Today, a wood-burning fireplace is not only a source of heat. This is a peculiar object of decorative decoration of cabinets and living rooms, not inferior in importance to other elements of the interior. A wood burning fireplace is very popular among owners of cottages and country mansions.
Classic wood-burning fireplaces are designs in which the firebox is made as a niche made of heat-resistant material. In addition, it is open in the direction of the room. The device has a chimney in its design, which helps to remove combustion products from the room, as well as creating the traction necessary to maintain fire.
The fireplace portal can have a “P” -shaped or “D” -shaped form. For its manufacture, brick or stone is usually used.
Due to some characteristics, wood-burning devices managed to take root only in private houses, which are usually located outside the city.
First of all, this is due to the fuel used in them. The use of a fireplace in the apartment is not possible due to non-compliance with fire safety rules. And for storage of firewood, too much space is required. But in the private sector, especially outside the city, wood structures can create a unique atmosphere of home comfort, become an additional heat source for the home and even a place for cooking.
Traditional wood-burning fireplaces can vary both in the decoration of the external walls and in the type of firebox, its location, the method of heat transfer and the type of radiation. From the whole variety of varieties of traditional fireplaces that use firewood as fuel, you can choose the one that suits you as much as possible. It is important to know in advance what types of devices exist and what are their differences. Classification by mounting technology.
This is a stand-alone structure adjacent to the wall. Such fireplaces can be installed already in the rebuilt house. It is attached to a wall made of fireproof building materials. The chimney is also placed on the wall.
Fireplaces of a similar design usually have considerable weight and solid dimensions.
They are installed exclusively in spacious rooms , the floor and walls of which are capable of withstanding a significant load. Wall-mounted device portals are finished with ceramic tiles, brick, wild or natural stone.
They are erecting at the stage of construction, repair work or modernization of the house. Part of the chimney and firebox are built into the masonry of the wall itself.
These fireplaces are small-sized, therefore they can fit in bedrooms and small offices. The facade of the furnace is lined with a border in half a brick, trimmed with all kinds of decorative materials.
They are localized in the corner of the room, which is very interesting in terms of the decoration of the room. The chimney of the fireplace "hides" in any of the walls. An open fragment of the furnace is made of light blocks, steel, concrete. The surface is covered with plaster, faced with brick, wild stone and other materials.
These are detached structures. In the center of the room erect a flat platform (base). It can be closed or open type. The base passes into the smoke chamber (smoke collector) associated with the chimney.
The coefficient of thermal return of these fireplaces is low , and the structure takes up a lot of space. The main difference is the originality of the performance.
They are one of the modifications of island type fireplaces. They are not tied to the floor, but as if hanging from the ceiling. Hanging devices are usually made of iron, which is the lightest material. The combustion chamber can be closed or open type.
Modifications of fireplaces to destination
Along with traditional brick or natural stone fireplaces, there are other patterns.
Modification of the fireplace system, combining the functionality of the stove and the enchanting, attractive force of the fireplace. Often, such heating devices are equipped with two furnaces and two chimneys. Due to this, they can be heated both together and separately.
They build fireplace stoves in dachas, in garden buildings , where it is necessary not only to heat the room, but also to cook. Heating devices operate on wood fuel briquettes or firewood.
They are similar in structure to traditional home fireplaces. They are built of stone, blocks made of concrete, brick, marble (the material is selected depending on the climatic zone).
In chimneys of outdoor devices, a slide gate is not provided.
The main purpose of such devices is the design of landscape architecture, the formation of a home environment.
This is the outdoor fireplace version. An autonomous hearth, not associated with residential buildings, is being built for cooking on the street. Barbecue fireplaces equipped with grill, smokehouse, hob, hob, sink, cutting table, proper place for kitchen utensils are in demand.
To minimize the influence of atmospheric phenomena (rain, snow) on the fireplace structures, they are arranged in gazebos, garden houses of open type, under visors.
Fireplaces are decorative
We are talking about bio-fireplaces, false fireplaces, electric fireplaces, namely, those devices that do not require chimneys. Their main purpose is room decoration. They can be made of a wide variety of materials.
Modifications of fireplaces by type of combustion chamber:
- Open fireplaces. The firebox of such fireplaces can be open from one, 2, 3 or all 4 sides (island variations). Traditional heating devices are equipped with a firebox open on one side. Devices with an open firebox retain the romanticism of antiquity, the attractiveness of an open flame. They require systematic maintenance, special care, compliance with safety regulations, and require access to a large amount of oxygen.
- Fireplaces closed. The firebox of such devices is covered with heat-resistant glass or a fireplace door.
Classification by type of thermal radiation:
- One-way heat dissipation devices have a traditional design. The firebox is open on the front side, and the remaining three walls of the chamber are made with a slope. Such a design increases the thermal return of the fireplace.
- Bilateral (with bilateral heat emission). Such devices look, of course, extraordinary.
In terms of operation, they have several flaws:
- a large heat dissipation surface requires a larger volume of air;
- in front of the fuel chamber of such fireplaces it is necessary to build a protection of a larger size;
- the reflecting area of the firebox is reduced, so too little heat is supplied to the room.
- Three-sided (with 3-sided heat dissipation). Open fire from 3 sides makes such structures very interesting. But their protection should be 3-sided. Thermal return in fireplaces with 3-sided heat radiation is negligible, since heat radiation propagates only from a single reflecting plane.
- Quadrilateral (with 4-sided heat dissipation). Fireplaces are open from all sides. Therefore, usually they play the role of decoration, without heating the room.
Classification of fuel used:
- Wood burning - a traditional type of fireplaces with a firebox, a portal and a chimney. It is advisable to do it at the stage of building a house. Professionals should erect such constructions, since omissions can provoke the appearance of smoke in the room, ignition and other unpleasant moments.
Firewood fireplaces require continuous cleaning.
Aeration of the room is also of great importance to them. A wood burning fireplace is perfect for a place in a country house. But you need to consider a place for storing auxiliary equipment and firewood.
- Gas devices have a good thermal return, quickly ignite. There is no need for a chimney. The pipe is discharged into open air or into a gas pipeline.
Blue fuel fireplaces are safer, and their cost is lower than the price of wood fireplaces. The gaseous fuel burner is controlled in auto mode. Imitation of the original fireplace is realized by means of ceramic decorative firewood, which glows red during the combustion process.
Such devices can also be installed in the apartment, but it is necessary to obtain a permit document from the gas service. In addition, the installation of such devices should be done by gas workers.
- Electric fireplaces are used to decorate interiors, and not for space heating. This is an excellent example for a city apartment. They operate from an electric network, are not dangerous in application.
The small weight of the device, the lack of a chimney, and easy installation make independent installation available (without the involvement of specialists). They do not need to be cleaned, rake ash from the furnace.
- Cassette type. Its name is associated with design features, it has a special cassette - a steel firebox covered with glass. A closed firebox allows the device to be used indoors because it is fireproof. As advantages, high functionality and a short chimney can be noted. It is possible to use the long burning mode.
- Biofireplaces - ready-made decorative devices that operate on ethanol or wine alcohol. A steel burner is mounted on the bottom of the housing, into which fuel is poured. The fireplace is ignited using a specialized lighter or a long match. Another name for biofireplaces is ecofireplaces. They are completely harmless to human health.
- Pellet fireplaces must be assigned to a separate category, because their structure and type of fuel used have their own characteristics. Pellet devices are made of cast iron or iron. During the finishing works in most cases glass and ceramics are used.
Fireplaces are arranged as follows:
- pellet burner;
- temperature sensors;
- ignition unit;
- several electric motors and a control unit;
- compartment for fuel pellets and ash;
- chimney pipe.
The granules are loaded into a mounted tank. The duration of the operation of the fireplace depends on the capacity of the tank.
In auto mode, pellets are portioned into the firebox. There, a specialized device pumps air, creating conditions for a flame. In the lower zone of the casing there is an ash pan where ash is poured.
In such devices, you can adjust the power, temperature, time of actuation and shutdown. For individual modifications, you can connect heating radiators.
The construction of a fireplace in the home is a responsible matter, which requires special skills and craftsmanship. Given that this unpretentious design will be the center of attention of residents and guests of the house, close attention is paid to the location and design decoration of the fireplace.
Fireplace decoration can be:
- from ceramic tiles.
For facing electric and false fireplaces in the living room, specialized niches are made of gypsum plaster.
A business card of a fireplace is a portal that is always directed to the center of the room.
Portal design can be:
- from wild and rubble stone.
Authentic examples of fireplace craftsmanship, which later become the pride of the home, are created by professionals from the above materials. Such foci contribute to creating a peaceful environment that brings warmth and comfort to the owners and their guests.
Among the Russian manufacturers of wood fireplaces, one can distinguish the Meta trademark, which interacts with foreign companies. The company offers an extensive selection of high-quality portals that are distinguished by their configuration and price.
Any fireplaces and stoves manufactured by Belarus "Teplodar" will become not only an interesting decoration of the room, but also an excellent unit for heating the home. The company produces appliances with a capacity of 6-12 kW.
Among foreign manufacturers, one can distinguish Finnish fireplaces of Harvia, Tulikivi and NunnaUun companies .
Tips & Tricks
Firebox is the main element of the fireplace. After all, firewood burns here, the main heat comes from here. The main task of the firebox is to maintain configuration and integrity at high temperatures. They can be made of brick, cast iron or iron, it depends on the device.
If your task is to heat the house with this device, then you should choose a firebox with heat-accumulating components that will warm the room even after the fire is extinguished. Separate wood stoves are even equipped with a water heating circuit.
If you look at the structure of devices in private houses in detail, you need to pay close attention to chimneys.
They come in two configurations:
- straight chimney - the most popular type of hood, which is mounted directly during the construction of the house;
- an inclined chimney is a forced form, which is used if you have to install a fireplace in an already built building. This form makes it possible to connect to an existing ventilation system.
For the draft to be normal, the chimney must be above the standard stove pipe.
If it is round, this will reduce resistance and prevent the formation of a dense coating of soot. The whole system functions due to different saturation of hot smoke and outdoor atmosphere. The rarefaction area draws smoke from the chimney.
The task of the chimney is to eliminate combustion products from the room: soot, carbon monoxide and smoke. It is important to ensure that all joints of bricks or pipes in the hood are properly sealed. Only this way provides good traction.
Another condition for a good exhaust is the correct tip (upper part) of the chimney pipe. The most you can apply is a rain deflector. Excessive gravity to decorations can adversely affect the functioning of the chimney.
An important element is the grate. Usually this is a massive cast iron grate, it is placed on the bottom of the hearth. Firewood is placed on top of it. As the ash burns, it crumbles through the grate, without interfering with the systematic distribution of fire.
Beautiful examples in the interior
The most popular is the classic portal. For the most part, it integrates into the wall and has a U-shaped configuration. Simple and expressive lines, symmetry are inherent in him. False columns, bas-reliefs and ornament can be used as decorations.
Designers advise building a special shelf above the fireplace, where statuettes, small objects and vases will flaunt. For registration, you can use granite, marble. Forged lattices will become an additional decoration.
Pay attention to country style or rustic style (rough natural beauty).
Such portals have a D-shaped configuration along with small or medium parameters. An indispensable accessory for such a fireplace is a wooden beam above the firebox, on which a variety of small objects are located.
Above the structures in a rustic style, you can place a casing. He will play only a decorative role. This style contains a wall or corner portal of brick. For cladding, sandstone or shell rock is used.
The loft style became popular in the 60-70s of the last century. It is characterized by large rooms with walls without plaster and high ceilings. In rooms with such an interior, an island-style iron fireplace with glass doors will look great. Keep in mind that this style does not provide abundant comfort. As a result, the room should have a minimum of furniture and a maximum of free space.
Minimalism is also modern.
Unlike the previous project, such an interior involves straight lines, focus on details and the right color schemes. In this room, fireplaces with a neat shape and color, as well as glass and metal devices, will be coordinated.
The structure of the modern high-tech style contains structures of chrome, steel, heat-resistant glass and plastic. The portal can be of any configuration. Often in such a device, only the rear wall remains opaque. High-tech wood burning devices are an original version, which is implemented to order.
See the next video for more on a wood burning fireplace.