Currently, many grow various types of plants in their homes and gardens. Often in their plots plant a flower of peresk. Today we will talk about what varieties of it exist and how to properly care for it.
Pereskia is the oldest species of leaf cactus. Her homeland is Central and South America. The culture grows in the tropics and looks like either a large shrub or a low tree.
- Variegate Pereskia has strong straight stems with thorns. Sometimes creeping branches form on them. They are covered with spikes, which can be located either one at a time or in small groups, and reduced leaf plates.
- Oval-shaped leaves are covered with a light shiny substance. Their color is dark green. In winter, at temperatures below +10 degrees, the leaf blades of such a plant may fall. With the age of the flower, its leaves begin to lose their bright color and become paler. Also, during this period they can fall when the climate is too dry.
- The flowers of the plant are large. Most often, they develop in inflorescence, although there are single buds. The color is white, but it is often possible to see a light shade of red, yellow or orange on them.
- The ripened fruits of this flower are large spherical berries. They have a yellow color and a smooth surface. Such fruits are edible, and their aroma resembles the smell of pineapple. They ripen after flowering.
To date, there are various types of this plant:
- Peresia Godseff;
- prickly (shark);
- Pereskia Grandiflora (more flowered);
- Pereskiya Weber;
- Pereskia sucrose;
This variety can reach a length of two meters. She has an erect thin stalk. It has elongated spikes of black color. The flowers are small white. Leaf blades are narrow, their length can reach 6 centimeters. They are elliptical in shape.
The upper part is painted in golden color, and the lower one has either red or purple hue.
It is a lianoid leaf cactus. The stems are lignified. The shoots of such a flower are creeping, they can cling with the help of thorns. Prickly varieties are straight, the length can reach 2-3 centimeters. The leaves are dense and fleshy, their length is about 7-10 centimeters. The upper part of the leaf plates is green, the lower part is red. Flowers grow either pink or white. They have a pungent lemon smell. Fruits are yellow berries with a diameter of not more than 2 centimeters.
Such fruits are edible, their taste is sweet and sour.
This type of pereskia can grow up to 8 meters in length. The stems are covered with olive bark, their diameter may be 10-15 centimeters. Large leaf blades have clear veins. Leaves grow on long stalks. The flowers grow a bright orange color, in diameter - no more than 4-6 centimeters. The fruits of this species are cone-shaped, have a pineapple aroma, but they should not be used as food. It is believed that just such a variety can be used for the manufacture of medicines. After all, it is able to reduce blood pressure and blood sugar.
Pereskia Grandiflora (more flowered)
Its length can reach 5 meters. The stems of such a plant are studded with thorns. The stem itself is chestnut in color, has a rough surface. The leaf blades are elongated, 20-23 centimeters long. They crumble at a temperature of +10. The buds of such a large flower. Their color is deep pink. As a rule, they grow in an inflorescence of 10-20 pieces, but flowers can also grow one at a time.
It represents shrubs from 1 to 3 meters long. The root system is thickened. Leaf blades of small size, they are attached to the flower without cuttings.
This species is characterized by abundant and long flowering, which lasts from spring to summer.
The flowers are small, pink. Their diameter is about 2 centimeters.
It can reach a length of 7 meters. Shoots grow an unusual curved shape. The leaves are long, reach 10 centimeters. On such a plant, you can find thorns of 2-4 centimeters. The buds of this species differ in larger size in comparison with other species, their diameter is more than 6 centimeters. Their color is pink.
Conditions of detention
If you want to grow pereskia at home, then you should adhere to some rules. Otherwise, such a plant will not be able to grow and develop normally.
Pereskia is a photophilous plant. But at the same time, too much solar radiation can harm her, therefore, in the summer, the window next to which the flower is standing must be covered with a net. The best places for growing this plant are considered southern windows.
Due to lack of lighting, the stems can stretch out a lot, and the leaf blades become too small, their color begins to fade.
Temperature and humidity
The optimum summer temperature for such a plant is considered to be 22-23 degrees Celsius. Moreover, it is important that the pereskia receive a sufficient amount of air. In autumn, the flower can be kept at a temperature of 15 degrees. In winter, the temperature regime can be reduced to 12. The room in which the plant is located should be constantly ventilated so that it does not appear burns from sunlight. Pereskia can carry even too dry air. But the leaf blades of a flower grow beautiful and shiny only with regular spraying with clean water. Drafts of Pereskia is not afraid. It can be taken out to the balcony or to the garden in the summer. But at the same time, it is imperative to ensure that the plant is protected from rain.
To grow the flower, you should use the most fertile and loose soil. And it is recommended to add humus to it.
Most often, for peresia, a mixture of several types of soil is made: sand, humus, sheet and clay-soddy soil.
Transplant adult plants should be no more than once every 2-3 years. Do this if the root system has completely filled the pot. Young flowers are transplanted as they grow.
For transplanting plants, you can use both ready-made soil, which can be purchased at a specialized store, or prepared independently at home.
- To prepare the soil yourself, you need to mix in one container sod, leaf soil and humus in equal proportions. Then sand is added (2 times less than other components).
- Pots for transplantation should choose a large size.
- At the bottom of the pot spread drainage. After that, prepared soil is poured there.
- After transplantation, enhanced plant growth should begin.
In order for peresia to grow healthy, it is necessary to periodically conduct procedures to care for it. So, it is necessary to carry out periodic watering, to make fertilizers and top dressing.
Pereskia can grow and develop normally even with a low level of humidity in the pot. But at the same time, in order for the plant to be healthy and beautiful, it should be sprayed with clean, settled water. In summer and spring, watering is carried out when the upper part of the soil is dried in a container with a flower.
In winter and autumn, the number of such procedures can be reduced to once a month.
Pereskia is especially in need of fertilizer in the spring. To do this, use special feeding for cacti, which are sold in specialized stores. It is recommended to make them once every 15 days under the root. It is also worth diluting the product two times more than what is written in the instructions. In autumn and summer, fertilizers are not used. It should be remembered that such a flower does not like nitrogen-containing substances, therefore it is better not to introduce organic matter into the soil at all. Otherwise, rot may form in the root system. Pereskia needs fertilizer during the growing season and flowering. Moreover, feeding is carried out along with watering. As a rule, use only half a serving of fertilizer at a time.
Diseases and Pests
Peresia can be affected by a spider mite. In this case, a thin web will form on the bottom of the leaf blades. At the same time, small dots can be seen on the top of the leaves. Because of this parasite, the flower will lose its bright color and become pale. As a rule, a spider mite appears on the flower when the air is too dry in the room where the cross is located, so it is recommended to moisten the plant regularly. Wipe the leaves periodically with a damp cloth to remove dust from them, as well as destroy all fallen leaf blades.
This plant can be affected by a cactus scale. It is a small insect of yellow or orange color, the diameter of which does not exceed 2 millimeters. The parasite destroys the upper part of the leaves. After the appearance of the scale shield, yellow spots appear on the plates. Over time, the foliage begins to fall. In this case, you need to prepare a light soapy solution and thoroughly wipe the leaves and stems of the plant with a cloth moistened in it.
In case of severe damage, it is better to immediately use chemicals.
Mealybug can also affect peresk. This parasite grows in size of no more than 3-4 millimeters. The largest accumulations of the pest can be seen on young shoots. Mealybug in the process of its activity releases a large amount of sticky fluid, which completely pollutes the plant. At the same time, a spider web appears on the leaf blades, the flowers fall, and the shoots and new leaves are significantly deformed. To get rid of the pest, first the flower is treated with a soap-alcohol solution. Then it is rubbed with a garlic compound or calendula liquid. You need to do this three times with an interval of one week.
The cause of flower disease can be improper care.
So, with excessive overmoistening of the soil, rotting of the root system can occur. In this case, the plant must be immediately transplanted into a new container with different soil. When the soil is waterlogged, gray rot may appear. The stems will begin to mold and become too soft. To cure the plant, you need to reduce the amount of watering, lower the level of humidity, treat it with chemicals.
The plant may become sick when the soil dries. In this case, the cross-section becomes weak and lethargic, and its leaf blades begin to fall over time.
Peresia propagated by seeds or cuttings.
- In the first case, a box with a mixture of peat and sand is prepared in advance. Sowing should be done in early spring. Seeds should be watered regularly. They must also be covered with a thin film. After 3-4 weeks, you can see the shoots.
- For rooting cuttings take stronger branches. You can carry out the procedure either in the spring or at the beginning of summer. First, cuttings are cut with a blade, after which they are placed in a box with a mixture of perlite and peat. All this is covered with a film on top. After a few weeks, small roots appear in the cuttings. They will already be able to grow and develop without film.
When planting, it is worth handling the plant as carefully as possible, because the root system is not yet strong, it can easily be damaged.
How to transplant cuttings of pereskia, see the video below.