We are all accustomed to consider the homeland of tulips Holland. But not everyone knows that tulip bulbs were brought to the Netherlands only in the 16th century, and before that they were cultivated in the Ottoman Empire. There they were engaged in the cultivation of these flowers as early as 1000. However, despite such an ancient history of their existence, until the twentieth century there was no single system for classifying tulips by species and varieties.
For the first time such a scheme was proposed by English scientists during the First World War. The current classification, in the form in which it exists now, was created in 1996 by the Royal Association of the Netherlands, specializing in bulb crops.
History of occurrence
According to the timing of flowering, the Triumph series tulips are usually classified as medium-flowering. Together with her, this group also includes the Darwin Hybrids series, which was taken as the basis for the launch of the Triumph series. The first triumph of tulips was received in 1910. in the Dutch city of Haarlem, on lands owned by Zocher. In 1918, the seedlings were bought by another Dutch company Sandbergen from Katwijk, which put them on sale under the Triumph brand in 1923.
Since the new variety was a commercial success, competitors adopted Zocher’s experience by crossing varieties from several classes at once: simple early varieties from the early flowering class, Darwin hybrids from the medium flowering class, and variegated varieties “Bridera” and “Cottage”, which belong to the group of abolished or unrecognized modern class scientists. Triumph tulips were recognized as a separate class in 1939, and for all subsequent years, breeders improved the characteristics of this class in order to reduce the cost of their cultivation and increase commercial profit.
Gradually, Triumph supplanted the other classes of tulips and became a leader in flower production. In 2013-2014 more than 60% of all Dutch tulip plantations were given under the Triumph tulip class.
Tulips of the Triumph class belong to the Liliaceae family and are medium-tall (up to 50 cm) or tall (up to 70 cm) plants with a vertical stem and a large flower that resembles a wine glass or barrel in shape.
The height of the bud is about 8 cm. Representatives of this class are characterized by early flowering, which repeats seasonally, so they are often chosen for cultivation on an industrial scale. Flowers have an extensive color palette from boiling white, without any impurities, to maroon or purple, with various shades. Triumph alone has more than 30 shades of red. There are also yellow, orange, and pink colors.
There are instances that have a double color. Some varieties have several flowers on one stem at once. The most advantageous flowers look massively, formed in large groups.
Leaving and landing
The flower loves a lot of sun, but at the same time it easily withstands light frosts. When choosing a landing site, care must be taken to ensure that it is protected from strong winds. The soil for planting should be selected light and rich in humus, with neutral acidity. Tulips Triumph, like other representatives of this culture, love abundant watering, but without stagnation of moisture.
Bulb planting is usually carried out in early autumn, when the heat subsides and the weather is cool, but without frost. The most comfortable landing conditions at a temperature of no higher than 10C - usually from mid-September to mid-October. This time is considered optimal for better rooting of tulip bulbs.
Before landing prepare a backlog. To do this, dig a hole with a depth of 30-40 cm. Dry sand is poured onto the bottom of the hole, then a layer of compost or humus is laid out. It is strictly forbidden to bring fresh manure into the hole - it can “burn” the plant. After the bulb is placed in the hole, you can sprinkle it with another layer of sand and cover it with soil on top, water it abundantly.
For the winter, tulips usually do not cover, but if early frosts are observed, you can sprinkle them with a layer of dry leaves. In early spring, immediately after the snow melts, the planting site must be loosened and fertilized with ammonium nitrate, and when the buds are tied, feed with mineral fertilizers. The standard set is nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
You can buy a finished composition, or you can make all the components separately.
The flowering period begins when the temperature of 18–20 ° C is stably established on the street, and lasts until the end of May. In late June or early July, the leaves on the plants begin to dry, and this is a sure sign that it is time to dig the bulbs. All specimens are carefully examined, damaged ones are removed, and healthy ones are dried in a dark place for two weeks at a temperature of 20-25C. Then they are peeled of husks and old growths and removed for storage in a dark, dry place, away from mice and other rodents.
Cut flowers also need to be by the rules. The fact is that the tulip stem is not cut, but broken at such a level that at least two leaves remain below - the plant takes food from them. If you cut the flower under the root, then in the next season the bud will not ripen.
The main varieties of tulips class "Triumph"
- "Fun for two" (Fan for that). This variety has a large bud with a height of 5-7 cm and a diameter of 4-5 cm. The height of the whole flower is 40 cm. The bulb is well divided for propagation, subsequently gives an excellent harvest. The color of the bud is white, with a subtle yellowish tinge.
- "Gavota". A cup-shaped bud with a strong stem and pointed petals. The described variety has a very spectacular double color: the flower’s bowl itself is dark purple with a brownish tint, and the tips of the petals are painted in a pale lemon shade. The plant grows in length up to 40 cm, buds bloom early - in mid-April. Flowering period 7-10 days. It has an increased resistance to disease.
- "Happy Generation". The variety has established itself in various climatic conditions. A cut flower can stand longer than other varieties. The flowering period begins in late April and early May and lasts up to 10 days. It has a very elegant double color: a bright raspberry strip on a white background. The height of the plant is about half a meter.
- "Jacuzzi" (Jacuzzi). This is a very rare variety - its feature is that on the outside the flower petals are slightly lighter than on the inside. The flower grows to a height of 55 cm, has large peduncles of dark purple, almost black. This color is quite rare in tulips. The flowers themselves are of a delicate lilac hue, along the edges of the petals the color is more intense than at their base.
The variety pleases with a long flowering period, but is easily exposed to a variegated virus, when the color of the petals ceases to be monophonic and various extraneous inclusions and spots appear on them. In this case, the specimen is subject to immediate destruction until it has infected the neighboring flowers.
- "New Desing . " The plant is low - not more than 30 cm in length, but it compensates for its relatively small growth by a very beautiful color. The stalk is strong, leaves are of intense green hue, with a white-pink border at the edges. The flower itself is quite large, white, with a pink frame. The variety is unpretentious and easily takes root both in a warm climate and in more northern areas, it is resistant to many viruses. The tulip stands for a long time after cutting, suitable for spring distillation.
- "Recreado." Like the previous variety, this representative of the Triumph class grows up to 30 cm tall, is undemanding in care, tolerates the vagaries of the weather and is practically not susceptible to viruses. The color of the bud is densely purple, saturated. It blooms in mid-April and pleases the eye one and a half to two weeks.
- "Madame Spoors." The variety, bred by German scientists in 1985, is interesting for its unusual variegated color. In this case, this is not a virus, but a feature of the variety, which was achieved specifically by crossing. A bud in the shape of a glass about 9 cm in size. The total height of the plant is slightly less than half a meter. The color is saturated red with a raspberry tint in the center and a light yellow edging at the edges. It begins to bloom in late April, flowering continues for 10 days. It tolerates bad weather, suitable for early spring distillation.
- "Alexander Puschkin." This variety, named after the great Russian poet, was bred relatively recently, in the 2000s. The height of the adult plant is about 45 cm, the height of the bud is up to 8 cm, the color is very spectacular: the center is purple, and the petals around the edges, as if they were slightly touched by hoarfrost, are decorated with a thin white border. The variety is suitable for early spring distillation, blooms in early April and pleases with its extraordinary beauty almost until May.
- "Cancun." The same incendiary and spectacular as the dance, whose name is this variety. Plant height up to 60 cm, flower size up to 9 cm, goblet shape, typical for all Triumphs, orange-red color, begins to bloom relatively late - in mid-May, tolerates spring frosts and windy weather. It does not need special care conditions and is resistant to various viruses. It is well preserved when cutting.
- "Orange Queen". The variety was bred in 1985. The stem height together with the bud reaches 50 cm, the size of the bud is 9 cm. The color is bright orange, with a bright strip of conical shape, expanding at the base of the petals. Flowering - from mid to late April. Tulips of this variety look very impressive and from a distance look like the flapping of tongues of flame. The variety easily copes with the vagaries of the weather, but can be infected with a variegated virus.
The Triumph class is the most numerous. Varieties of this series make up almost a quarter of all tulip varieties known today. Representatives of the class grow in all corners of the globe, including in our country, in particular in the Yalta Botanical Garden, in the Sochi Arboretum, and also decorate flower beds in many Russian cities not only in the south of the country, but also in central Russia.
For how to properly care for tulips, see the next video.