When using modern cameras, you need to know certain characteristics of the equipment. Otherwise, adding the desired effect to the photo will fail. In the article we will tell you more about the aperture and how it wags the picture.
What it is?
Aperture - one of the most important characteristics in the camera, or rather in the lens. This option is necessary to take a clear and detailed photo even in low light conditions. A high indicator means that you have professional equipment in your hands. It is worth noting that high-aperture optics are expensive.
Experienced photographers use several lens models that differ in focal length. Experts recommend that beginners choose affordable lenses in order to learn how to use modern digital equipment.
The above parameter is responsible for how much light enters the device of the camera and the sensitive matrix. Not many people know that the lenses inside the lens are made of a completely transparent material. Passing through plastic or glass, the light flux is scattered, and part of it is lost. The light beam does not reach the matrix at full strength.
The amount of sunlight can be adjusted using the diaphragm. The wider this element is open, the greater the flow. Manufacturers, when designating the aperture, take into account how much you can open the diaphragm. Also, take into account the focal length. The smaller the ratio, the greater will be the aperture parameters.
The following depends on the intense light that enters the photosensitive matrix:
- depth of field;
- the ability to take high-quality photographs in a dark room or in the evening.
Let's consider each parameter in more detail.
Lenses with high aperture make it possible to highlight only the main objects in the photo. This option will be useful for portrait shooting. To indicate the number of elements that are in sharpness, the depth of field is used. This stands for "depth of sharply depicted space."
Using this feature correctly, you can create a beautiful blurred background - bokeh. With this, photographers hide unnecessary details in the image, translating them into the background. Such images look spectacular.
If there is not enough light to take a high-quality picture, you need to configure the following characteristics:
- photosensitivity (designated as ISO);
- shutter speed;
When setting the shutter speed you need to be careful. Otherwise, the frame will be completely blurry. When setting a slow shutter speed, shooting with your hands does not work, you need to use a tripod. Even a slight movement of the hands will result in a “shake”.
If you set the sensitivity too high, digital noise will appear in the image. The photographer can only open the aperture to take the most clear picture with insufficient light.
When is it necessary?
Photography enthusiasts who use digital equipment only for household shots can do quite well with the available equipment. For such users, the aperture value is not particularly significant.
Professional photographers pay attention to every characteristic. They use fast lenses in the following cases.
- This option is useful during sporting events or when shooting wildlife, when it is important to quickly and clearly capture a special moment. In order for an object that moves fast to get a clear picture, you need to set a short shutter speed.
- Without a fast lens, you will not be able to get high-quality images of the night city or other landscapes taken after sunset. Such models are ways to capture even the smallest particles of light to get a high-quality image.
- If the sensitivity of the matrix to light is insufficient, then with the lens this defect can be corrected.
- Reporters who work in various conditions also cannot do without special equipment. It can be dark rooms, such as museums, night clubs, restaurants, and more.
The aperture value is indicated by the English letter F (f). With it, manufacturers indicate the power of the light stream that reaches the matrix. However, this parameter needs to be described in more detail.
Trademarks use the ratio of the following parameters to indicate aperture:
- diaphragm diameter when it is maximally opened;
- focal length.
This indicator may look like these numbers - 1: 1.2 or 1: 2.8. Brands use the international format - f / 1.2, f / 2.8 and other options.
Interesting fact. The lens with the highest aperture value was released by the American corporation NASA in the second half of the 20th century (1966). The aperture value is f / 0.7. Specialists made 10 models, three of which were presented to the world famous director Stanley Kubrick for creating film masterpieces, one was handed over to Carl Zeiss. The remaining 6 lenses were sent to a special customer.
Few users know that the professional level of this characteristic is f2.8. This is the optimum value. Equipment with this parameter is not accessible to everyone. For ordinary buyers, f4 or more will be sufficient. Models of such lenses are not considered aperture and have a more affordable price.
How to choose a lens?
The range of digital equipment for shooting is presented in a wide variety of cameras and lenses. Determining which is better is difficult even for an experienced specialist, not to mention ordinary customers. The production of equipment is carried out by both global brands and manufacturers operating in the budget and mid-price segment.
All optics, which are distinguished by a high aperture ratio, can be divided into 2 types:
- Models with a variable focal length.
The first option is used for shooting in the studio. The main feature of such optics is that you can easily and quickly change the distance of the object to the lens. This is a very useful feature when you need to constantly move around the room, while the model is static. Fixed lenses boast enhanced shooting quality. When assembling them, manufacturers use a reduced number of lenses, which reduces the number of distortions.
Beginners who are just starting to master photography often use lenses with maximum focal lengths. This characteristic varies from 50 to 55 millimeters. In this case, the aperture is from 2.8 to 1.4. These models are also called "fifty dollars." They are available in the catalogs of all well-known manufacturers of equipment for shooting. The above parameters are quite enough if you do not have to deal with night or subject shooting at a high level.
Also, millet fixes with a focal length index of 30 to 35 millimeters are also used. These models are for wide-angle lenses. They can be used for a variety of creative purposes. Their main feature is that they are not suitable for shooting portraits due to distortion of perspective.
If you are looking for a lens for close-up portraits, you should choose fixes with a focal length of 85 to 135 millimeters. This indicator will help to design expressive bokeh in the background, which is ideal for this direction in shooting.
As for glasses with a variable parameter, options with a focal length, which varies from 17 to 55 millimeters, are in great demand. To work, you will also need optics with a distance indicator from 70 to 200. This equipment is used to shoot reports on various topics.
How to use?
To use a photosensitive lens, you need to connect the optics from the "body" of the camera, select the necessary parameters, compose the frame and take a picture. Using digital equipment, you can immediately evaluate the photo and change the settings.
To change the frame (increase or decrease the focal length), use the special rotary ring on the lens. It also has numbers indicating which parameter you are using. You will observe the changes immediately - through the screen or the viewfinder.
Professional photographers use different lens models depending on the shooting subject: portrait, landscape, reportage and other options.
About what aperture is, see the next video.