During the construction and repair of baths, attention is paid primarily to structural materials, furnaces, insulation and waterproofing. It is assumed that natural air circulation will be enough for high-quality ventilation in the bathhouse. But this is completely wrong, and if you approach the matter superficially, you can face serious problems.
Ventilation in the bath can be performed in various ways.
Depends on her presence:
- distribution of heat fluxes inside;
- washable comfort and safety;
- the period of operation of the building.
Water and steam are continuously concentrated there, the tree actively absorbs them. Even if you dry the building periodically, without establishing a constant movement of air, the effect will not be strong enough. To avoid dampness, you need to create a pair of ventilation windows - one serves to enter clean air from the outside, and the other helps to get out heated, which has absorbed a lot of water. Choosing the location of the openings, they change the areas that are especially intensively ventilated. The use of a pair of outlet openings in the steam room and in the dressing room sometimes improves the orientation of the air flow in the required direction.
Of course, the size of each window and the ability to adjust the clearance are of great importance. They put on valves that open fully or partially. The calculation of the volume of ventilation openings is repelled, first of all, from the area of the bathhouse. If you make them too large, mold will never appear on the floor and in the sink, but the steam room will heat up for a very long time, and an unusually large amount of fuel or electric energy will be consumed. Too narrow windows will not allow the air inside to cool or become drier.
All deviations from normal parameters are strictly unacceptable , which can eliminate the occurrence of powerful temperature extremes - this not only creates discomfort, but can also cause health problems. It is impossible to completely exclude the difference in the temperature of flows; it is only necessary to limit their value. Normal ventilation systems are formed during the construction of the bath, while making channels and preparing openings. The windows are mounted only after the decorative cladding of the building is completed. Therefore, it is necessary to enter information on the arrangement of ventilation ducts into the bathhouse project.
In most cases, ventilation openings are made exactly the same. The outlet can be made larger than the inlet, however, according to safety rules, it cannot be smaller than the first. For the same reasons, they sometimes resort to paired exit windows. As control elements, it is worth using not doors, but latches, when closing which it is impossible to preserve cracks. When the steam room is warming up for the first time, the valves lock 100% until the air reaches the desired temperature.
The use of elements with a controlled position is also useful because the amount of air flow must be regulated in accordance with the season. When the temperatures are below zero, even a very small stream of air brings a lot of cold. Therefore, do not open the ventilation windows completely. Cross sections of such windows should average 24 square meters. cm per 1 cube m of internal volume. But these are only preliminary figures, and if in doubt about the result, it is worth contacting qualified heating engineers for calculations.
It is strictly forbidden to install ventilation windows at the same height or even directly opposite each other, since this will not allow all air to be heated in the bath to a sufficient degree. In addition, this design will not evenly mix the air masses, which means that it will be necessary to thoroughly calculate the accuracy of the location of the ventilation elements. Exhaust windows are recommended to be placed just below the ceiling, because the air rises immediately after heating up.
Types of ventilation systems
The ventilation device in the bath varies according to the design of the room and its total volume. Natural ventilation is based on the difference in temperature and pressure inside and out. In order for it to work efficiently, air intake is arranged near the furnace, at a level of 25-35 cm from the floor. An outlet is made on opposite walls about 15-25 cm below the ceiling. But it is important to take into account that such a scheme is not good enough for doubles, since it is relatively cold at the bottom and always hot at the top.
The natural movement of air in such a situation is too difficult to organize , you will have to very carefully and accurately arrange the components of the ventilation system. Forced circuitry does not always require the use of electronic control systems, with complex panels and so on. There are simpler options when the ventilation windows, placed in a special way, are supplemented by an exhaust fan. The combination of such components is especially effective when the bath is located inside the house, the windows are not placed inside the outer wall, but are connected with the exits by a long duct for ventilation. Duct fans must be selected very carefully, because their operating conditions in the baths differ from normal parameters.
A feature of such devices is the increased waterproofing of electrical circuits and the main mechanical parts, in adaptation to work at high temperature without consequences for equipment. The state of supply ventilation and its device in each room is adapted to individual characteristics and to the type of bath. It follows that the time spent on calculating and thinking through the project is not wasted - it will save a lot of money and time, get the optimal result sooner.
As already known, the bulk of the projects involves the location of the opening windows near the furnaces 0.25-0.35 m from the floor. With this design, the stove transfers heat to the air entering from the outside, and a flow arises, moving in the drawing direction. Having overcome all the distance, the hot and street flows ultimately cover the entire steam room, and the area where the upper shelf is located is most heated.
In the second embodiment, by installing an exhaust fan, the inlet and outlet openings can be mounted on one wall. The air flow is directed first towards the heater. Having received a thermal impulse, he begins to rise to the ceiling and moves along a wide arc that spans the entire room. This approach will be effective if the bath is built into the house and has only one external wall, while there is no need to equip the ventilation duct.
If a bathhouse with a leaking floor is created, the opening window is placed in the same place as in the first case , right next to the furnace. When the heated air gives off heat in the upper lobe of the steam room, it cools and sinks to the floor, leaves through the holes in the flooring. Such a technique improves the evaporation of the water accumulating at the bottom and allows you to delay the exit of the wooden floor from the system. The hood is placed either in the next room, or in isolated channels that do not allow air to return to the steam room. The complexity of the flow path makes the use of a fan mandatory. This option is used very rarely, since it’s easy to calculate everything accurately and to provide details in a proper way.
Another type provides a continuously operating furnace, the blower opening of which replaces the hood. For the inflow, a window is made under the shelf opposite the oven itself and at the same level. Cold air displaces the heated mass upwards, and when the parts of the flow that have given off heat fall, they go into the blower channel. There are even more complex systems when a pair of supply and two exhaust ventilation windows are placed (necessarily with a forced type of circulation). It is quite difficult to adjust complicated complexes, but their efficiency is higher than in the simplest cases.
The Bastu system is the placement of air inlets (with adjustable valves) behind or under the stove. Organization of vents under the oven is optional, although highly desirable. Through these openings, air enters the room from the underground part of the bath, which is connected to the outside atmosphere through the foundations of the foundation. When the bath is done in a previously prepared room, you need to choose a room with a pair of external walls; when preparing the basement, choose an angle that meets the same requirements. The dimensions of the inlet and outlet are calculated according to general rules.
How to do it right?
Installation of ventilation implies that when the pipe is pulled out, it is protected from penetration of snow, dirt, rain and melt water. When this does not work out, you can organize a ventilation duct or direct the pipe up, passing it through the ceiling and roof. In the latter case, the canal is covered with an umbrella to prevent the penetration of the same rainfall and falling leaves. To arrange high-level ventilation means to ventilate and dry all rooms, structural parts of walls, floors, attics and roof spaces.
It’s not difficult to find a step-by-step guide on installing ventilation in a bath , but the simplest option is to use asbestos-cement pipes and gratings selected according to the diameter of the channel. If we talk about technical performance, the use of supply valves is recognized as the most effective and convenient performance in frame-type walls. First, the valve is disassembled and circled on the wall with a circle marker, where future ventilation ducts will pass. To get holes in the casing, a drill is used, and large-diameter drills are taken into which a jigsaw knife will calmly pass.
- with the help of a jigsaw itself, a circle is cut out;
- remove wooden parts;
- take out insulation and vapor barrier material;
- with the help of a long drill, the outer skin is pierced (this must be done so as not to make mistakes when placing the outer lobe of the valve);
- mark out a suitable hole from the outside and make it using long drills;
- saw off valve tubes along the wall thickness.
Then you need to do it yourself to mount the tube in the hole and fix the inner segment of the valve with screws, only then you can put the outer part of the product. Installation of valves is recommended in the washing compartment and in the dressing room.
When preparing a new building, it is necessary to calculate both the size of the holes and the required fan power. You can establish ventilation even when it was not originally made. A common mistake is to rely on volley airing and the use of furnace traction to drain air. In principle, such a scheme works, but it has serious drawbacks. So, when opening windows and doors, instead of lowering the temperature, steam is released into adjacent rooms.
It does not go outside, but turns into condensate. Air heating decreases only for a short time, and very soon the bathhouse again becomes uncomfortable. To use the effect of stove draft for ventilation, holes are needed, but they should be done only at the bottom. This will ensure the flow of air from neighboring rooms, where fresh portions will come from outside. The gate and the doors of the furnace itself help to regulate ventilation, to maximize their flow, they are opened to the limit, and partially to cover to weaken (to avoid the intake of carbon monoxide).
A simple calculation can only be done with respect to forced ventilation , and the natural air flow is much more complicated and submits to a number of different factors. Among them, special attention should be paid to the strength and direction of the wind that blow on a particular site. If the outlet is on the side on which strong winds are directed, this can lead to the inflow of mass flowing inside it (the so-called reverse draft effect or its overturning).
Prevention of such a negative phenomenon seems simple - it is lengthening the channels that are displayed in the right direction or applying turns in them. But each turn complicates the work and reduces the rate of exit or intake of air. The solution will be to orient the inflow inlet to the side on which the wind mainly blows when placing the outlet on the opposite side or on the roof (with a high pipe).
It is not worth using a ventilation duct in a block wall ; in such cases, mount it on the inner wall and partition. According to experts, the best duct is one that is built of galvanized pipes. Plastic structures can be mounted with care, carefully assessing the range of temperature permissible for them. The gap from the pipe to the walls of the hole is filled with mineral wool or more modern insulation. Foam helps to eliminate gaps at the inlet and outlet.
The method of attaching ventilation grilles is selected according to the material that serves as the basis. Checking the quality of ventilation is very easy - a fire or a smoking object is brought to the hole. This will further clarify the speed with which air moves. In the dressing room, most often only a hood is placed, supplemented by a fan.
When the furnace furnace is led out to the dressing room, it is necessary to make a special ventilation channel based on galvanized steel, which is passed under the finishing floors and supplies air directly to the furnace door. You need to create a channel before the finish floor is laid. One edge of the pipe is inserted into the hole and fixed in it with foam, clogged with a grill. An adjustable plug is installed on the edge approaching the furnace.
Good ventilation is one that avoids condensation on the ceiling surface. As for the subfloor, work on it begins with the preparation of a cement screed, which is tilted towards the sewer. The foundation is equipped with a pair of holes (in opposite walls, but not directly opposite each other). Air flows should go under the floor along the most intricate paths. The holes are blocked by valves, which will allow you to adjust the pace of the jet in accordance with the current season.
In the bathhouse, which was originally built without floor ventilation, it is required to drill a concrete base down to the ground. This will turn out to be a decent substitute for full drainage when there is no desire to work on installing drain pipes. The ventilated floor must be decorated with lintels, which are used as pipes or a wooden beam with a section of 11x6 or 15x8 cm. Logs are covered with processed and well-polished oak boards.
How to choose?
In a Russian bath, unlike a normal washing, it is necessary to provide the following conditions with ventilation:
- the temperature in the steam room is from 50 to 60 degrees;
- relative humidity - not lower than 70 and not higher than 90%;
- very quick drying of any wooden surface after washing;
- operational reduction of humidity with the exception of drafts and opening doors;
- the same air quality in the steam room as well as in the relaxation room, regardless of the season;
- preservation of all traditional properties of the Russian bath.
No ventilation devices will help to escape from carbon monoxide , if there is a constant flow of carbon monoxide . You will have to continuously monitor the completeness of the combustion of firewood, and only after the attenuation of all the coals, block the chimney. The organization of the flow of air in a chopped log bath occurs through the crowns of the walls.
For obvious reasons, this approach is not suitable for brick construction. When the walls are sheathed with boards or lining, ventilation holes must be used, otherwise the negative effect of dampness will be excessively strong. In most cases, a hole of 200x200 mm will be sufficient for the pipes to go out. The choice of plastic or metal should be made in accordance with a specific project and the operating conditions of the ventilation system.
The foam block bath must be ventilated inside the walls as well. Layers of waterproofing and cladding are separated by a ventilation gap, for external cladding it is 40-50 mm, and inside the bath - 30-40 mm. A typical design involves the use of a crate, which already helps to keep the wall cladding. In addition to wall ventilation, all rooms are equipped with an air intake at the bottom (most often behind the stoves) and an outlet (near the ceiling). The advantage of an active air freshening system is that it can be placed anywhere.
In most cases, the baths of foam blocks are aerated in one gulp manner, that is, while simultaneously opening the front door and the window that is farthest from it. Only a professional calculation will guarantee to find out whether artificial ventilation is needed or if the natural circulation of air is enough.
Components and materials
The fan heater for the bath must have a certain level of thermal protection (not lower than IP44), its body is always made of materials resistant to heating. Modern devices have a very high power and work almost silently, the volume is not more than 35 dB.
In the role of ventilation holes in the attics you can use:
- special windows;
Usually, natural air circulation is used in buildings made of SIP panels. But if in houses you can still come to terms with the constant departure of heat outside, for baths this is categorically unacceptable. Therefore, circuits with reverse heat entry, or, in other words, utilization-type heating plants, are widespread. The use of metal pipes is contraindicated because they create a loud noise and degrade the thermal insulation inside the room. Natural air circulation can be used only for one-story buildings, if two floors or the area is very large, auxiliary devices are needed.
Mechanical valves that are installed during construction or finishing works must be created from plastic or asbestos-cement pipes. As for the lattice for bath ventilation, they need to be clearly divided into outdoor and installed inside. In the first case, it is allowed to use only aluminum structures equipped with a mesh (to prevent clogging) and heating means.
The use of sewer pipes for hoods only seems a strange and unnatural affair. Among all the available options, it is recommended to pay attention primarily to solutions made of polypropylene, PVC and polyethylene. Easy installation (due to rubber sealing of the sockets) and high resistance to destructive substances are the undoubted advantages of such structures. Also, when purchasing accessories for ventilation, you need to pay attention to the properties of the plugs and the characteristics of the chimney.
In winter, it is better to abandon the use of supply fans, because they help draw in too cold air. If the air outside is very dirty, special filters are required. When calculating the required power of ventilation devices, it is worthwhile to focus on the requirement to update all the air in the bath for a maximum of 15 minutes. The supply and exhaust devices are ideally suited to the steam room, but in the dressing room and rest room, you can safely limit yourself to the natural circulation mode. When choosing the locations of vents outside the building, attention must be paid to the aesthetic qualities of the structure, the same requirement applies to outward pipes, to aerator fungi and valves.
If the pool is equipped with a bath, the air in this part should be 2-3 degrees warmer than in other parts of the room, and its humidity should not exceed 55-60%. The use of flexible ducts is considered a much better solution than the use of rigid pipes. Taking into account all these recommendations, you can easily create a ventilation system with your own hands or control specialists.
See how to make ventilation in the bathhouse with your own hands in the next video.