of the "six";
- reinforcement 10 mm thick;
- welding unit;
- adjustable wrench;
- bolts with nuts and lock washers.
Good steel is necessary for the manufacture of a ploughshare - it should be quite thick (at least 4 mm). The design has a welded frame, suspension, traction, which will allow you to adjust the dynamic elements - wheels and hooks.
Making the unit yourself is not particularly difficult. Such a potato digger can actually be used on any, even very dense soil.
Independent craftsmen design potato diggers of two varieties.
Things are a little more complicated with the creation of conveyor and drum aggregates, since their designs will be a little more complicated, but it is quite realistic to technically realize the creation of such aggregates.
If you have to harvest in vast areas, then you should pay attention to a small or conveyor potato digger. For a summer cottage or garden plot of 10 acres, a fan digger may well be suitable.
The disadvantages of all potato diggers are that they do not “take out” the entire crop. Tubers that grow away from the cultivated strip do not fall into the field of action of the plow.
Drawings of a potato digger are made by analogy with schemes that are easy to find on the Internet. When buying a walk-behind tractor, an instruction manual is attached, which indicates the dimensions and other parameters of the attachment (weight, digging depth). Based on these data, you can find the necessary information and based on it make your own version of the unit for potatoes. This option seems to be very rational, since each walk-behind tractor has its own characteristics.
The algorithm for creating the unit is as follows: a pipe with a diameter of 45 mm is cut into four parts. For example, this can be done in this way: two pieces of pipe 1205 mm in size and two pieces of 805 mm each. Then, a rectangle is drawn on a flat plane, the joints are welded by welding. Jumpers are also welded, which will serve as control rods. Then you need to create vertical mounts - they will provide for the installation of vertical rods that are responsible for control.
After this, the racks are fastened, which should hold the vertical load. Jumpers are mounted at a slight distance from the edge of the frame. The squares should have parameters 35x35 mm, and the length should be 50 cm. The racks are connected to each other by jumpers.
Then you need to install the shaft. Stainless steel sheets are used, the thickness of which should be 0.4 mm. The sheets are fastened together by welding. After this comes the turn of the rods - they will implement the work of "filtering personnel". This technique makes it possible to effectively remove a good crop of root crops in the shortest possible time.
The standard design consists of the following elements:
- metal frame (from pipes or corners);
- a plow - a cutter;
- devices that transport the product;
- connecting pulley;
- connecting rod;
- drive belt;
- support rack;
- transmission belt angular gear.
The fan digger joins the unit (it is also called the "arrow-shaped" and "paw"). In a professional language, such an aggregate is called "dolphin", due to the corresponding form of the plow - ploughshare. The device of this unit is not difficult, while it has quite good performance. You can make such an assembly with your own hands in a short period of time.
The principle of operation: the cutter opens the earth layer, root crops are rolled onto the reinforcement, and move along it. During this "journey" the tubers are cleared of the earth. Before harvesting, all vegetation must be removed. To make such a design, the following tools and materials will be required:
- welding unit;
- a hammer;
- set of drills;
- nippers or pliers;
- a sheet of steel 3 mm thick - it is necessary to make a share from it;
- bolts (10 mm);
- rectangular profile;
- steel sheet to create the rack;
- fittings (10 mm).
In the middle part, holes are drilled through which you can screw the share to the stand. In a wide part of the cutter itself (on both sides) pieces of reinforcement are welded - they should converge at the top and form a fan. The length of the reinforcement should be no more than half a meter.
There are times when the reinforcement is bent in the form of steps. A holder stand is attached to the share, the height of which depends on the design of the walk-behind tractor. The stand-holder can be welded to the plow itself, without bolting.
A bracket is mounted in the upper part of the rack, in which prepared holes must be present - thanks to them, a potato digger and a walk-behind tractor will be attached. The ploughshare is reinforced with an additional metal plate to avoid deformation. Such a design, if done correctly, will last more than one year.
Among the shortcomings, a relatively narrow strip of cultivated land can be mentioned - it is only 30 cm.
Using this design, you can lose a significant portion of the crop - up to 22%. Also, part of the tubers is damaged - this will lead to the fact that such a product cannot be left for winter storage.
Vibrating potato digger is a very popular tool that has become widespread. It works with both light and heavy soils, while humidity can reach 30%.
The screen mechanism is based on the vibration principle and consists of a ploughshare and a sieve.
With the help of a ploughshare - a “knife”, drowned in soil to a depth of 25 cm, a layer of earth is blown up together with root crops. Soil with tubers remains on the grate. Due to vibrational impulses, the soil flies around the tubers and rolls down, and peeled potatoes enter the container.
The scheme is effective, but to make such an aggregate is technically quite difficult, since a certain qualification is needed.
The design consists of three blocks:
- a knife;
- dynamic grids;
The following tool will be required:
- a hammer;
- set of drills;
- nippers or pliers;
- rebar (10 mm);
First, the profile of the desired size is cut to make a frame, which is then welded. Bottoms are mounted below, wheels are put on them. In the frame itself, hinge fasteners are mounted on which the screen is placed.
Fasteners are welded to the skeleton - a reducer is placed on them, special devices that provide vibration. The mesh of the duct is welded from the reinforcement, which is fixed inside the frame. A gearbox is installed - it provides the necessary vibration. It is connected with a roar. Through the lever device and the connecting rod, the impulse from the rotation of the shaft enters the screen, resulting in vibrating impulses that generate rotational movements of the eccentric.
A ploughshare is cut from steel, which is attached to the bottom of the frame. Wheels are attached to the unit. The knife can be concave and slightly convex.
The mill raises the soil with root crops, after which they fall into a roar, on which they roll, freeing themselves from the ground. The tubers then fall from the surface of the grate to the ground. The advantage of this device is that the capture occurs with a width of 0.45 meters. The penetration depth into the ground is almost 0.3 meters. The yield loss is relatively small - up to 10%.
The disadvantages of the unit are that there is increased vibration, which is transmitted to the operator, which quickly tires. Also, before starting work, all the tops should be removed from the site to ensure normal cross-country ability of the walk-behind tractor. In some cases, vibration is reduced by installing two eccentrics.
Conveyor homemade potato digger can be of different sizes. Such aggregates are usually large in size for processing large sown areas. For work on a personal plot there are enough small potato diggers, which it is not difficult to make with your own hands. The principle of operation is simple: tubers are removed from the soil and fed to the separator via a conveyor belt.
The tape itself is a lattice that is made of parallel-welded reinforcement. It is attached to the conveyor belt. Also, the tape is made of mesh and rubber, which is attached to a dense fabric. The soil adhering to the tubers, separating, falls, and the potatoes enter the storage.
The conveyor moves as a result of rotation of the shaft, which is attached to the walk-behind tractor.
In this case, the following elements are used:
The cutter is a sickle-shaped metal tool. It is immersed in the soil by almost 20 cm. Such a device works much “cleaner”, the harvested crop remains in the fields no more than 5%. The fastening of the cutter is carried out using bolts with lock washers.
Before you start making a potato digger, you need to think about the question of whether you have practical skills. You should also carefully read the drawings - there are a lot of them on the Internet.
The main elements of a potato digger:
- welded skeleton - is performed from the profile;
- steel mill;
- rollers for belt movement;
- assembly of steel strip reinforcement;
The “drum” potato digger successfully established itself in the processing of vast areas.
The apparatus is made of the following elements:
- skeleton with wheels in the form of a frame;
- knife cutters;
- containers in the form of a drum, which is made of reinforcement.
The cutter is mounted to the base using special hinges. Its function is to remove the soil below the tubers that enter the rotating container. A spinning hollow tank allows you to free the soil from tubers that remain in the tank. Then the vegetables move to the end of the container and fall to the ground in a purified form.
The drum is attached with a gear and gear to the tractor shaft - a torque impulse comes from it. The sickle-shaped cutter allows you to open the soil to a decent depth, which guarantees the preservation of the crop. Such a device provides insignificant yield losses; tubers also practically do not undergo mechanical defects.
How to attach to a walk-behind tractor?
Different units may be suitable for different walk-behind tractors. If the walk-behind tractor has a weight of up to 150 kg, then it can be used on a par with ordinary potato diggers. Potato digger moves around the site with minimal speed, so the unit must have sufficient traction.
Not every engine can "keep" the minimum speed - gasoline power plants often stall at a speed of 1-2 kilometers per hour. Diesel motoblocks better cope with similar tasks - such devices are suitable for vibration units of medium parameters. Heavy motoblocks can work with units of any type. Based on the parameters of the walk-behind tractor, you can choose the right unit.
The motoblock can have both universal fastening, and join only to a certain type of mechanism. Usually used vibratory diggers.
When creating a potato digger (or its purchase), the strip width of the cultivated soil and the depth should be taken into account. The speed of the device does not usually exceed two kilometers per hour - this is the maximum value.
It is also worth considering the quality and nature of the soil on the site. For example, the KKM potato digger can only work with soils whose moisture content does not exceed 30%. Typically, potato digger productivity is not more than 0.21 hectares per hour.
See how to make a potato digger with your own hands in the next video.