Many people wonder what is the peculiarity of an anti-decubitus mattress, how it differs from all others. However, when choosing, you need to think about what kind of sample you need: children's, orthopedic or other.
What it is?
Caring for bed patients is not an easy task. Many patients are overweight, which makes taking care of them even more difficult, because you cannot turn a person over alone. As a rule, people bedridden very soon begin to suffer from a new ailment - bedsores.
Pressure ulcers are formed as a result of tissue necrosis. Such wounds on the body cause an already suffering person unbearable pain. It just so happened that it is easier to resort to the prevention of pressure sores than to treat them, especially since it is often possible only with surgical intervention. An anti-decubitus mattress comes to the rescue.
Anti-decubitus complexes are by far the best prophylactic, allowing in the long term to avoid the formation of pressure sores in general.
They are also suitable for improving the condition of people who already suffer from such an unpleasant ailment. Anti-decubitus systems provide a massage effect that stimulates blood circulation not only in the skin, but also in deep tissues.
Different types of systems can be selected for different patients: completely bedridden, with partial mobility, with injuries to the spine and bone marrow. Anti-decubitus models are made not only for beds, but also for sofas and even chairs.
Before choosing the system of interest, it is necessary to consult with your doctor. Incorrectly selected anti-decubitus mattress can worsen the patient's position.
Types and Description
There are many varieties of anti-decubitus mattresses. First of all, they are divided into static and dynamic.
- A static mattress is more like an ordinary orthopedic mattress , as it allows you to tightly fix the position of the patient's body. Such samples are suitable only for people with preserved mobility, as well as for rehabilitation with spinal injuries. Please note that if the bone marrow is damaged, only a static mattress without a compressor can be used.
- Dynamic models are made in two variations. The cell version is suitable for those with partial mobility. There are significant limitations to health indicators. First, the patient should not weigh more than 120 kg. Secondly, if bedsores are already present, their severity should not exceed 2 degrees.
- The cell version is a construct composed of many air chambers. They are more often staggered.
- The tubular mattress is suitable for obese people and for those who are completely deprived of mobility. The degree of bedsores may be the highest - the fourth.
- A balloon mattress is usually designed with an opening for the ship to facilitate caregivers and provide a reasonable level of hygiene.
Each of these options is usually equipped with laser perforation, which provides a sleeping place with adequate ventilation. There are also mattresses with airflow: they additionally cool the patient's body.
Such samples are most suitable for people who suffer from excessive sweating.
Classic dynamic systems are equipped with compressors. More expensive models come with a control unit placed on the side of the patient .
- The control unit allows you to switch the operating modes of the mattress.
- The compressor can work from the mains, and work as an autonomous construct.
- Network models are equipped with special fuses that protect against short circuits, while stand-alone models do not need additional recharge. They cost an order of magnitude more expensive.
Separately, a children's mattress is distinguished, which differs from an adult similar model only in size and coating. It should be hypoallergenic and soft, the use of natural fabrics is encouraged.
Soft silicone models are suitable for the operating table. For prolonged use, they will not work, however, the patient will be more comfortable on such a substrate.
In this section, the filling of static models will be considered, since for dynamic systems, the filler is the air pumped into the compressor.
Several materials are used as fillers for static mattresses: polyvinyl chloride, foam rubber (polyurethane foam) and gel.
- Polyvinyl chloride is cheap, but it has one important drawback. Polyvinyl chloride mattresses are practically not ventilated, as a result of which the bed patient is sweating heavily. However, PVC systems are easy to clean; they dry quickly and do not absorb unpleasant odors.
- A polyurethane (foam) mattress is ventilated much better than its cheap counterpart. It is just as well cleaned and does not absorb extraneous odors, but such models cannot be washed with plain water. It is advisable not to wet the base at all and to clean with a slightly damp cloth.
- A polyurethane foam mattress for a functional bed is suitable for bedridden large spinal injuries. It is necessary to choose the most soft models that allow you to drown the body inside them. Buttocks, shoulder blades and other protruding parts will be recessed inside the mattress, and the lower back will provide a sufficient level of support.
- Gel mattresses are an intermediate option between static models and dynamic. Due to the fluctuation of the gel inside, body massage is performed not only from left to right, but also from bottom to top. Such models are not suitable for people with existing bedsores, as well as for those who are constantly bedridden. Gel mattresses are a good alternative to cell complexes.
Pros, cons and contraindications
There are a lot of advantages of using decubitus mattresses. The first and foremost of these is the prevention of pressure sores and the improvement of the condition of patients already suffering from them. Massage created by anti-decubitus systems stimulates tissues, preventing stagnation of blood in them.
The system against pressure sores is placed directly on the main mattress.
It is important to follow the rules of choice, which are quite simple.
- The anti-decubitus construct should not be more or less than the main one. It is necessary to select a model that exactly matches the size.
- Systems are usually equipped with virtually silent compressors, but pay attention to the noise that they produce does not exceed 10 dB.
Thus, ease of choice is another significant plus.
Necessary conditions - consultation with your doctor, as well as familiarization with the list of contraindications.
The disadvantages include the impossibility of using an anti-decubitus specimen as an alternative to the ordinary. In the case of dynamic systems, they are laid on a regular orthopedic mattress, which is both a plus and a minus.
Not every anti-decubitus kit can be used in cases where the patient is injured in the musculoskeletal system. A fracture of the femoral neck, a severe spinal injury (especially one that affects the back of the brain) require rigid fixation of the body without any massage effect: it will only lead to a worsening of the condition.
When choosing a mattress for cancer patients, it is best to dwell on cell systems. As a rule, such patients are not completely devoid of mobility and often suffer from dystrophy. Massage will help them to feel better. It is important to pay attention to the fact that the compressor does not make noise, since dynamic systems do not turn off during sleep. Cancer patients sleep quite sensitively, the compressor should not interfere with them.
The length and especially the width of the anti-decubitus mattresses varies considerably, however, these parameters usually correspond to the typical parameters of conventional mattresses.
The most common mattress for small single beds is 800 x 1900 mm in size, since people suffering from immobility are rarely placed on double hulks.
There are mattresses with a width of 70, 80 cm. Seventy-centimeter designs are designed more for children than for adults, since few people will feel free on a 70-cm bed. In length, such mattresses are usually made either 190 cm or 200 cm. This parameter depends on the dimensions of the main mattress or bed.
Pay attention to the correlation of the bed and the anti-decubitus mattress. If you select an oversized model that will hang down on the sides, this is fraught with some difficulties, especially if the patient is overweight.
Kinks will not allow air to circulate inside the mattress, as a result of which the compressor is constantly overloaded and may break. In addition, the pressure in such a sheet is unevenly distributed, so that the anti-decubitus effect is reduced to zero.
Too small systems are different. The convenience of the patient should be in the first place, and lying on a mattress that does not match the dimensions of the bed can cause significant discomfort.
Another cornerstone is that small systems slip and cannot be fixed with pins or other sharp objects - there is a chance to pierce the cavities.
How much does it weigh?
The weight of the mattress depends on the chosen model. So, cell structures can weigh within 3 kilograms, tubular ones - up to 5. Static mattresses weigh much more, basically their mass is the same as that of ordinary orthopedic models.
The compressor also has its mass. As a rule, it is he who is the most difficult, and you need to carefully consider how to arrange it in the best way.
Ordinary hooks on the walls can not stand, so many resort to this technique: they hang the compressor directly from the side of the bed. Such an arrangement of this massive object is very convenient, since a partially mobile patient will be able to independently switch the air supply modes, if equipped with a mattress.
It is also important to think about the weight of the patient himself. The more complete the patient, the more advanced (and therefore heavy) he will need a mattress. Tubular models should be equipped with additional perforation and blowing. Each of these options adds to the weight of the mattress and its cost.
Both static and dynamic models differ in different operating principles. If static models can be simply installed and laid down immediately without preliminary preparation, then dynamic options require a more serious approach.
Principle of operation
Static mattresses do not differ much in operation from orthopedic models, but they have a different structure, supporting the whole body at once and not allowing any particular points to receive all the effects.
In dynamic systems, air is supplied alternately to one or another chamber. Usually the cameras are filled in a checkerboard pattern. The cycle of changing filled cells or cylinders does not exceed 10 minutes, and such a quick change does not allow blood to stagnate in skin tissues. In addition, the change of cells allows you to massage the muscles and internal organs, improving the general condition of the patient.
The compressor can be connected to the mains, and such models are in greater demand than stand-alone ones. The need to place the compressor near the outlet imposes certain restrictions on the placement of the bed itself with a mattress. Compressor tubes must be located at the feet, and they must not be allowed to cross or weave. The compressor through the tubes delivers air to the mattress.
Gel complexes do not need to be connected from the mains, they move by themselves under the body of a bed patient. In this case, the massage effect is not so pronounced, but this does not mean that it is worse. On gel mattresses, the whole body is completely relaxed. In some cases, they can be used for a healthy person who just wants to achieve a massage effect during sleep.
How to use: instructions for use
Each specific model has its own operating conditions, but there is a set of basic characteristics that are inherent in all dynamic mattresses.
- Do not inflate the mattress after laying the patient on it. This is due to the fact that it is much easier for a compressor to cope with inflating a structure without a load, and in the future it is simply to maintain the required pressure level.
- You can not fix an anti-decubitus mattress, as well as a sheet on it, with pins.
- All tubes and a compressor should be placed at the foot of the bed. Be careful not to intertwine or place under the mattress.
- On top of an anti-decubitus mattress, it is customary to lay absorbent diapers. They serve as a reasonable replacement for the compartment for the vessel, but not enough. In addition, on the one hand, hygroscopic diapers have a completely hermetic coating, which contributes to the greenhouse effect. It is extremely important to immediately buy a mattress, given that the patient is non-walking.
- By adjusting the pressure level, use a simple test. After the mattress is inflated and the patient is laid down, try sticking your finger between the decubitus mattress and the ordinary mattress. If the finger passes too easily, it means that the cells are inflated tightly and you need to slightly blow off the mattress. In case the finger practically does not pass, it is necessary to increase the pressure in the mattress.
To date, the most trusted models are from Europe.
- In great esteem - German anti-decubitus mattresses . Companies such as Titan Deutschland Gmbh, Belberg and others are well established in the market. Their samples are of excellent quality and affordable price, while the range is constantly updated.
- China and Taiwan offer quite decent samples, but you should not buy complicated models from these manufacturers. It is best to resort to buying Chinese mattresses if you need a short-term option, for example, for a six-month rehabilitation after an injury. Unfortunately, the warranty period that China offers is quite small - only 1 year. After warranty service, mattresses fail, as practice shows.
- Buying a Polish mattress is almost the same as buying a German mattress . In quality, they are almost equivalent to each other. The main difference lies in the price tag for the product: Poland supplies mattresses more expensive, but in some cases they are equipped with rare additional options, such as special coating. The most famous is the brand Armed, which for several decades has been on the market for medical products.
- Manufacturers from Russia also supply high-quality products, but the price tag remains an order of magnitude higher than that of other representatives. This is due to the fact that Russian models are fully equipped in order to guarantee comfort to a bed patient. They are made of durable materials, and the mattresses themselves offer a long warranty.
Many buyers share their experiences on purchasing anti-decubitus mattresses. Most acquire such designs for bedridden relatives, and the reason is simple: caring for an immobilized patient is extremely difficult. Almost all reviews speak in favor of buying an anti-decubitus mattress for several reasons.
- Firstly, it is not easy to take care of a bed patient because it needs to be turned over at least every 1-2 hours. With anti-decubitus mattresses, everything becomes much simpler: now a person needs to be turned over every 3-4 days. This greatly facilitates the work of the caregiver.
- Another difference between specialized complexes is that anti-decubitus mattresses are equipped with recesses for the legs and a compartment for the vessel. Many buyers noted that the presence of such options made their life even easier, and the patient began to feel much more comfortable.
- Another thing that has been noted by people is that mattresses against bedsores guarantee a massage effect, thus partially preventing complete muscle atrophy. As a result, the pain in the patient's body becomes less pronounced, and his suffering is reduced.
In general, it is recommended to buy such a mattress, but be sure to pay attention to ensure that the compressor is not noisy: it is impossible to turn off the product at night, and it is important to ensure that it does not interfere with the patient's sleep.
Which is better to choose?
The choice of a particular model depends entirely on the desired effect that needs to be achieved. If a person is immobilized only incompletely and has retained at least a partial ability to move, the cell sample will be the best choice. It is not necessary to choose a complex design, you can limit yourself to 1-2 air supply modes.
In the presence of strong bedsores, with a large weight or complete immobility, it is better to give preference to balloon mattresses. They are better than cellular ones to cope with the function of tissue massage under high body pressure.
A priori, you should look for a mattress that guarantees good ventilation. It is important to pay attention to the filler and the presence of perforation.
If the patient suffers from excessive sweating, and also obese, it is best to find a model with additional blowing. This will make the person stay in bed more comfortable.
In case of serious spinal injuries, you should not choose a dynamic mattress, you need to stop only on a static one. During recovery, the complete fixation of the patient is important, however, bedsores can occur quite quickly. To prevent this from happening, the body pressure on the surface should be distributed evenly without much pressure on certain areas.
How to blow off?
Anti-decubitus mattress deflates slowly, be prepared for it. Many complain that with independent attempts to blow it off, air is distilled from one cell to another, and it is not possible to completely “expel” it from the canvas.
However, there are several tricks to make this procedure as comfortable as possible.
- First you need to disconnect the compressor from the network or turn off the power of the stand-alone specimen. With the compressor running, blowing off the mattress will not work.
- Next, disconnect the compressor along with the tubes from the mattress. Do not remove the mattress from the bed.
- Gradually begin to smooth the mattress with your hands. Do not rush or push too hard. Gradually, the air will completely come out.
- When the cells are almost blown away, you can gradually fold the mattress into a tight tourniquet from the head to the legs. Thus, you will finally get rid of the air in the cavities, at the same time not allowing it to “wander” inside the mattress from cell to cell.
- Keep the mattress folded.
As you can see, there is nothing complicated in blowing away the anti-decubitus mattress, it is only important to be patient and follow the instructions given.
Do not knock on it or try to “kick out” the air, trampling the complex with your feet, this will not help.
How to care for an anti-decubitus mattress?
Cleaning rules differ for different types of mattresses, however, some typical recommendations can still be given.
- Do not use abrasives or materials such as hard sponges or iron brushes to clean mattresses. All this can damage the protective coating layer of the model.
- You need to clean the mattress only when inflated. Make sure that the sample is sufficiently elastic - this will greatly facilitate the cleaning process.
- After general cleaning, the mattress needs to be dried in a room protected from sunlight. Do not expose the mattress to direct sunlight.
- Mattresses must not be ironed even when deflated. If you need to disinfect them, quartzization and special antiseptic sprays are used.
- Keep decubitus kits folded up.
To make maintenance as simple as possible, it is recommended that regular preventative cleanings be performed once a week.
You will learn even more information about bedsore mattresses from the next video.