In the city square, park or garden, you can find a plant in the form of a small tree or shrub with unusual foliage and many small yellow flowers. People often believe that this is acacia, but the right name for the culture is caragana.
About 7 dozens of cultures belong to the genus of karagan. All of them have a similar description and in nature grow in the form of thickets in the forest-steppe zones of the Far East, Siberia, and European regions of Russia. The people call the plant yellow acacia. Karagana is a small tree or shrub from the legume family, which is characterized by an unusual next foliage, as well as bisexual flowers with a yellow or golden color.
The cultivated representative of the flora is a good honey plant, therefore, high-quality and healthy honey is obtained from yellow acacia. The culture is resistant to drought and large frosts. She takes root pretty well in the gassed region, but she loves to grow on the edge of the river or near the river.
The height of the tree usually reaches about 700 cm in height, but in Russia it is impossible to meet a caragan above 3 m.
In the early summer days, yellow flowers begin to appear on the shrub. Typically, the flowering phase of this representative of the flora lasts up to 50 days. At the end of this period, fruits in the form of small peas in pods appear on the caragan.
Species and varieties
Currently, many types of caragana are grown.
- Tree-like. This yellow acacia is recognized as the most popular among gardeners. It has the appearance of a smooth-stemmed shrub 7 m high. The shoots of the plant are bare, have a brownish-green color. Leaves are bright, green. Blossoms culture with single yellow flowers. At the end of the flowering phase, narrow cylindrical fruits appear on the caragan.
The most popular varieties are considered Laraberg Caragana and Walker.
- Karagana "Pendula". And also the culture is called weeping acacia. The plant looks like a small elegant tree with an original crown and long weeping branches. Depending on the season, the leaves of the culture are able to change their color. In spring, they are painted in an emerald shade, and in autumn - yellow. The beginning of flowering of the bush begins after the leaves open. The fruit of the crop is a cylindrical bean.
- Shrubbery. A small bush with a height of not more than 200 cm. The bark of the culture has a pale green, yellowish color. The flowering period of caragana falls at the end of spring and lasts until the beginning of summer.
- Dwarf. This yellow acacia has the appearance of a small shrub. Its height does not exceed 100 cm. The barrel at the caragana has a smooth, shiny bark. On thin shoots - silver-green foliage. When used correctly, the plant can have an anti-inflammatory effect and eliminate fever.
- Prickly. The maximum height of the culture is 150 cm. Karagana has many unbranched spiny shoots with small foliage. During flowering, flowers with a diameter of 2 cm appear on the bush.
- Ussuri. This is a winter-hardy type of caragana, which has the appearance of a small bush with melliferous characteristics. Often the plant can be found in the forest or in the steppe.
- A maned or “camel's tail”. This is a perennial herb with a height of not more than 1 m. A large number of thorns are located on thick branches. Prickly caragana is considered a hardy representative of the flora, which can grow on poor soil.
- The small-leaved caragan has the appearance of a meter bush. The culture has a yellowish bark, straight or bent branches. The foliage is small, has a blunt or truncated tip. The fruit of the yellow acacia is a flat lily bean.
- Scythian. Karagana of this species is listed in the Red Book. It belongs to the South Black Sea endemic.
How to plant?
There is nothing complicated in planting seedlings of karagana, so even an inexperienced gardener can safely take on this matter. In order for a plant to grow healthy and beautiful, you need to follow some planting rules.
It is necessary to choose the right site for the further growth of culture.
In this case, you should give preference to a well-lit place, but the caragana grows well in partial shade. For the active growth of yellow acacia, its planting is best carried out in sandy soil. This representative of the flora does not show sensitivity to the level of acidity and nutrition of the soil.
The main stages of landing are several.
- After selecting a site, it is worth marking it using a specially stretched rope fixed with pegs.
- Next, you need to dig a landing hole with a depth of 0.4 to 0.5 m.
- At the bottom of the hole, it is necessary to equip the drainage layer, consisting of crushed stone, and sprinkle it with earth.
- When planting, shake the seedling slightly to fill the voids between the roots.
- The last step will be to place the young Hurricanes in the pit and carefully ram the substrate. Experts recommend not sticking the plant into the soil, as this can lead to damage.
- Fresh planting must be watered, and the soil near the seedling should be crushed.
- Gardeners should not ignore the mulching of the near-trunk circle of culture with the help of needles and hay.
How to care?
Shrub of yellow acacia is considered unpretentious. But the care and implementation of some important events will certainly contribute to the active development and flowering of culture.
It is recommended to moisten the soil near the hurricanes at least 3 times in 7 days. It is impossible to overmoisten the soil, since the culture does not like swampy soil and can die from rotting of the root system. After wetting, it is necessary to loosen the soil well, while removing all weed vegetation.
Fertilize bushes of yellow acacia is necessary only at the initial stages of growth. Young representatives of the flora need more nutrients than adults. Feeding is recommended from May to August, taking a break of 14 days. An ideal option for feeding for caragana is chicken droppings and mullein.
Formative pruning is one of the most important procedures for hurricanes. It is worth pursuing it in the 2nd year of the life of culture.
When planting a seedling, it is recommended to shorten it by a third. Repeat the procedure next year, when the shoots have already grown in the bush.
After these important events, pruning can be done at will, forming the appearance of yellow acacia, following your taste. In the same way, a weeping form of caraganas is formed. A well-groomed tree after pruning looks quite attractive and original.
Yellow acacia is attributed to frost-resistant representatives of the flora. However, young cultures, whose age does not exceed 3 years, should be protected from low temperatures . To this end, caragana stems should be wrapped in burlap.
Yellow acacia can be propagated:
- using seeds;
- bush division.
A plant has good growth and development if it has been propagated by dividing root shoots, the number of which exceeds the norm in the culture. It is worthwhile to separate the planting material in the spring, as this period is considered optimal for planting. To plant a crop, you need to prepare small pits. The distance between them should not exceed 50 cm.
To form layering, use young branches located at the bottom of the shoot . Young twigs should be buried so that they are well rooted. Immediately after planting, plants will need abundant watering. Rooting can be observed after a year, then the layering is separated from the mother and planted in a separate hole.
During spring and summer pruning, planting material can be prepared. The lower part of the root is soaked in liquid with a root stimulant. A young caragana can only take root in a month. If you propagate yellow acacia seeds, then before the procedure they should be soaked for a day in cold water. As it develops, planting material is planted at a constant place of growth.
Diseases and Pests
The most common ailments of caragana are the following fungal diseases:
- powdery mildew;
- white rot.
The fight against the disease is to remove the affected parts. As a preventive measure, it is worthwhile to carry out timely sanitary pruning of the bush.
Do not forget about the collection and burning of fallen leaves. Bordeaux fluid is quite effective in fighting rust.
When attacking caravans by any pest, they use insecticides. Most often, the culture suffers from acacia aphids, vitreous humor, false insects and leaf flies.
Use in landscape design
Neat and fast-growing yellow acacia is appreciated by landscape designers. Often it is used to create hedges. Songs from different representatives of the flora look very original, for example, from Pendula, the Ussuri and tree varieties. Often a caragana is used to preserve crumbling slopes. This bush is planted on a garden plot, in a tub or used to decorate a terrace.
In the next video, you will learn about the use of tree caragana and its beneficial properties.