One of the most extraordinary and luxurious plants decorating any garden plot is wisteria. Her beauty during flowering is remembered by any person. Through delicate flowers, viewing green leaves is almost impossible. It seems that the plant is forming into a living dome, and this is actually an unforgettable sight. The birthplace of Wisteria is North America and East Asia, which means that the plant likes to grow in warm climatic conditions. But there are frost-resistant varieties that can be grown even in the suburbs. Let's talk about the rules for growing wisteria in central Russia.
Suitable species and varieties
Wisteria (its other name is Wisteria) is a perennial vine of the legume family. Strong branches are able to reach a length of 10-11 m. They spread in different directions, if there is support, they are curled clockwise. Young stems have a thin and lowered skin.
With proper care, timely pruning, it will be possible to grow a wisteria of 20-meter height with a spreading dome. Wisteria leaves are pinnate, can consist of 9-20 oval-shaped lobes.
By its nature, the wisteria liana has a positive attitude towards heat. She loves to grow in a subtropical climate. Most often found on river banks and in forest thickets. Garden varieties of Wisteria grow on the Black Sea coast and in Crimea. In central Russia and in the suburbs, frost-resistant species of wisteria can be grown.
- Chinese Wisteria Blue Sapphire. This variety is distinguished by leafy branches. In the wild, the plant can grow up to 20 m in length. Leaf plates are large, unpaired. Young shoots fall strongly, but eventually rise and become one with adult branches. Flowers on vines have a pale purple color.
- Wisteria "Blue Moon". It is a frost-resistant variety with the ability to easily tolerate low air temperatures and the sudden arrival of cold weather. And it's not about -10 degrees. "Blue Moon" can withstand the frost of -40 degrees without much effort. In addition, the presented variety boasts rapidly growing deciduous vines, the length of each stem reaches 8 m.
- Wisteria of the Floribunda. A distinctive feature of this plant is abundant flowering and a large number of flowers. With proper care, growing floribunda will produce amazing results. The plant will grow to a height of 10 m and each time during flowering will attract the enthusiastic looks of others.
- Wisteria "Alba". A perennial grade of deciduous plant that grows freely in the cold conditions of the Moscow region. The length of the shoots falling down reaches 25 m. The stalks are massive, their diameter ranges from 30-35 cm.
With appropriate care, the growth of young shoots can be directed in the necessary direction. After the stems harden, it will be impossible to change their shape.
- Wisteria "Summer Cascade." A majestic liana decorating the garden at any time of the year. Easily tolerates cold up to -35 degrees. Multiple inflorescences on young shoots reveal the full beauty of the plant in June. Young flowers initially have a pronounced blue-violet color, but after several weeks in the sun, the juiciness of the color disappears, which does not affect the natural beauty of the plant.
One of the important factors for planting wisteria is the right place. It should be remembered - Wisteria requires attention. It should always be in front of the gardener's eyes, so that the process of growing and subsequent development of the plant is under constant control. It is best to consider the sunny part of the garden, so that bright rays of natural light cover the wisteria for at least 7 hours a day. The soil for planting should be fertile and moist.
Wisteria can be planted near the entrance to the garden or near the porch. A good plant will look near a decorative arbor.
The main thing is to remember that when growing, you will have to put special supports that will support the vines. These restraints must be made of durable material.
The ideal period for planting is autumn and spring. Before planting, soil on a selected part of the garden plot must be drained so that water can easily penetrate through it. Then a hole is excavated, the diameter of which is several times larger than the root lump of the seedling. The excavated soil is mixed with compost and filled with a small amount of mineral fertilizing with a high nitrogen content. The root of the seedling is placed in the center of the prepared hole so that the base of the stem is at the same level with the soil surface. Fertilized earth sprinkles on top.
Proper care for the planted wisteria consists in timely moistening and loosening of the earth close to the trunk of the plant. Also, wisteria must be fed and trimmed. Failing to comply with the specified conditions for care, you will receive a plant that may not grow correctly, and under certain circumstances it will simply die.
It may seem to some that it is almost impossible to grow wisteria on their own. However, many gardeners have shown by their own example that this opinion is erroneous.
Watering and feeding
Watering wisteria is necessary when the soil, close to the root system, has dried 4-5 cm in depth. This liana loves moisture very much, but this does not mean that the plant needs to be poured. Stagnation of water in the roots of Wisteria can lead to unpleasant consequences.
Wisteria is fed several times during the growing season. Only nitrogen in the fertilizer should not be. All representatives of the legume family absorb the required amount of nitrogen from the airspace. And its excess will negatively affect flowering.
With the onset of spring, compost is introduced under the plant. A 5-centimeter layer of mulch is laid out on top. These actions will help to maintain moisture and make it possible to control the growth of weed herbs. Most gardeners like to observe the natural flowering of wisteria, however, the process can be accelerated and made more active. To do this, in the spring it will be necessary to fertilize the soil around Wisteria with bone meal, and in the autumn to add a little phosphate to the soil.
The main secret of beautiful and high-quality flowering of wisteria is the timely pruning of the plant. Primary pruning is done at the end of the winter period, last year's shoots are cut off almost half. On the rest should be located a few young kidneys.
To create a compact tree crown, the pruning procedure is carried out not only at the end of winter, but also in summer, as soon as flowering ends. Too sprawling strong shoots must be trimmed once every 2 weeks until the end of the summer period. In the fall, the plant cannot be disturbed.
Some gardeners remove the lower shoulder straps of wisteria, fixing only the main stem. Thus, they form the crown of a plant in the shape of a tree.
And this has its advantages, the main of which is the lack of the need to build massive structures to support heavy vines.
Adult wisteria does not need shelter from winter cold. In general, it is impossible to hide it from the winter cold, since the plant already has decent dimensions. But young seedlings in terms of cold weather have much harder. They do not tolerate low temperatures, which is why in the first years of the wisteria, the gardener needs to remove the vines from their supports, lay them on the ground, cover them with spruce branches or leaves fallen in autumn. And with the onset of warm spring days, you will have to hurry up and remove the warm cover from the vines, otherwise the wisteria will begin to sing.
To date, there are 4 ways of propagating wisteria: layering, cuttings, seeds and grafting. However, the latter method is used only in plant nurseries. The remaining methods are practiced by ordinary gardeners. In this case, the method with layering involves the spring - summer period, and the cuttings and seed propagation option is used exclusively in spring.
Sowing of planting material occurs in greenhouse conditions in the last days of November or in early December. Not having time with autumn sowing, you can carry out the procedure in the spring, in the first days of March, but already in the open ground, which is much better for the plant. The soil mixture for autumn planting is prepared according to a certain formula.
4 parts of sheet soil are taken and mixed with 1 part of soddy soil and sand. The first shoots appear 25-30 days after sowing. A week later, young shoots are exposed to the illuminated area, but not under direct sunlight.
As soon as 2 leaves appear on the seedlings, the seedlings are transplanted into beds. In winter, young shoots must hide. It is recommended that a plant be transplanted to a permanent place no earlier than next spring.
The process of growing wisteria from seeds is considered the longest. You will see the beauty of flowering only after 15 years.
For the propagation of wisteria by the cuttings method, the trimmed parts of the annual branches of the plant, which are about 20 cm long , will fit. On the lower part of the selected stem, leaves are removed, only 2-3 leaves remain on the crown.
A 5 cm deep hole is made in a container with soil mixture. A cuttings are installed in it. The earth around the pit is rammed. On top of the sprout is covered with a plastic bag or cut plastic container. The planted stalk is placed in a lighted place.
From time to time it is necessary to check the ground, if necessary, moisten. The roots of the stem will begin to form 5-8 weeks after planting. After 5 years, wisteria will delight the gardener with exquisite inflorescences with an unusual aroma.
As a suitable layering, one of the strong perennial shoots is selected. An oblique incision is made in the middle. A pot of fertile soil is placed under the incision site. The shoot is fixed in the container using brackets, then sprinkled with soil. The top of the incised branch rises up and is fixed on the support.
Throughout the summer period, the plant must be moistened. And already by the last days of August, an incised seedling forms its own root system. Germinated layering is separated from the maternal creeper and transplanted to a permanent place of residence.
Diseases and Pests
The main enemies of Wisteria are: aphids, leafworm, mealybug and Japanese beetle. Every gardener can get rid of the majority of the presented pests. This will not require special knowledge and radical action. But in the case of the Japanese beetle, everything is much more complicated. In the scientific world, the Japanese beetle is known as the Japanese hrushchik (Popillia japonica). These pests are dangerous because they gnaw tunnels in the woody part of wisteria, disrupting the supply of plants with moisture and nutrients.
It happens that nematodes appear on the roots of wisteria . Their vital activity contributes to the emergence of root nodes. The plant can also be affected by fungal infections, which primarily attack the root system. If the plant is not treated, it will gradually fade and eventually die.
Based on the reviews of gardeners living in central Russia and in the Moscow region, we can safely say that the process of reproduction and planting of wisteria is not difficult. Subsequent care is as simple as with other plant species. The only experience arises with the advent of cold weather. But do not worry, frost-resistant varieties of Wisteria are ready to withstand even in 40-degree frost.
As for diseases and pests, as gardeners say, fruitfully growing wisteria in their own area, if the plant is properly looked after, no infection will bother it.
When designing a garden plot where wisteria grows, you can use many interesting solutions. Few people paid attention, but the spreading wisteria is successfully combined with white tulips or daffodils growing at the foot of the trunk of a liana. Summer flowering is one of the most unique periods in the life of wisteria. And to emphasize the beauty and charm of this process will help garden hibiscus and daylilies.
Many landscape designers offer to arrange wisteria creepers in the form of a falling cascade along the front of the apartment building. On the one hand, this idea may seem absurd, in fact it will turn out quite the opposite.
The main thing is to remember that the branches of wisteria become heavier with age and can damage pipes.
On how to grow wisteria, see the next video.