Hinges are one of the most important door elements. They are needed to grip the door leaf with the frame, and in addition, it is the hinges that provide the ability to open and close doors. As a rule, they are sold together with the door structure. But sometimes there are situations in which the hinges need to be replaced and then it is very important to get the right mechanisms and mount them in a quality manner.
The main function of door hinges is to provide easy opening and closing of any type of door leaf. Another important function of these elements is to ensure the fixation of the entire array in the door frame, therefore, these furniture elements are subject to the highest requirements for quality and reliability.
The higher the quality of these elements, the more long time you will be served interior and entrance installations. For example, if you hang too weak and unreliable loops on a heavy massive structure, then in the near future they will sag very much and simply cease to cope with the tasks assigned to them. Well, and, of course, the hinges should organically fit into the overall canvas and not violate the design concept of the room.
There is a wide variety of door hinges: removable, swinging, frog, spring, with a closer, adjustable, double, double-sided opening and many others. Moreover, the grounds for their classification are:
- place of fixture;
- installation features;
- material used;
- type of main structure.
In the place of fasteners, several types of loops are distinguished.
- Accessories for entrance structures - they are characterized by very high strength, which allows them to withstand the mass of the canvas and significant pure openings and closures. Such models determine the strength of fastening the canvas to the box, since they are entrusted with the function of protecting the shutters from illegal removal from the hinges by intruders - they become an obstacle to penetrate into someone else's apartment building. Traditionally, hidden (hidden) hinges are used for entrance doors.
- Accessories for interior openings - these models are characterized by greater lightness and lower strength than products for entrance openings.
- Right or left hinges are distinguished - the choice in this case directly depends on which direction the door will swing open. If the handle is located on the right side, then the door opens with the left hand to itself - a similar design requires left hinges. And, on the contrary, if the handle is mounted on the right, and the door is opened with the right hand, then right hinges are necessary.
But you should be careful if you purchase a product of European manufacturers, in these countries it is customary to use a different classification - there the technologists are guided not so much by the hand with which the canvas is opened, but by its direction of movement. In addition, the doors there, as a rule, swing open. Thus, if you push the canvas with your right hand and it remains on the corresponding side, then the door is considered to be left.
If you are not particularly confident in your competence - contact your sales consultant for advice - he will help you choose the best hinges for your door.
Important: keep in mind that when buying a new door, you need to make a choice so that the door opening mechanism meets the fire safety requirements. It is proved that in an emergency people start pushing the canvas, rather than pulling themselves. In addition, the doors should not impede the entry / removal of furniture and should not constitute a barrier to exits from all other rooms in the house.
By the method of installation, universal and detachable door hinges are distinguished.
The former are more common, they are cheaper and easier to install, however, are non-separable. From time to time in the house there are situations when you want to remove the entire door. If you fasten it with the help of folding right or left hinges, then simply open the door, raise the main canvas and remove the doors. But if you used universal products, then you will need to unscrew the screws with which they are fixed.
According to the design variant, there are many different options for hinges, and their final choice depends entirely on the characteristics of the door itself. For example, there are products that are optimal for models of wood. Other options are more suitable for plastic, and the third - for metal paintings and even glass. In addition, when buying loops, you should take into account their required number, weight and dimensions of the array itself.
Overhead loops, which are a solid rod and hinges fixed on it, as well as plates that help in installation, are considered more familiar to the domestic user. Most often, both parts of such a model have completely identical plates, however, in recent years the model has been improved - one side has become a little longer, which greatly simplified installation.
Hinges of the "butterfly" type are a more modern version of the hinges, in them one part is cut into the second, and when the door is closed, the plates do not interfere with each other. When closed, a straightened straight surface is achieved in these products, while its thickness fully corresponds to the parameter of a single plate. The installation of such devices does not require special skills and a professional tool, so even a beginner can afford to install this hardware.
The advantages of overhead loops include:
- ease of installation;
- low price;
- long term of operation;
However, there are disadvantages:
- the need for loosening, if necessary, removal of the canvas;
- probability of skew design;
- suitability for fixation only for paintings with low weight;
- requirements for a perfectly aligned surface of the door leaf and the entire door frame.
No less popular mortise models of loops. Outwardly in appearance they are very similar to invoices, and the principle of the structure is similar - card. But the difference lies in the installation method - these hinges cut into the door end, due to which a fairly smooth movement of the canvas and an aesthetic appearance are ensured.
The advantages of these mortise hinges is the ease of installation and their versatility. In addition, for them there is no division into right and left, and the price is quite affordable. Cons are the same as for overhead installations.
Screw-in fittings have quite serious differences compared to the first two models. Here the axis is made in the shape of a cylinder and several pins are attached to it, it is on them that the hinges are attached to the door and the box, and only the hinge remains visible.
As a rule, when mounting such hinges, decorative caps are used for masking, they are selected to match the main canvas and as a result they completely merge with the door.
Such loops are attached to massive canvases. If the door is too small, then the screwed-in mechanisms destroy the wood and cause chips and a significant number of cracks.
The advantages are obvious:
- ease of installation;
- probability of regulation to the desired height;
Cons are also significant:
- such hinges can only be mounted on a quarter-door;
- if it is necessary to remove the door, dismantling of the accessories is required.
Corner plates have a characteristic feature - they are made in the form of angles. Such hinges are truly universal, in particular, they can be used for doors with a narthex. But of the minuses it is worth indicating the lack of the ability to somehow hide them, thus, the general appearance of the door can be ruined.
Secretive loops are in great demand when the canvas in the closed position is invisible. As a rule, they are mounted on the most expensive models of interior doors and mounted inside the canvas itself. Unlike all other models, such hinges are able to withstand heavy doors, but their installation is quite complicated and requires professional skills.
These hinges provide a fairly small opening angle, and this can create some difficulties when moving large furniture. With strong mechanical stress, the loops warp and even wedge. Well, another drawback is the high cost, which is an order of magnitude higher than the prices of other models of loops.
Bilateral hinges are widely used in public complexes, however, if desired, they can be mounted in residential premises. They have a rather peculiar design, which allows you to open the door both from yourself and to yourself.
But their cost is very high, so in homes such accessories are rarely used, and there is no sense in it.
Bearing loops are quite effective - they help to evenly redistribute the mass of the entire canvas. It is based on the principle of using sliding or rolling bearings, such doors move very smoothly due to reduced friction.
The disadvantages of the accessories are in an unattractive design, so most often they are mounted in utility rooms and other unimportant rooms. In addition, if the product is of poor quality, then such loops fail quite quickly.
Traditionally, the height of the door hinges varies from 11 to 15 cm, and the width ranges from 2.7 cm to 3.5. The thickness of the device usually does not exceed 3 mm.
Speaking more constructively, the standard loop sizes can be:
- height: 11 cm, 13 cm, 15 cm;
- width: 2.7 cm, 3 cm, 3.5 cm;
- thickness: 2.5 mm, 2.8 mm, 3 mm.
There are some nuances. So, hinges 11 cm high on each of their cards have 4 small screw holes, hinges 13 and 15 cm high, and wide hinges have 5 holes, which is important to increase the reliability of fastening the hinge in the doorway.
A rather limited list of materials is used to create door hinges.
- Brass - these loops are made by forged casting and are in the greatest demand. Brass doors are characterized by increased strength and good ductility, they withstand a large mass of the door.
- Steel is the most durable and reliable elements, which are distinguished by a long service life and durability. Iron products withstand the most massive doors, so most often they are mounted in the input devices.
- Zinc and aluminum alloys are inexpensive hinges, but they wear out very quickly.
Design and color
In Soviet times, stainless steel hinges were the most common, although at that time they did not look very aesthetically pleasing. Nowadays, products are covered with special anti-corrosion and decorative coatings, which makes them quite attractive, due to which the fashion for steel loops is rapidly returning.
However, the rest of the hinges today are trying to make more aesthetic - they can be black, white, golden, as well as imitating the color and texture of wood in brown shades.
Hinges covered with antique coating are fashionable - such products are often installed in rooms decorated in the style of shabby chic, where there is a large number of vintage furniture and decor items.
That is why everyone can choose the best option for themselves for these devices, which will look as aesthetically pleasing as possible when the door is open.
How to choose?
Door hinges are considered one of the most important elements of the hardware, it is necessary that they correspond to their functional purpose, as well as optimally combined with the decor of the entire door installation.
When buying a door, several key points should be taken into account:
- door leaf parameters: mass, width, and also thickness and height;
- the material from which the door is made;
- door style;
- loop fixation method - right or left;
- door functionality - entrance or interior;
- frequency of use - it can be low, high and medium;
- design features of the end face of the canvas - it can be smooth and seam;
- technical features of fixing the selected model of hinges, characteristic features of the canvas - the door-book, as well as a folding door, traditional.
The most important point when selecting a swing device for a sash is to achieve strength, reliability and high load-bearing capacity of the door connection. When the door hinges are selected incorrectly or installation was carried out with serious violations, their operational life is sharply reduced. That is why even at the stage of selection of accessories, you should have a maximum of information about the parameters of the door structure. It is necessary to correctly calculate the weight group of the sash, which consists of the mass of paintings and all its components.
The number of loops is calculated based on the calculated value according to this principle:
- two levels of fixation for paintings not exceeding a weight of 25 kg;
- for structures weighing 25-60 kg requires the installation of three levels of door hinges;
- Sashes up to 80 kg require the use of four levels of loop fixation at an equal distance.
It should be noted that today the market is full of counterfeit products, because unscrupulous manufacturers create fakes for the most popular brands, but they are similar only in appearance - the quality of such copies leaves much to be desired, they can collapse at any time and last very short.
Experts recommend giving preference to the following manufacturers.
- Palladium is a brand specializing in the production of precision fittings, which guarantees comfortable and high-quality opening and closing of the door. As a rule, this manufacturer produces brass and steel hinges, while the surface is varnished in different shades in two layers.
- Apex - accessories for interior doors are produced under this brand. The standard kit includes both the hinges themselves and the self-tapping screws necessary for their fastening. Products are made of stainless steel and coated with a decorative composition that simultaneously performs protective functions.
- Dr. Hahn - this company implements very attractive door hinges in white, which differ in a number of important operational features:
- the ability to adjust in horizontal and vertical planes;
- ability to withstand loads up to 140 kg;
- universality of use.
How to install?
Features of fastening loops largely depend on the main material from which the canvas is made.
Hinges are replaced in plastic models in a few steps.
- First you need to remove the decorative protective pad.
- Then you should remove the door itself - it is first ajar, and then a fully protruding fragment of the cylinder is drowned with a chipper and pulled out with pliers. Then the canvas is slightly bent to itself, lifted up and to the sides, after which the door can be easily removed.
- Using a hex wrench, the loops themselves are removed by unscrewing.
- A new one is fixed in place of the damaged hardware, it is optimal to choose products of the same manufacturer so that the mounting holes coincide completely.
- After all the hinges are screwed, you need to put the door in its old place - for this purpose, all the work described above is repeated in the reverse order.
Mortise hinges are usually installed on wooden canvases; for this, they first mark out all the seats - they are usually placed 20-30 cm from the upper and lower edges. It is important that there are no chips and knots in this area, if any, it is better to shift the loops a little.
After this, it is necessary to cut a recess under the loop, while its depth should completely correspond to the thickness indicator of the plate, and a loop is attached to it. Doors made of metal suggest the use of welding when installing hinges.
From the following video you will learn how to choose door hinges and how they differ.