Evergreen begonia is an ornamental plant that can be grown both in open ground and in apartment conditions. In the second case, begonia behaves like a perennial, but in the garden it is capable of development only for one year.
Evergreen begonia belongs to the begonia family. This is a grassy hybrid, a characteristic feature of which is its miniature. The height of the shrub reaches 30 centimeters, and the resistant stem has a large number of branches. However, the smallest specimens grow only to 8 centimeters. Rounded juicy leaves are slightly lowered around the edges. Their color changes from light green to dark green, and sometimes it turns out to be burgundy or red-brown. From a peduncle of the plant, from a couple to 4 flowers are formed.
Same-sex buds are terry or simple.
Flower petals can be white or red. Some varieties combine both shades: most of the petal is snow-white, and the border is covered with strips of bright pink color. Male buds form four petals, while female buds produce one more. The diameter of the flowers ranges from 3 to 5 centimeters. The seeds of an ever-flowering begonia are formed of an extremely small size, resemble dust and are collected in box fruits. They are painted in dark brown color and have the ability to climb over a three-year period.
Numerous varieties of evergreen begonias can be divided into the following types: tall, medium and stunted. It is worth mentioning that begonia can be both indoor and growing in open ground. "Archer F1" is a short hybrid, the height of which barely reaches 20 centimeters. The flowers grow of small diameter, most of the petals are painted white, and the ends are pink. Rounded petals form a highly branching bush of bright green color. This variety is capable of blooming throughout the season until frost.
“Senator Pink F1” is considered a classic variety, characterized by the appearance of small flowers collected in a brush. It grows well both in the open ground and at home. Neat bushes are highly branched and covered with leaves of a dark bronze hue.
Evergreen pink begonia "Bowshin" reaches a height of 40 centimeters. During flowering, oval bushes are covered with light pink buds. A clear advantage of this variety is the ability of begonias to self-clean from wilted flowers. The color of the leaves varies depending on the lighting.
The evergreen begonia "Havana Scarlet" forms bushes, the height of which varies from 20 to 25 centimeters. The leaves are painted in a shade of bronze, and the flowers grow bright red.
Grade “Mix F1” reaches a height of 20 centimeters. The diameter of the opened flowers ranges from 3 to 5 centimeters. This one-year hybrid is not affected by the adverse effects of weather conditions, and therefore grows well on open ground. Foliage can be painted either emerald or bronze.
Variety Olomouc is a stunted variety whose height ranges from 18 to 20 centimeters. The flowers grow small in size, but beautiful white. "Bada Boom" is also a compact plant. The leaves are painted in bronze color, and simple flowers can be white, pink or saturated red. Variety "Ambassador F1" combines begonia hybrids showing seven different shades. Unpretentious bush is abundantly covered with green leaves.
It is necessary to sow begonia in a soil mixture with either neutral or low acidity from 5.5 to 6.5. The substrate can be either purchased ready-made or made up independently by mixing coarse sand and garden soil. The cache-pot is worth taking quite wide and small. The height of the container should be in the range of 15 to 20 centimeters.
The root system of evergreen begonia is small, so there is no need to plant it in a deep pot.
The bottom of the tank is necessarily covered with a drainage layer that prevents stagnation of water. As a rule, the drainage height is from 2 to 4 centimeters. Having fallen aside the substrate, it must be compacted so that between the edge of the pot and the surface there remains a centimeter gap. Over time, the size of the bush will increase, and he will need a larger vessel. Transplantation is carried out by transshipment with the preservation of an earthen coma and the removal of old leaves.
When the plant is intended for home cultivation, the pot should be placed on a sunny window, for example, looking south, east or west. In the case of the north window, you will have to install additional illumination. It is important to create sufficient lighting for the begonia, otherwise the bush will begin to stretch ugly and lose the beauty of color. Planting begonias in nature requires the preliminary cultivation of seedlings.
Care for evergreen begonias at home includes maintaining the required temperature and humidity level. The plant is quite loyal to elevated temperatures, but the cold can have a detrimental effect on its development. In the worst case, not only the cultivation will stop, but the begonia itself will simply die. Nevertheless, in the winter season, the bush can not be placed near the batteries. The optimum moisture content is 50%. If the level rises, the plant begins to rot, and if it drops, it dries up and changes color to an unpleasantly brown. Evergreen begonia does not respond well to direct spraying, as dark spots appear on leaves and flowers.
However, the liquid can be sprayed around the plantings, just put a container of water near the pot or place it on a pallet filled with moist expanded clay.
Begonia irrigation should be carried out using settled or even boiled water. You can also use melt or rain fluid warmed up to room temperature. The frequency of irrigation is more convenient to determine by the state of the upper soil layer. It is important not to allow stagnation of water or drying out of the soil. To avoid overflows, you can use the lower watering system when the liquid is poured immediately into the pan. The procedure is recommended either in the morning or in the evening, when exposure to sunlight is minimal.
Fertilizers should be applied every two weeks in spring and summer - during this period the plant is actively developing. It is more convenient to purchase ready-made complexes immediately. In winter, the frequency of application can be limited to once a month. In the event that once a year the bush is transplanted into a fresh substrate rich in humus, additional use of organic fertilizers is not required. If the seedlings have already grown stronger and have reached the size of a mature plant, then solutions with a low nitrogen content can be preferred. Potassium and phosphorus, on the contrary, must be present in full.
Transplant a branched bush as it grows. While the plant is still young, it should be a transplant with a complete renewal of the soil, in the case of mature specimens, you can limit yourself to a partial replacement of the top layer. Although the bush usually does not exceed 40 centimeters in height, cutting will still have to be done, mainly in order to remove weak shoots and shorten excessively elongated ones. As a rule, the procedure is carried out in early spring.
Plant growers most often choose plant propagation by either cuttings or seeds. Cutting allows you to maximize the properties of the source material, but begonia grown from seeds does not always repeat the mother variety. Propagation with the help of cuttings is usually carried out in the summer, when green leaves are actively developing. Having separated the leaf with the stem, it is necessary to shorten its upper part by one third. The slice must be processed, and after rooting the stalk, somewhere by one centimeter.
Plantings are immediately sprayed with settling water and cleaned in a makeshift greenhouse, which is formed from a regular piece of polyethylene. Then the beds are removed to where it is warm and light, and the lighting should be scattered. It will be time to dive on disposable cups when the first leaves appear on the sprouts. In pots, the flower should be transplanted after a month or even a half.
To propagate the evergreen begonia with seeds, you will need a box with a height of 5 to 7 meters, as well as a substrate for seedlings. For convenience, dusty seeds should be mixed with sand. Landings can not be watered, but it must be covered with a glass piece so that there is a gap between the walls and the roof. The box itself should be placed with a slight slope so that condensation does not get into the structure. Dive is carried out when two leaves appear on the sprouts.
Three to four formed plates already allow transplanting begonias into pots.
How to save in the winter?
Some experts recommend cutting the begonia in late autumn so that it can successfully survive until spring. It will be necessary to cut off the entire aerial part, and then place the pot where it is cold and dark. In March, the plant is again exposed to a lighted place. Other experts, however, believe that the bushes can remain in their natural state, that is, as they developed over the summer-autumn period. In this case, it will be important to maintain the temperature at 20 degrees if flowering is expected, and at 15 degrees when the plant is at rest. Fertilizer application is braked until the daylight hours increase to 12 hours.
Diseases and Pests
Most often, begonia always flowering becomes a target for aphid and spider mite attacks. If the plant is indoor, and does not grow on a flower bed, then it is better to carry out treatment using organic means. For example, a bush can be sprayed with infusion of onion husks or finely chopped turnips. Treatment from pests is carried out once a week until the complete disappearance of signs of damage.
The disease from which begonia suffers is easier to determine by the state of the bush itself. For example, if black spots began to appear on the leaves, then we are talking about bacterial wilting. On the contrary, the appearance of white plaque on the surface signals the defeat of powdery mildew. In both cases, fungicides, such as Mikosan, will help to cope with the problem. Unfortunately, begonia will have to be thrown away if it gets sick with a viral mosaic, which is determined by the appearance of yellowness at the tips of the leaves, root rot and nematodes.
About the reproduction and conservation of evergreen begonias, see the video below.