The foundation plan is the most important stage in the construction of any building. Its accuracy and informativeness determine the quality of further work, so it is so important to know the general rules of the plan.
The main reason for developing a project plan for a residential building or industrial structure is the need to fix all the details that may occur during the construction phase. It is important to know all the nuances of work in order to prevent gross errors.
Not all people are able to independently make a construction drawing. In this case, it is better to turn to professionals for help. Any person contacting a construction company and submitting their sketches for drawing up a plan can not only monitor the progress of work, but also take an active part in it. In this case, the customer must pre-negotiate with the executing company the details of cooperation in order to conclude a mutually beneficial agreement.
To create project documentation, you must wait until the completion of the construction plan. To coordinate the project, you need to contact the design company, which will verify its correctness. After that, the customer will receive a complete list of works that will be needed to fill the foundation.
Creating a project, it is necessary to rely on the technical characteristics of the future structure.
In no case should you use someone else's projects of similar designs, since they do not take into account the characteristics of a particular site.
The development of the foundation project should be carried out taking into account all technical standards and design conditions. You must use a special catalog of products and structures that are produced in factories. To facilitate understanding of the project, all stages of project documentation should have serial numbers.
For simplicity and ease of transferring the scheme to the terrain, you must precisely observe the scaling of each part of the plan. Particularly large remote images should have separately specified scales. The overall scaling of the foundation plan should have a ratio of 1: 100, 1: 200, 1: 300 and 1: 400.
To seriously facilitate the transfer of the drawing to the terrain allows axial marking. In this case, the center and extreme axes should be applied not only to the general plan, but also to the remote views and individual elements. To obtain a detailed, accurate drawing, it is important to indicate the distance between the extreme and center axes.
Before the design documentation of the structure is compiled, it is important to determine its purpose. For example, you need to decide whether the foundation will be designed for a residential low-rise building or for a summer cottage.
In a country or private house, the exact number of rooms must be determined. If necessary, the number of premises should include rooms designed for guests. The draft plan should have a detailed drawing of the foundation.
The foundation drawing should include the total weight of the building, the degree of increase in load during operation, and soil features. It is important to indicate the type of soil on which the strength and durability of the future structure depends.
The next stage in the creation of the project is the calculation and indication of all additional buildings on the site. These may include: garage, bathhouse, storage room, outdoor toilet.
A special layout of the location of the foundation is needed by people who want to create a secluded recreation area on their site. It is important for them to place the front facade so that it is hidden from prying eyes by landscape decorations.
Before you complete the creation of a foundation plan, you must specify the necessary land work to eliminate the unevenness of the site. Only after this can we proceed to the preparation of a master plan and drawing a drawing of the base on paper.
Accurate layout and well-designed drawings allow you to carry out construction work with a good saving of effort, money and time. After approval of the building plan, you can immediately prepare a septic tank to more accurately position the building.
Planning different types of foundations
There are several types of foundations that have their own individual characteristics.
For the construction of a residential building, a tape, pile or slab foundation can be used.
Requires reliance on non-porous soil with abducted moisture and compensated by the force of frost heaving. To obtain a durable foundation, you need to find out the composition of the soil and identify the depth of the groundwater in order to make a special calculation of the cross section of the reinforcement and tape.
When creating a plan for supporting a house, you need to specify the cross-sectional configuration, the location of utilities, the type of footing and the depth of the laying of the support . To obtain the most accurate drawing, you must also correctly specify the coordinates and parameters of the reference block. Installation of the base begins with the installation of the reading unit, and only then other elements are attached.
It should consist of a marking of the pile field with an indication of the coordinate axes. In the drawing, the position of all the supports that are necessary to create this type of base should be noted.
The hardest thing to do is grill foundation, since it should consist of a grill installation diagram and explanatory notes about the materials used. However, this type of pile foundation is considered more reliable and durable, since its design allows you to evenly distribute the weight of the building on the support.
It should consist of reinforcement schemes, heat and waterproofing systems. Its installation can be done at a close location to the soil surface, which will avoid the influence of frost swelling of the earth on the structure.
A plan of a monolithic dense foundation should consist of a layout of compacted soil, a special rammed “pillow”, a layer of dornite and concrete , as well as a layer of hydro and thermal insulation. A monolithic slab and a reinforcing belt of a concrete slab are laid on top of waterproofing materials, which should also be indicated on the drawing.
The layout of the tape and pile foundation should consist of sections designed to clarify the plan. On the sections, the support contours, waterproofing layers, the blind area and the dimensions of the ledges should be displayed.
The tape type requires an indication of the levels, including the surface of the earth, the sole of the foundation and the edge.
To simplify the installation of the section, you need to put on the plan open strokes with arrows that indicate the direction of the secant plane.
Dependence on the size of the structure
In order to design the future structure, it is necessary to take into account not only the type of soil and the territorial location of the site, but also the area of the house. The load on the soil depends on the size of the structure. For example, it can be construction on a foundation of 7x9, 9x9 or 10x10 m.
To make the base 7 by 9 m, it is better to use a strip foundation under the house. Before installing it, you need to calculate the minimum area and depth of the concrete support. An ideal condition for the installation of the tape structure is subsidence soil, which is characterized by low natural humidity, dusty composition and high structural strength.
According to the rules of the foundation plan, it is important to indicate all the preparatory work in the project.
To do this, you need to make markings for the structure, on which the boundaries of the trench and the depth of the supports will be indicated. For better strength, the bottom is best made from drainage layers, including crushed stone, sand and water.
The layout of the residential structure should occur with the formation of formwork. For high-quality construction of a house 7x9 or 9x9, it is best to use a trimmed planed board 2.5-3 cm thick and 10-15 cm wide. Such boards will allow you to get a flat base that does not require additional finishing work.
The construction of the formwork should be 40 cm above the level of the trench, and the maximum clearance between the boards should be 0.3 cm. Upon completion of the installation of the formwork, a waterproofing layer should be laid to prevent premature evaporation of moisture and increase the strength of the support.
The support frame for the structure is an integral part of a solid foundation. Therefore, it is preferable to use metal reinforcement with a diameter of 11 mm for it.
The construction plan should include the calculation of the concrete mortar that will be needed to fill the base. Incorrect calculations can lead to a lack of mixture, which will seriously affect the strength and reliability of the foundation.
To prepare a high-quality mortar, it is recommended to use a cement grade of at least M250, coarse or medium sand and crushed stone.
The calculation of the depth of the foundation should be made taking into account the level of freezing of the soil. A small frame building can be erected on screw piles 2.5 m in size, located at a depth of 1.5 m.
But the construction of 10x10 m requires a more solid foundation. For him, it is better to use reinforced concrete supports that can withstand the effects of heaving forces of the soil and are able to prevent deformation of the structure.
In addition to the main documentation attached to the plan for the foundation of the house, you need to include the following documents in the package:
- Consolidated specification, which specifies the requirements for all elements located below the zero mark;
- development and installation plan of precast supports;
- scheme of reinforcing the site, taking into account the load of the building on the base;
- layout of hydro- and heat-insulating layers;
- tables indicating the operational characteristics of the supports of the base;
- data on the location of slopes.
To obtain a reliable and durable foundation, it is necessary to use a qualified approach and accurate calculation. An attempt to save on the development of the project will inevitably lead to the formation of defects, which in the end will require additional cash costs.
See how to create your own home project in the next video.