Saw is one of the most ancient hand tools, without which it is impossible to imagine cutting wood, as well as many other modern sheet materials. Moreover, today such a device, due to a significant increase in the variety of materials available for processing, has become so diverse that you do not always recognize a saw in an unknown unit.
What it is?
Hand tools, whose blade was originally made of flint, first appeared in the VII millennium BC. With the development of metal smelting, that version of a hand saw appeared that everyone probably saw - he does not need an introduction. However, today there are quite a few varieties of this tool with a specific structure, and the only thing that unites them is that, unlike a knife and most other cutting devices, they usually do not have a solid point, but consist of numerous teeth or incisors of a different type. Usually their shape resembles an elongated classic saw, but the same circular model assumes their circular arrangement on a special replaceable disk.
True, there are toothless models that use diamond spraying on a standard “knife” tip.
Moreover, in some cases, the abrasive part is not attached at all to the tool itself - as such, sand or corundum powder, as well as iron oxide or metal balls can be used.
In addition to the familiar carpentry handsaw, you can distinguish a lot of other varieties of sawing tools that differ in appearance, principle of operation and purpose, most of which are electric. Consider at least the most basic.
Saber electric saw is one of the most popular today, as it is universal, allowing you to perform different types of sawing. Its working part, as the name implies, looks like an ordinary saber, and the electric motor makes it move back and forth at a considerable speed. This type of tool is suitable for both home use and industrial use.
A circular or circular saw is used mainly for cutting wood, however, there are special models with the ability to cut thin sheet metal, tile and some other materials. Sawing is carried out by a replaceable circular nozzle in the form of a disk, which each time is selected in accordance with the material that they plan to cut. The cutting disk is covered with teeth on all sides at equal intervals, cutting is carried out thanks to the rapid rotation of such a nozzle, and therefore the tool does not require energy consumption during the reverse stroke of the saw - the latter is simply not there.
A certain drawback of the circular saw is that it cuts strictly in a straight line, however, for jobs where curly cutting is not required, this is the optimal solution, given the performance of the unit.
A chain saw can be powered by an electric motor, which is still relatively rare, and by a gasoline engine. The name of the tool explains the principle of its operation - here, sawing is performed not by a certain serrated blade, but by a metal chain, which rotates at high speed around an elongated case, somewhat imitating a mechanical hand saw. It is this version of the unit that is most convenient for rough cutting of thick wood, because with the help of chainsaws trees are often felled. An additional advantage is that in many cases this tool works on gasoline, that is, it is independent of the outlet, which allows it to be used in the forest, far from civilization.
At the same time, low-power models are also intensively used in personal plots.
A frame saw is a tool that can only be used on a professional sawmill, but such an enterprise certainly will not do without it. As the name implies, such a device requires a frame, while the frame saw itself resembles a jigsaw file, only repeatedly increased in size. Such a blade is fixed in a vertical position, and its dimensions allow you to saw an array of wood of almost any thickness - it is usually used for cutting whole trunks.
A radial cantilever saw can be considered a circular type, since a saw wheel is also used here as a replaceable cutting nozzle, but it is much more multifunctional. In fact, this is not even a tool, but a small machine, since the unit is either mounted on a table or is equipped with it initially, although if necessary it can even be mounted on a wall. A key feature of the device is its ability to rotate the cutting disc, due to which the cutting can be carried out at different angles, providing a combined result in the process of sawing wood.
Among other things, a workbench based on a radial-cantilever saw can be equipped with additional devices that open up possibilities for drilling, milling or grinding of material.
Vibration saws in their pure form are not found today - more precisely, manufacturers do not call them that, preferring to focus on the multifunctionality of the device in question. Such a unit is often called an electric chisel, because it can perform the functions of its manual counterpart, but in good performance. Such an aggregate is more often used as a simultaneous alternative for grinders, grinders and jigsaws. The advantage of this tool is precisely its versatility, since it, knowing how to perform different functions, simply cannot be limited to just one material - it can be used to cut both wood and metal, replacing nozzles in a timely manner.
A miter saw with a broach is often called an angle cutter, which largely explains the scope of application of such a tool. The use of the unit is possible only for very specific tasks, consisting in cutting material at a strictly specified angle without the slightest deviation. Interchangeable nozzles make the choice of material for cutting almost unlimited - such a device cuts wood and plastic, aluminum and polyurethane, laminate and hardboard. A feature of trimming is its ability to very accurately and accurately cut, and therefore it is used even for processing very thin parts such as battens or skirting boards.
For home use, such a tool is unlikely to be useful, but for a professional in the field of repair or manufacturing of furniture it will be indispensable.
The precision saw in terms of the set of tasks performed is very similar to the miter saw described above, however, it assumes a slightly different scheme for performing the task. The exact angle in this case is usually set using the built-in aluminum miter box. The unit allows the possibility of an inclined cut both in the vertical and in the horizontal plane. Additional rigidity necessary for the stable position of the fixed workpiece is ensured by the reliable design of the body in the form of a frame.
Stone saws are usually divided into a separate category , since it is this material for cutting that is the hardest, and therefore the bulk of the saw tool is not suitable for solving such problems.
In this case, the stone tool usually takes the form of one of the saws described above, however, it involves the use of special nozzles and is never used for processing other sheet materials.
In many cases, a novice consumer who does not have much experience working with saws from different manufacturers prefers to navigate the market using familiar names of manufacturers. Since the saws are evaluated solely for their own performance and quality, without any additional characteristics, targeting brands tested by millions makes sense - professionals cannot be mistaken in why they buy such a tool.
If the consumer understands that it’s not worth sparing money for good quality, then you should pay attention primarily to products manufactured in the Western world - for example, brands such as Bosch, Makita, DeWalt. In their case, the cost, which, indeed, is quite high, is due to the good build quality and reliable materials. Large manufacturers of world renown for decades worked on their own reputation, because they simply can not afford to destroy it with the release of low-quality products.
If, for some objective reason, the saw is still out of order, the same capabilities of large companies allow them to place an authorized service center somewhere close to the client.
Domestic brands have similar advantages in terms of proximity to service centers, for example, Zubr or Interskol. Moreover, due to the relatively low export, the products of domestic companies are oriented mainly to the domestic consumer, therefore, service centers are much more common. Due to the proximity of the manufacturer and relatively low salaries, Russian equipment usually costs less and can be adapted to our conditions - for example, it can withstand severe frosts more easily. At the same time, one should not forget that Russian saws, although they are good, never reach the level of production of world brands, and in the case of little-known companies, they may even be a waste of money.
As for the Chinese-made saws, which have flooded the world market in recent decades, everything is ambiguous here. Our consumer is accustomed to the fact that Chinese goods usually do not shine with high quality, but they also cost a penny, which still forces the buyer not to pass by.
At the same time, one cannot but admit that the Chinese have learned to produce good products in recent years, especially since the production of many famous brands is still located in China. The problem is that eminent saws, even made in China, are like Western ones, and local brands are often short-lived and do not really care about the recognition of their trademark, which makes choosing an inexpensive but good saw difficult.
It should be noted separately that specific industrial types of saws can be produced by special companies, whose names will not say anything to a simple layman. This happens for the reason that these firms are not engaged in the production of anything else, but because of the small size of the market they may have virtually no competitors.
Accordingly, choosing expensive professional narrow-profile equipment, it will not be entirely correct to focus on the untwisted names.
How to choose?
The choice of a particular kind of saw, as was seen above, depends on what tasks it needs to be solved with its help, since the different categories of such a tool are far from always interchangeable. For this reason, we will focus on some other criteria.
When choosing an electric saw, pay attention to the power source. Immediately make a reservation that saws that do not use electricity are rare today, and we are talking about either a low-power hand tool or gasoline - with high power, but a characteristic smell and a deafening roar. As for the electrical units, they are usually powered either from the mains or from the battery. Networked desktop models always give higher power, in the conditions of daily work in the workshop, they will be in priority. Cordless saws are somewhat limited in assortment; they are designed with an eye on mobility, therefore they cannot be large. Their use is most convenient outside the workshop - directly at the facility.
When choosing a battery model, note that there are different types of batteries. Previously, nickel-cadmium batteries were used that were resistant to low temperatures, but today their use has declined due to the fact that they are heavy and require regular full discharges before charging, without which they quickly reduce the maximum charge. Nickel-metal hydride batteries are an advanced variety of nickel-cadmium batteries, all the disadvantages of their predecessor are somewhat reduced, and yet they are all more or less expressed, and the cost has become higher. Modern lithium-ion batteries can be charged at any time, they are relatively light and do less harm to the environment, but the problem is their increased cost, as well as an accelerated discharge process in cold weather.
Given all of the above, many manufacturers complete their cordless saws with two different types of batteries at once.
If the model you like will have only one battery, choose it based on potential working conditions.
Saw - a tool that is potentially traumatic, therefore its operation should always be carried out in strict accordance with the instructions. The latter must be read carefully and completely before you first start the device. Particular attention should be paid to security issues - these recommendations should be listened with utmost care.
To avoid premature failure of the device, you need to understand how to adjust it.
You should understand for what tasks this tool is suitable, and for which it is not, and never try to use it for other purposes.
For each individual case, you need to specifically set the settings if the model assumes multifunctionality. Adjustment is always made with the engine turned off; it is strictly forbidden to make any changes to the work directly during its execution.
Most manufacturers are categorically opposed to "amateur" repairs, and they are right - inept intervention can do even more harm. Even if you can, remember that opening the lid yourself will void the factory warranty on the unit.
Each saw has its own characteristics of work, therefore, it is not always possible to immediately and accurately determine why the tool jams. However, we will consider several basic problems when working with such units.
Many owners are confused that the tool heats up during operation. It is impossible to completely avoid this - the working surface is heated first of all from friction, and if the unit works for a long time, then the heating can spread to the engine. Expensive tools have a cooling system that partially compensates for the problem, while cheap ones just need to be turned off periodically to avoid overheating as a normal phenomenon.
If the unit heats up much faster than it did before, then either the cooling system broke down, or you threw too hard wood or other material that this engine in combination with a saw simply would not take.
Chainsaws often stall when you press the gas and do not start, but this problem is not so simple to solve - there can be quite a few potential reasons. In some cases, the problem is solved by simply replacing gasoline with a better one - it is usually advised to start the diagnosis from this. Oil is also important (it is advisable to use what the manufacturer recommended), in addition, both liquids should not be stored for too long before use.
Sometimes the mixture pours a candle during operation - it is pretty easy to check, and if the suspicion is confirmed, the latter needs to be dried in fresh air for about half an hour, after draining the excess fuel. If even this did not help, then the reason may lie in the absence of a spark - then either the candle does not contact the wire or the electronic ignition unit has broken.
With an increase in power, the chainsaw stalls if the carburetor jets or fuel filter are clogged - in both cases, the fuel is simply not supplied enough.
Failure can also be a clogged air filter, due to which the fuel-air mixture does not form correctly.
In fact, the problem is so global that theoretically its cause could be the failure of absolutely any part of the motor. Numerous reviews show that inept attempts to disassemble the engine and repair it without the appropriate knowledge only make it worse, so if possible, contact the service center, and do not repair the unit yourself.
See the following video for an overview of one of the saw models.