Anthurium is one of the most popular tropical plants that can grow and develop at home. The plant decorates many home greenhouses and conservatories, so the problem of its proper reproduction remains quite relevant.
Features of the procedure
The genus Anthurium is a member of the Aroid family and, according to various sources, has from 500 to 900 species. The natural habitat of the flower is the forests of South and Central America and the islands of the Caribbean. In the wild, the length of its leaves reaches 1 meter, while in domestic representatives of the genus they have much more modest sizes.
Florists love indoor anthuriums for their bright and plentiful flowering, which does not stop almost all year round. Among the people, the flower has a second, already unofficially name, and is familiar to many as "male happiness."
Reproduction of anthurium requires accuracy and lack of rush, as well as the availability of special tools and a certain amount of knowledge.
Before deciding on this procedure on your own, it should be remembered that not all methods can guarantee absolute success. The most difficult way to reproduce is the seed method, so only experienced flower growers or breeders can resort to it. In general, anthurium is a rather capricious plant, reproduction of many of its species at home is in principle impossible. This requires special specific conditions that can only be created in greenhouses and greenhouses.
Before embarking on the independent propagation of a flower, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the characteristics of this species and find out whether it is possible to do this in room conditions. In addition, before proceeding to the breeding procedure, it should be remembered that the plant is poisonous, therefore, all manipulations associated with its planting, planting and other activities must be carried out with gloves. The juice of the plant should not be allowed to get on the skin of the hands and mucous membranes of the eyes and nose. Otherwise, severe itching, allergic rashes and redness may appear.
Moreover, the more sensitive the skin, the more unpleasant manifestations will appear, and if you accidentally swallow even a small amount of juice, serious stomach upsets can begin.
Before you choose a method and proceed directly to the breeding procedure, you should carefully prepare. You should start with the choice of soil. Those substrates that are on the shelves of flower shops, for the anthurium in most categorically not suitable. Finding specialized soil designed for Aroid is rather problematic.
In an extreme case, you can buy land for orchids and saints, which has an optimum pH level (from 4.5 to 6.5 units) for "male happiness", but it will not be an ideal environment for a flower. Therefore, the substrate for the reproduction of anthurium will need to be prepared independently, since all the necessary components are available for sale.
- To prepare the composition, take one part of the fertile turf, one part of perlite or vermiculite and mixed with three parts of leaf humus. In the mixture, crushed birch coal is added in an amount of about 5% of the total volume, after which the substrate is laid on a baking sheet and sent to the oven.
Disinfection is carried out at a temperature of +220 degrees for 20 minutes.
- If leaf humus was not available, then you can prepare another composition consisting of turf land, peat, coniferous substrate and baking powder, taken in a ratio of 2: 2: 2: 1, respectively. As a baking powder take crushed and boiled bark of coniferous trees, calcined river sand or birch coals. If none of the above was available, then you can add sphagnum moss or coconut fiber. The baking powder gives the soil lightness and breathability, which contributes to better survival of young plants.
- Good results are obtained by using a mixture prepared from soil for rhododendrons, peat chips, pieces of pine bark, expanded clay and chopped sphagnum moss taken in a ratio of 2: 2: 2: 1: 1. This substrate has an unusually light and loose structure, is well ventilated and holds moisture well.
After the substrate is ready, you can proceed with the selection of the pot. Due to the nature of the growth of the roots of the tank, you should choose wide and not very deep ones: the superficial root system feels great in dishes and does not need deep pots. At the same time, a drainage layer must be laid on the bottom of the tank, and its thickness should be at least 1/4 of the volume of the pot.
Expanded clay is recommended as drainage. And the final step in the preparatory phase will be the acquisition of “Epin”, “Kornevin” or “Heteroauxin”, which will be required in the process of nursing young shoots.
In the natural environment, all epiphytes, to which Anthurium belongs, are able to multiply by means of aerial roots, cuttings, side shoots and seeds. Indoor species can also reproduce by any of these methods, of which the most painstaking and least productive is seed propagation.
This method is not particularly successful with gardeners and is used very rarely, which is due not so much to a low percentage of seed germination, but to the likelihood of losing most of the varietal parental characters. This is especially true for hybrid varieties obtained by crossing different species. However, among breeders, seed cultivation is practiced more often, although for the most part it is due to a purely scientific interest.
So, reproduction using seeds begins with the preparation of planting material.
Seeds are usually purchased at flower shops, but you can use your own collection material. It should be borne in mind that after six months the probability of their germination becomes extremely low. In this connection, the collected seeds must be sown within 3 months.
If it is not possible to purchase seeds in the store, you can try to grow them yourself. For this procedure, two flowers are required. As soon as one of them begins to bloom, a brush with a soft bristle is held on the cob, thus collecting pollen. Then it is very carefully shaken off on a paper sheet and put in the refrigerator. After the second plant blooms, with the help of a cotton pad, the harvested pollen is distributed with light movements along the cob in different directions.
It is recommended to carry out the procedure during daylight hours with sufficient bright lighting and air temperature not lower than +24 degrees. Then, over the next 4–5 days, “control” pollination is carried out in the same way, after which the flower is left alone and begins to observe.
If after 4 weeks the cob begins to increase in size, then the process of cross-pollination was successful and you can expect the appearance of fruits. The time of their full ripening is usually 9-12 months. The signal that they need to be collected will be a darkened coloration and the impression that the fruits are about to fall out of the inflorescence. After harvesting, the upper shell is removed from the fruit, the seeds are taken and dried in the open air for 3 days. Sow them as soon as possible, preferably within 2-3 weeks.
The process of sowing seeds is as follows:
- the seeds are soaked for 15 minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate and spread on a napkin to remove excess moisture;
- further, they are evenly distributed over the surface of the wet substrate and sprinkled on top of the same earth;
- the thickness of the ground layer above the seeds should be 3 mm;
- then the containers are covered with glass or film, provide bottom heating, a temperature of +25 degrees and bright diffused light.
Every day, the greenhouse is opened for 5-7 minutes and aired.
Watering is carried out as the substrate dries, using a spray bottle for this. If everything is done correctly, then the first single shoots can be expected after a week. Mass germination usually begins after 15 days, and after a month the first leaves already appear. It is during this period that the glass or film is removed and the seedlings begin to be planted.
Shoots having 3 leaves each are planted in separate glasses with a diameter of 7-10 cm, using the same substrate for this as for seedlings. From this moment, the plants are transferred to general care, not forgetting to water and feed on time. The first flowers on anthurium grown from seeds appear after 3 years.
How to propagate by cuttings?
The method of propagation of anthurium by cuttings is very popular. Its essence is the rooting of a small part of the shoot, cut from the green part of the plant. Cuttings can be carried out in three ways: leaf, apical and airborne. In the first case, the leaf acts as a stalk, in the second - the tip of an adult shoot, and in the third - a stalk with aerial roots. It is worth considering these methods in more detail.
Almost all types of anthurium can be propagated by the leaf method, while spending a minimum of time and labor. To propagate the flower by leaf-cuttings from a healthy adult plant, a strong leaf is cut, which has distinct veins. The length of the stalk in this case should be from 3 to 5 cm. The sheet is tied in a vertical tube and placed with the stalk in a pre-moistened mixture of sand and peat, taken in equal parts. Usually 1/3 of the sheet is left above the ground, which is then covered with a jar.
The handmade greenhouse is placed in a warm and well-lit place, while trying to prevent direct UV rays from entering, which through the glass of the jar can cause a cuttings burn. It is necessary to ventilate and irrigate the plant and soil daily, and continue this until a young sprout appears from within the leaf tube. This will mean that the rooting was successful and the plant can be switched to a general regime of care. For this, the jar is removed, and the shoot is transplanted into a constant container with pre-prepared soil.
As an alternative to the substrate, root sprouting can be done in water. To do this, the leaf is placed in water at room temperature with a root growth stimulant diluted in it, while no more than 4-5 cm of the leaf should be immersed in the liquid.
Flowering of anthurium grown in this way begins in 1 year.
Cuttings using a shoot having aerial roots is one of the most effective breeding methods. It consists of the following:
- a strong shoot with several internodes and two leaves is cut from an adult healthy plant, after which the leaves are torn off, leaving only petioles; this is done so that the forces of the young shoot do not go to feed the green mass, but exclusively to build up the root system;
- then the stalk is planted in a sand-peat substrate in such a way that only aerial roots are in the ground, and the growth point remains above the surface;
- further, the plant is irrigated from a spray bottle and covered with a bag;
- the greenhouse is transferred to a bright warm place, not forgetting to spray and air the shoot daily; spraying is preferably carried out with slightly heated water so that the plant steamed in a greenhouse does not experience stress from temperature changes.
The rooting of the sprout occurs very quickly. A maximum of a week should appear a new leaflet. After its appearance, the package is removed, the plant is transplanted to a permanent place and transferred to the general regime of care.
Propagation by apical cuttings is also a popular method and consists in the following:
- Using a sharp knife, cut off the top of the shoot and leave it for 15 minutes to dry the cut; the stalk should be exactly 12 cm long and have 2 healthy leaves;
- the shoot is placed in perlite and cleaned in a warm and bright place with a temperature not lower than +24 degrees;
- spraying is carried out daily.
The first roots usually appear after 3 weeks. After they grow to 3 cm, the plant is transplanted to a permanent place.
Important! Whichever method is used for reproduction, the sites of cuts on the maternal individual should be disinfected.
To do this, use brilliant green, potassium permanganate, ground cinnamon or crushed activated carbon.
For more information on the reproduction of anthurium with apical cuttings, see the next video.
Dividing the bush
This method is used only if the mother plant has reached the age of 3-4 years. The division of the bush and the seating of the shoots is carried out in the middle of spring, and step by step this process looks like this:
- half an hour before the event, the mother bush is spilled abundantly with water;
- the plant is removed from the substrate, slightly shaken, remove excess soil and carefully unravel the roots;
- if during unraveling some root processes were damaged, then the wounds immediately sprinkled with activated charcoal or cinnamon;
- divide the plant in such a way that on each of their parts there is a growth point and at least one leaf;
- rotten and badly damaged root processes are necessarily removed, leaving only healthy and viable;
- before rooting the shoots, they are left for 50-60 minutes in the open air for easy drying of the roots;
- shoots should be planted in such a way that the roots are deepened exactly to the depth at which they were located in the old pot, being part of one plant;
- too high shoots are tied to a support, which should be inserted into the substrate in advance - before the flower is planted;
- for 2–3 months, new plants are sprayed weekly with Epin, Kornevin, or Heteroauxin.
Breeding Side Siblings
Reproduction of anthurium in this way is carried out exclusively during transplantation. To plant a plant without harming it, the procedure should be carried out in April or May. It is during this period that vegetative growth activates, the plant’s immune system works in full force. The seating process looks like this:
- the flower is abundantly watered and left for half an hour or an hour;
- then they overturn the pot and take out a bush together with a lump of earth;
- Further, the roots are gently shaken from the substrate and checked for rot and damage;
- sick processes that have a dark color are removed in the necessary order; places of cuts sprinkled with activated charcoal and allow to dry a little;
- the lateral shoot, as a rule, already has several leaves and a growth point, and its connection with the mother bush occurs through the root jumper; in the process of separation, this jumper is cut with a sharp, disinfectant knife, and the wounds are sprinkled with coal;
- then a side shoot is planted in a substrate, leaving a growth point above the ground;
- watering the plants is performed after 3 days.
And in no case not earlier, otherwise the roots of the shoot will rot.
Due to its tropical origin, anthurium needs to create special conditions that are close to natural. The flower needs a high humidity of the substrate and a temperature of at least +24 degrees. However, in autumn and winter, while at rest, the flower easily tolerates a decrease to + 18– + 20 degrees, provided there is no drafts. Caring for a plant involves several steps.
- It is not necessary to water the anthurium often, but abundantly: during the period of active vegetation - 1 time in 3 days, in winter - 1 time in 7 days. It is advisable to use water that is soft and warmed up to +25 degrees. After watering, there should be no moisture in the pan of the pot, otherwise the roots of the plant will become infected with fungal infections or become moldy.
- Feeding Anthurium is performed in autumn and spring, using complex mineral and organic additives.
- Young bushes are transplanted annually, and more adults - once every 3 years.
For more information about Anthurium, see the next video.