Ventilation in the garage performs one of the most important functions - it provides a healthy microclimate and helps to keep the car in optimal condition. How to equip a do-it-yourself inlet and exhaust hood in a cellar or basement and make ventilation holes? The answers to these and other questions can be found below.
The garage is an enclosed space that needs effective ventilation for the complete and timely removal of condensing moisture, toxic exhaust gases, and other harmful fumes.
Here are some of the functions that a properly organized ventilation system should perform.
- To remove moisture, which inevitably gets inside the garage from the tires and the underbody of the car, since drying the car is almost the only way to prolong its operation.
- To remove exhaust gases hazardous to human health, chemical fumes of oils, varnishes, gasoline or diesel, car care products, which are often stored in the garage.
- To prevent condensation on the walls and ceiling of the garage, as well as inside the cellar, which can lead to damage and even destruction of the structure of the garage.
- Responsible for the rapid removal of moisture from vehicle surfaces to prevent rust.
- Protect from corrosion not only the car itself, but also tools that are often stored right there.
There are only two principles of garage ventilation - natural and forced. From here we can naturally derive the types: natural, mechanical, and combined.
The natural type of ventilation is based on aerodynamic laws and does not imply the use of mechanical devices; air flows naturally, obeying the laws of physics, through the supply and exhaust openings in the walls or garage doors due to the temperature difference inside and outside the box. This type of ventilation is easy to construct with your own hands.
Of course, in any garage, the air temperature inside the box will be higher than the ambient temperature in the warm season. And this circumstance is used to stimulate air circulation: physically warm air tends to go up, and cold air tends to go down due to the difference in temperature and density.
Accordingly, two improvised ventilation ducts are made in the walls of the garage. It is recommended to place them diagonally. Outside air enters the air inlet. At this moment, a temperature difference occurs in the garage box and warm air rises, then falling into the exhaust duct and moving out.
The basic principles of the placement of the system.
- The supply air duct is usually located on the windward side and as close to the floor level as possible - usually not higher than 10-15 cm, but not lower than half a meter from the surface. The simplest and most effective solution for this type of ventilation is standard ventilation grids that simply cut into the garage doors.
- The hood must be arranged at a distance of 10-15 cm below the junction of the wall with the ceiling. It is installed 10 cm below the ceiling seam, the other end of the duct is outside the box at about half a meter below the edge of the roof.
- It is important to observe the placement of the supply and exhaust openings in different corners of the room opposite each other with a height difference of at least 2.5-3 meters.
- If the ventilation duct is let out onto the roof of the box, do not forget to provide a pipe height of 50-60 cm. As a rule, it is covered with a figured lid on top and equipped with a mesh or grill to protect against insects.
In addition to the simplicity of the equipment of the natural ventilation system and low costs for it, it also has disadvantages.
- In the warm season, a small temperature difference makes this type of ventilation ineffective - there is not enough mixing of the air masses, including due to different air densities.
- An important role is played by the location of the ventilation openings for the inflow and exhaust.
- Another disadvantage is the appearance of ice on the open parts of the system in the cold season due to too much lowering the temperature inside the garage box. This problem is easily eliminated by installing cut-off insulated gates.
The artificial (forced) type of ventilation is characterized by providing mixing of air masses with the help of exhaust and supply fans and mechanisms similar to them. The mixing of air in the garage box occurs with the help of artificial supply and exhaust systems. We can say that to some extent this kind can even replace heating. The most advanced systems use a variety of software.
Structurally, this type of ventilation is distinguished into monoblock (a single unit provides both a fence and a hood) and modular (all of the above is performed by two different blocks of devices).
This species is relatively expensive because it requires a certain degree of mechanization. You will need at least two types of devices - to organize the flow of air and its exhaust.
The supply equipment may include a heater or fan heater, or an air filter or duct fan can be added.
The intake air passes through the filter, is heated by the air heater and enters the air ducts. After performing their functions inside the box, air masses are released into the atmosphere through the exhaust system.
It is possible to mount a single-block version. It can be even more effective, since all the equipment is enclosed in a single enclosure and functions as a single unit. In addition, it is the most economical in operation, since usually the plate heat exchanger works "on its own", heating the air drawn in from the atmosphere.
The advantages of mechanical type of ventilation:
- the mechanical type of ventilation system provides internal humidity and air temperature regardless of atmospheric conditions outside the garage unit;
- with its help it is easy to provide ventilation of the basement, to create the correct air circulation;
- if at your disposal there is a garage box, completely located below ground level - this is the only way out for this type of garages when storing a car.
The combined type of ventilation operates according to a separate principle - air enters the box independently, and is discharged by means of mechanical devices.
If the ambient temperature is higher than the internal one, and a natural type of ventilation is implemented (without the use of mechanisms), the design does not function. In this case, it is possible to stimulate air mixing by installing conventional fans. They are economical to operate and do not really burden the family budget.
The only drawback of this type is manual control, since there is a need to frequently visit the garage.
How it works?
The supply system works in accordance with the natural type of ventilation described above. The exhaust system is mechanized and air exhaust to the atmosphere is provided by an exhaust fan.
Advantages of the combined type of ventilation:
- it is relatively independent of the time of year;
- ease of installation.
- in the cold season, the air inside the garage is quickly cooled;
- electric fan requires regular maintenance;
- air drawn outside is not subject to cleaning.
Of course, each garage owner will choose the type of system on their own and based on their budget and the purposes in which the garage is used. One way or another, it should be noted that the installation of a ventilation system of one type or another in the garage is very important for the owner from an operational point of view.
What can be equipped with?
Installation of air ducts for ventilation systems of any type in our time can be done using a wide variety of materials, from plastic or metal-plastic pipes for sewage to the use of a corrugated hose from a vacuum cleaner.
Let's consider some options.
- You can make ventilation ducts in the box using pipes made of asbestos. Such pipes are not fire hazardous, they can not be painted, or vice versa, if the owner is a creative person, they can serve as material for creating a certain surroundings during painting.
- As already mentioned, plastic sewer pipes are also a good option.
- And finally, the simplest solutions are old hoses from a vacuum cleaner, garden hoses, and other pipe structures.
It is a natural desire of any garage owner to have a cellar in it, may be faced with the need to conduct a separate ventilation system in it due to errors in the design. This can not only lead to spoilage of products due to increased humidity inside the cellar, but also to sad consequences in the form of corrosion of the car body. For this reason, ventilation of the cellar should not be neglected in any case.
With the natural type of ventilation, the cellar is dried by thermal mixing of the air masses - in accordance with the laws of physics, the lighter heated air in the upper part of the cellar rises, and the air received from the outside through the supply air duct fills the rarefied space.
The second option is the installation of fans and the creation of forced ventilation. This is a scheme with higher efficiency, but it will require significantly greater monetary and energy costs.
Preparation of drawings
The ventilation system must be provided with one- and two-story garage rooms, as well as residential premises, regardless of the presence or absence of a heating system in it, taking into account uniform ventilation of all volumes.
In order for ventilation systems to work stably with rated performance, at the design stage, air ducts are calculated for the throughput and the diameter of the channel. Actually, air ducts are channels through which air passes. They are widely used in a wide variety of devices, both in household and industrial-technological fields, in the production of chemicals and drugs, and in other industrial enterprises.
Calculating the volume of the ventilation system of the garage is quite simple.
The main figure is the number of changes in garage air volumes per volume of air inflow from the outside (multiplicity). If their number is 6-10 volumes and the total volume of the garage box is known, it is necessary to calculate the air flow per hour: L = nxVg
L - consumption per hour, m3 / h;
n is the rate of change of air volumes in the garage;
Vg - the total volume of air in the box, m3.
To determine the volume of the garage, it is necessary to multiply the width by the length and height according to the internal dimensions of the box.
For example, a garage of 4 by 6 and by 2.7 m according to the formula Vg = 4x6x2.7 = 64.8 m3. If the required number of changes of garage air volumes per volume of external air inflow equal to seven changes per hour, then this box needs L = 7x64.8 = 453.6 m3. Accordingly, the air flow rate and speed can be set using this diagram:
To select the cross section of the supply and exhaust ducts, we round L by increasing to a multiple of 5. Accordingly, our calculated number increases to 455 m3, since it is a multiple of 5: 455: 5 = 91. Comparing it with the diagram and knowing that the air velocity in the ducts when using natural ventilation is approximately 0.5-1 m / s, for the above volumes, round ducts with a diameter of more than 500 mm or ducts with a different cross-section of more than 450x500 mm s will be needed bends or without.
If a decision has been made to improve airflow, this can be achieved by installing an air intake from a grill or mesh instead of a pipe with a solid wall. Its diameter should be 2-3 times larger than that of the hood. This will give a significant improvement in ventilation, but there will be a high probability of significant freezing of the garage in the cold season. To avoid this, it is necessary to install dampers on the air intake and exhaust, which, if necessary, reduce air permeability.
Always make sure that the hood does not turn out to be larger in cross section than the air intake of the air intake, as the so-called tipping over of the thrust or reverse thrust can occur. For this reason, if you partially block the supply air duct, be sure to reduce the diameter of the hood.
In the case of manufacturing a ventilation system for a viewing hole or a cellar for underground rooms, separate pipes are required for air supply and one more pipe that runs vertically for exhaust. Exhaust ducts must be isolated from the main room of the garage - the air in them must not come into contact with the bulk of the air mass inside the box.
The volume of supply air mass must be at least 180 m3 / h at a temperature inside the garage of at least 5 ° C above zero. The frequency of complete air exchange is 6-10 times a day.
The functional diagram of the air ducts is compiled when creating the design of the room, since installing a ventilation system in an already finished garage will entail a lot of difficulties. The scheme should contain the location of the ventilation holes, their number. It should also include the dimensions of the garage, the passage of pipelines and ducts above and below the surface of the earth / floor, the number of volumes of circulating air.
The calculation of the diameters of the ventilation holes is as follows.
- With a tube diameter of 15 mm = 1 m2. Accordingly, for a 10 m2 box, 150 mm tubes will be required.
- With the sum of all ventilation openings equal to 0.3% of the total garage area. This formula is used to design a single channel for mechanical ventilation.
There is a difference between Russian and foreign building codes. If the Russian regulatory documents establish the norm of air intake outside for a garage with one passenger car at 180 m3 / h, then in foreign standards this figure is increased by 100%.
In addition to calculating the required air exchange performance, air ducts count on pressure loss and stiffness. Such calculations are convenient due to the use of flexible ducts made of various plastic for ventilation in garages, which are less durable and rigid in comparison with the metal structures that are used in most cases.
Frequently asked Questions
How to arrange a camera for painting a car in a garage?
The paint garage is a very specific area, which presents its owner with its requirements.
They are complicated by the fact that in the garage you must have:
- basement of considerable depth;
- advanced powerful ventilation system for intake and exhaust of air and exhaust gases;
- it is necessary to remove the camera from any residential premises;
- it is very important to exclude contact of air from the painting chamber with any food products;
- the chamber should be perfectly isolated from the environment;
- heating elements, filters, like all other equipment, must comply with fire safety standards.
How to equip a garage for welding?
In various work related to the repair or modification of the car, the owner often uses welding. A good option is a welding machine using tungsten electrodes for welding in a gas-protective environment.
Winter season: open or close garage doors?
It may seem strange, but in winter the corrosion corrodes the metal of the car more than in summer, so in the warm season the metal garage in the absence of a ventilation system is ventilated by opening the door wide, but in winter at low temperature the door does not need to be opened, which again associated with humidity. Note that warming a metal garage does not solve this problem.
Useful tips and tricks
The tefllector is a device that is installed above the exhaust duct and used to enhance the flow rate in it due to the so-called Bernoulli effect, which increases the efficiency of the ventilation system. According to the principle of action, the deflector can be stationary (motionless) or rotating (rotational).
A turbo deflector is an improved and much higher efficiency version of a conventional deflector , in other words, it is one of the names of a rotational turbine. In fact, this is an ordinary impeller mounted on the upper cut of the exhaust duct.
It helps to remove exhaust air from the garage box room in a natural way.
A turbo-deflector operates using only the laws of physics, without the use of mechanical devices, the cost of electricity or fuel. As already noted, humidity in the garage plays an important role, and its elimination is the most important task of the ventilation system. The turbo deflector is an original, cheap and very effective part of the exhaust duct, which helps to establish the correct and efficient air exchange in the garage box.
The principle of operation of the turbo-deflector - passively using the movement of air masses , it creates an area of low pressure, contributing to the flow of air and increasing traction in the duct. It acts regardless of the wind, its strength and direction.
The ability of its impeller to rotate in the same direction eliminates tipping of the thrust and increases the efficiency of air exchange in the hood.
It can be noted that this is also additional protection against ingress of precipitation, foreign objects into the duct.
This device can increase air exchange in a garage or other room by 20% without any additional mechanical or financial costs.
The shape of the impeller and the body of the product varies in accordance with the aesthetic wishes of the owner. Its service life with proper maintenance is more than 10 years.
Of course, in addition to advantages, the turbo deflector is not without some certain disadvantages:
- Higher price of the device, which depends on the material from which it is made.
- In the absence of air flow in the duct during the winter season, the blades can stop and become covered with hoarfrost and ice.
- The maintenance rules for the turbo deflector are simple and elementary. Frequent maintenance is not required for him.
The worst that can happen to him is the cessation of the motion of the impeller blades due to the lack of air flow or misalignment and jamming of the bearings.
To summarize some of the results.
- Installation of a ventilation system in a garage of any type is necessary. It allows you to save and extend the life of the car, reduces the effect of harmful fumes of fuels, oils, chemicals in closed space on human health.
- You must choose one of the different types of ventilation - natural, forced / mechanical, combined, depending on the purpose of using the garage.
- Insulation of the floor will help avoid condensation on the walls and ceiling of the garage, made of metal. It is first covered with roofing material, then a concrete screed follows and linoleum is covered on top.
About the intricacies of the ventilation device in the garage, see the next video.