The facade of the house is the visiting card of the owners. And if you decide to distinguish your house from others, then you should pay attention to its stone cladding, since even a modest house with a stone facade attracts much more enthusiastic looks than a three-story cottage. Stone decor gives the house a more presentable and luxurious look, which indicates the taste, lifestyle and style of the owner. Therefore, we can state with full confidence that the stone cladding is unparalleled.
Stone has been used in the construction of houses for hundreds of years. And today, facing stone occupies a leading position among the methods of decorating the facade of a house, second only to popular stucco. Besides the fact that the stone facade has an attractive and original appearance, it also gives additional strength and extends the life of the walls.
The stone facade has been at the peak of popularity for many years and there are many reasons for this:
- A variety of materials - today builders and designers offer natural and artificial finishing materials.
- A wide variety of shapes and colors - modern finishing materials are available in various forms: rectangular or square tiles, stripes, solid plates.
- Eco-friendly material - natural and artificial stone is absolutely safe for humans.
- Original appearance - a stone facade is able to give the building majesty and grace. The beauty of the natural pattern makes the facade a unique work of art.
- The ability to clad the house in whole or in part - in any case, the facade will look more advantageous against the background of neighboring buildings.
- Increases fire safety - the stone does not support the combustion process and does not spread fire.
- Practicality and reliability - the facade stone is resistant to high humidity, temperature extremes and mechanical stress. In addition, an additional layer of stone extends the life of the external walls and the building itself.
- Additional soundproofing.
- Increases thermal insulation - natural stone also serves as an additional thermal insulation layer. In such a house it’s cool in summer and warm in winter.
- Easy to maintain - the stone facade does not need to be polished and painted.
- Durability - it will last for many years.
Types of materials
All materials are divided into two groups: natural and artificial. Natural materials are cut into small plates and natural stone is processed and calibrated.
The front part is left embossed, and the wrong side is made flat to simplify the installation process.
Among the most popular natural stones for facade cladding are:
It has a rich color scheme and is one of the most expensive finishing materials. For facade cladding most often used is marble of medium density, polished. In direct sunlight, this gives the surface a deeper and more saturated color.
Also applies to the high-end segment of materials. When decorating the facade, both polished (glossy) and unpolished (matte) stone are used. Manufacturers offer granite in various sizes. The most popular are large slabs and medium-sized paving stones.
There are three types of granite:
- plagiogranite - has a predominantly light gray hue;
- Alaskite - has a pink tint;
- porphyry granite - is something in between other species and has a pink hue with small light gray spots.
Granite is not affected by any climatic factors.
But in addition to a large number of advantages, it also has disadvantages - this is a large cost of material and an impressive weight.
It can have any shape - from classical rectangular and square to polygonal. The material may have a relief chipped surface or undergo grinding and have a matte smooth side. Most often, the stone has a white and yellow color.
Limestone can be called a plastic and malleable material, during processing it can be given any shape. As the facing material, only limestone with a calcite content of up to 98% is used, which indicates a high strength and reliability of the stone. Not without reason the Egyptians used it for the construction of the pyramids. But limestone is not suitable for a sharply continental climate. When changing seasons, high humidity and temperature changes, the stone can be destroyed.
A beautiful stone with a blue, red or yellow pattern. It is a strong and reliable finishing material, which is not afraid of climate change.
An inexperienced person can confuse with limestone. Both stones are similar in both color and size. The stone is slightly rough to the touch and may have a beige, yellow or brown tint. Sandstone is considered a more durable and reliable material.
There are 4 types of stone:
- shell rock;
But for the facade cladding, only the first two types are suitable: oolitic and pisolitic sandstone. A shell rock and lithographic are used for the construction of buildings. Slate - has a smooth and flat surface.
Compared to other natural materials, it has less weight, which allows it to be used also for internal work.
It has a smooth and flat surface. Compared to other natural materials, it has less weight, which allows it to be used also for internal work.
Modern manufacturers have allowed to bring the facade cladding to a new level. Artificial stones may not look completely different from natural materials and are not inferior to them in terms of durability and strength. And at the same time they have significantly less weight, which allows not to carry out additional work to strengthen the facade. And besides, working with facing panels is many times simpler and faster.
Strong and reliable analogues have filled the entire construction market. And manufacturers do not give any doubts about the durability of artificial stones - a guarantee of up to 100 years is provided for some types of alternative materials.
Clinker brick or tile can imitate both brick and chipped stone.
The basis of the material is clay. After formations, the stone undergoes high-temperature processing and is burned in a furnace at a temperature of 1200 ° C, which allows to achieve great strength and reliability of the material. In addition, clinker tiles have high frost resistance, durability and resistance to UV rays.
In the production of stone from concrete, high-strength grade cement is poured into the mold and compacted on a vibrating table. An artificial stone made of concrete can be given any color even at home. Experts also recommend covering the stone with reinforcing soil for three years. Thus, it will last about 30 years.
The production process of architectural stone is no different from concrete. Only in this case, high-strength white cement is used. An architectural stone can have any shape, repeating delicate details and curved lines. Most often, architectural stone is used to partially decorate the facade and is located near doors, window openings, and also under the roof.
Polymer sand panels are based on polymers and sand.
In this case, sand is used more for shading and saving than for strength.
Synthetic resin panels perfectly imitate natural stone. Synthetic resins are used as a bonding material, and the basis of the panel includes dust and crumbs of natural stone, which allow you to create a surprisingly beautiful natural pattern.
Flexible stone - a modern coating with excellent imitation of stone in color, pattern and texture. Facing flexible coating is done manually and quarry sandstone is best suited for this. The flexible stone includes a natural stone slice, so that at first glance the fixed coating does not differ from natural stone. A small layer of natural material with a thickness of not more than 3 mm is applied to the outside of the fabric surface. The finished coating combines the advantages of a natural and decorative material. The unique structure of the flexible stone is lightweight, has excellent moisture resistance and fire resistance.
Colors and Design
Stone decor perfectly complements many architectural styles and trends. A “wild” stone with a unique pattern allows you to create an excellent composition on the facade. This is possible due to the laborious work of extracting and preparing the material for the cladding. To do this, large stone slabs are split into a large number of smaller parts.
The composition and structure of the stone is influenced by all natural factors: rain, snow, wind, sun.
Depending on the specific climate zone, organic and inorganic substances are formed. Therefore, all stones are unique in their own way - they have different sizes and shapes, torn edges and a rough surface. By harmoniously combining colors and textures, you can create the most unusual combinations and variations of the cladding.
As you know, the color palette creates a mood and affects the perception. Natural stones have a beautiful pure color and many different shades. Natural and artificial lighting affects stone perception in different ways.
Therefore, when choosing the color of the cladding, it is worth observing several rules:
- The architectural style of the house affects the color of the building. Evaluate the appearance of the building and try to choose the right palette. So, for example, in the classical style it is unacceptable to use bright and catchy colors, which will perfectly complement the style of modern solutions. Sophisticated architecture will look much more impressive in a neutral and calm palette.
- In most cases, it is wiser to choose light shades: white, soft beige and other milky tones. They are harmoniously combined with the natural landscape all year round.
- Yellow, green, blue and other nature-related colors look cozy and rainbow on the facade.
- Gray belongs to the category of neutral tones and goes well with other colors. Gray color is not always associated with longing and gloom; it is great for the facade of a house in the style of a medieval castle or fortress.
- But you should think carefully before using a dark palette. It is best suited for houses of simple shapes. The main feature of dark colors is that they attract the sun's rays, so on a hot day the lining will quickly heat up, which will cause the artificial surface to fade and lose its saturated color.
- And although bright and saturated colors visually increase the area and highlight the house against the background of other buildings, they also quickly change color in direct sunlight.
- When decorating the facade, you can combine several shades. Shades of one palette are well combined, for example, from dark brown to beige.
- Perhaps one of the most popular options is a combination of rich red and brown in suburban construction. Brick color blends perfectly with white window frames and a dark roof. These colors are great for simple architecture buildings.
- And to give a finished look to the site, you can decorate the porch, stairs, paths and sections with stone. Stone veneer is perfect for this. It is a sheet with a relief surface. The veneer has a rich color gamut and texture, so it can be suitable for combination with any facing material.
- You can also use stone decor in the interior. For use indoors, a “ragged” stone is ideally suited, which undergoes additional processing at the factory. On the front side, the stone retains a relief surface and a natural pattern, and on the reverse side it has a smooth surface to facilitate installation work.
How to choose?
Facing stone allows you to embody any bold design decisions and ideas in the design of the facade. All facing materials differ in strength, external characteristics and resistance to various factors. And in this case it is impossible to select the best stone.
For the cladding of private houses, limestone, sandstone, slate and artificial stones are mainly used.
And for the decoration of the basement and first floors of administrative buildings, granite or marble is most often used. When choosing a facing material, you must first focus on your wishes and needs, which may be related to the appearance of the stone, its cost or other factors.
When decorating the facade with cladding material, it is also worth paying attention to the rest of the elements:
- window frames;
- garage door;
- the stairs.
Also, facing stone can be used not only for exterior decoration, but also for interior decoration. But like any finishing material, the stone undergoes production processing, after which the material receives the necessary structure:
- “Rock” - maximally preserves the natural texture. Such a stone is harmoniously combined with forged metal elements.
- Buchardovanny - on the surface of the stone traces from point strong impacts are formed.
- Sanded - as the name implies, the surface of the stone has a flat and smooth texture.
- Glazed - looks similar to polished, but has a matte finish.
- Polished - has a shiny glossy, almost mirrored surface.
- Sawn - has a rough surface. This decor is perfect for a log home.
Of course, natural stone is not cheap, in addition, half of the total cost of the material is processing and calibration. Of course, the money spent will pay off over time, since natural stone can last about 100 years. But you can also use artificial stone for cladding without embarrassment.
The price of decorative materials is much lower and easier to work with than with natural ones. But if you still decide to choose natural stone for the facade, then listen to the reviews, entrust the work of the facing to experienced specialists.
Varieties of masonry
Choosing the right finishing option is necessary taking into account the style of the house and the plot. The type of facade of the house depends on the selected type of masonry.
Lining with a die allows you to get a natural natural pattern and is considered the most affordable way of masonry.
Most often, natural raw materials are used: sandstone, slate, limestone and some types of dolomite. The cost of such masonry is practically no different from facing with artificial materials.
Before laying, additional processing of the material is not required, which allows you to create a picture closer to the natural style.
- The difficulty of laying with a die is to select different materials in size so that no gaps form between the elements.
- Cast in translation from English means "castle". With this masonry, the cladding should be as close as possible to the medieval castle. Excellent for this type of masonry is sandstone, slate, limestone, marble, granite. And you can also use more affordable artificial materials. For such a masonry, stones of a rectangular shape 5x10 cm in size with uneven and chipped sides are best suited. The sizes of stones can be different, but a prerequisite - the shape must be rectangular.
- Plateau is a figured way of masonry, which has nothing to do with natural natural pattern. The stone can have a rectangular or square shape, and for the convenience of masonry its edges are processed. The side of the stone should be a multiple of 5. But the laying process is complicated by the fact that it is necessary to adjust and distribute stones of different shapes so that the lined facade looks complete and stylish. Often the type of masonry plateau is used in the decoration of the basement, windows and corners of the building.
- When laying the shahriar, all elements are rectangular in shape, which greatly facilitates the masonry process. The edges of each element have a border, which is a distinctive feature of this masonry. The surface of the stone can be embossed, polished or smooth. But after polishing, the stone is more like a brick, so stones with a natural unprocessed surface are very popular. Even a novice will cope with this way of masonry, all the difficulty is only in laying the first layer evenly, after that the process of work will be much easier.
- Assol - for such masonry thin elongated rectangular plates are used. They can be made of both natural and artificial stone. Most often, slate and sandstone are used as the basis. Facing the wall with Assol masonry creates the illusion of a massive massive facade. But installation work takes a lot of time and effort, since each stone has its own thickness, it is not so easy to create a harmonious composition with an even number of rows.
- Rondo is an unusual type of styling in a marine style. For cladding, pebbles or other river stones of rounded shape of different sizes are used. The material does not undergo additional processing and is used in its original form. Finishing the entire wall with masonry of the rondo is rare, most often the lining of small areas on the facade is used: doorways, windows, porch and basement. The masonry process of rondo is much simpler than other options. First of all, large stones are attached to the facade, and then smaller elements are fixed in small openings and crevices.
To make an estimate and calculate the approximate cost of work, it is necessary to determine the surface area for the cladding. To do this, the height of the wall is multiplied by the width. But at the same time, you do not need to take into account the area of windows, doors and other areas that cannot be finished. Then, the total facade area of the entire building is calculated. The resulting figure is divided by the area of one stone. This method of calculation is suitable if all finishing units are of the same size.
Some manufacturers also offer corner stones to facilitate work.
To calculate their volume, it is necessary to add the length of all the corners of the building and divide by the height of one stone.
It is necessary to buy material with a margin for unforeseen expenses and force majeure. Therefore, it is necessary to add 10% to the total amount. This amount is enough for fitting the material, and for cutting during deformation of the stone.
Natural and artificial stones are mounted on the same principle. In this case, it is important to follow all strict rules and recommendations. Any installation work with the stone must be carried out at a temperature of + 6 ° C to + 25 ° C. When decorating the facade, it is not necessary to cover all the walls with stone. In some cases, a partial lining of the building is considered a better option. Even a novice can do such a task with his own hands.
Before starting work, we advise drawing the future facade of the house in order to clearly understand in what sequence to use various materials.
The general picture of stone must be selected in advance in small sections on a horizontal surface near the wall. So it will be easier to transfer the drawing to the facade.
It is also necessary to prepare the surface of the walls for subsequent work.
The key point in this case is the humidity of the facade. For cement walls, an indicator of 4.5% is optimal, and for wood or drywall - no more than 0.5%.
Old paint, cladding and insulation are removed from the facade. This is necessary in order to reduce the load on the walls. The surface should also be perfectly smooth and even without sharp changes. To do this, all irregularities are eliminated, cleaned and primed. The surface is cleaned of dust and debris. The facade of the building must be covered with deep penetration soil to strengthen the structure.
The facing stone can be attached to the facade with self-tapping screws or with glue. In this case, we will consider the option of attaching to a special building glue. Therefore, the next step will be fixing the metal mesh to the wall for future plastering.
At the level of the lower layer of stone laying, a metal corner or a wooden block is installed.
It is necessary in order to ensure even masonry. After this, it is necessary to dilute the trowel building glue and apply the composition with a thickness of about 2 cm to the reinforced wall. Also, glue must be applied to the stones from the wrong side. All elements are pressed against the wall with force. You can tap on the surface with a slightly rubber mallet. The solution protruding from all sides of the stone is carefully removed with a spatula.
After completion of installation work and partial drying of the wall, it is necessary to close the seams between the stones. The simplest analogue of a construction device is a plastic bag. To do this, it is filled with embroidery material and a small corner of the polyethylene is cut off. Thus, a kind of “pastry bag” is obtained, with which you can gradually fill all the seams with a solution.
The finishing touch is the treatment of the new facade with a water-repellent protective agent, which will additionally protect the facade of the house from natural phenomena.
- Using a facing stone, you can focus on the house and make it unique, as well as emphasize the advantages and hide surface imperfections
- The original way to decorate the facade is stone cladding of the vertical and horizontal zones of the house. The remaining areas can be covered with light-colored plaster. This combination will create a beautiful contrast of neutral tones with the cold color of the stone.
- The stone decor on the outside gives the house a presentability and history.
- Architectural artificial stone can decorate the entrance group or window openings.
- Other buildings finished with stone, a gazebo, a fence and paths on the site will give the site a finished look.
- And also from some types of stones you can create railings, arches and even columns. But such designs will have an impressive weight, so in some cases finished forms are easier to veneer with natural or artificial stone.