The main problem of panel designs is poorly repaired interpanel seams. This leads to wet walls, the formation of fungus, poor sound insulation, freezing and moisture in the seam. Such joints not only violate comfort in apartments, but can also lead to the destruction of plates. To get rid of this problem, it is necessary to repair and warm the interpanel seams.
What is warming for?
Exterior walls in panel buildings, as a rule, are a three-layer structure. On the inside and outside - reinforced concrete, between which a heater is installed. The panels themselves reliably protect from the cold, but the seams between the plates are blown by the wind and are a traditional bridge of cold. Even if the seam is well fixed, but the house is not insulated, the apartments lose their temperature.
In cases where the insulation is performed poorly, problems may arise:
- insufficient heat in the apartment, provided that the batteries are hot;
- freezing of internal walls opposite the seam;
- the formation of condensate and fungus;
- destruction of the finish - the wallpaper is most quickly peeled off, paint and decorative plaster will last longer.
Due to the fact that the seam is leaky, rain water will enter it, which will lead to the destruction of the capital walls and to constant dampness in the apartments. There are cases when interpanel seams are insulated poorly, and poorly sealed on both sides. Accordingly, this is bad for comfort and warmth in residential premises.
To understand that it is necessary to insulate the seams is quite simple. The following symptoms allow you to identify the problem:
- uneven temperature of the inner wall - if it is colder in the area where the interpanel seam is visible from the outside, it is clear that its sealing is poor;
- finishing disappears from the walls, and the room is constantly damp;
- on the facade of the building you can see the insulation lagging behind the seam or its complete absence.
If you notice at least one of the above signs, you should seek the services of the appropriate organization, because it is quite difficult, and sometimes impossible, to insulate the seam with your own hands.
Warming of interpanel seams is carried out by different methods and using a variety of materials. Each of them has both advantages and disadvantages, and the choice depends on the operating conditions and on the requirements of the buyer:
- Most commonly , full joint sealing is used. To do this, plastic solutions are used that deeply enter the structure and fill all the voids. Fine aggregate is fine gravel, expanded clay or sand. Today you can buy special insulation materials, which include foam balls. There are also mixtures with particles of air that traps heat in the room and does not allow cold, they differ in affordable cost.
- If the seams are at a great distance from each other , then it is appropriate to use soft insulation fibers. For these purposes, mineral wool is suitable, characterized by a high compression ratio, resistance to frost and the convenience of working with it. Particles of cotton wool are pressed into the seams, but be careful, because the material is volatile, it can damage the skin, eyes or lungs. Safety in use is characterized by stone wool with long and durable fibers. Installation is quick and easy, but you don’t have to clog the seam with material too much, and if the fiber snaps tightly, it will not provide thermal protection.
- For seams of small sizes, it is recommended to use sealants based on polyurethane. The cost of this material is quite high, but a rather large amount will be needed. Thermal insulation using such sealants is carried out in two ways. Surface - allows you to save material, the nozzle of the spray is placed in the seam and blow the cavity with the mixture. With drilling holes - the seam is expanded with a special tool, the foam is blown in excess so that its excess remains outside, which must be cut off after hardening.
- Wilaterm tubes - a material that is designed for insulation of joints. The material is a cylinder made of foamed polyethylene, the advantage of this technology is its simultaneous protection against dampness. The tubes remain ductile even with temperature changes. Their indisputable advantage is a long service life.
What kind of material to choose for insulation of houses, it is better to consult with professionals about this.
Insulation of high-rise buildings from the outside allows you to achieve the best results. But in this case, only specialists can do the work, since high-altitude work is needed. You can seal the seams yourself by renting scaffolding, they allow you to clasp a wide width , in addition there is a place for tools and materials necessary for work.
You can get to the upper floors using the tower, but there is not enough space on the site. Using the tower is appropriate if you need lengthy work in one place, for example, when the seams have expanded, or you need to clean the cavity from the old insulation.
Turning to professional climbers, be sure to check the certificate confirming compliance with all established standards. As a rule, climbers do not separately seal the joints, they insulate the interswitch space monolithically, so the cold does not penetrate. Warming is carried out on a thoroughly cleaned and even surface.
Be sure to check that the joint of the insulation elements is not in one place with the junction of the plates. In this case, a cold bridge forms and it will be very difficult to correct the error.
The price for warming the facade of a multi-storey building depends on the running meter, as a rule, specialists charge no more than 350 rubles per meter. You can calculate the approximate cost yourself, you just need to multiply the running meters of your living space by the cost per meter.
Sealing an apartment does not take too much time, first of all, the period depends on the amount of work, on average it can be done in 1-2 days. All documents that are needed for construction work are provided by a company specializing in facade insulation. The client must provide only an application addressed to the Chief Engineer.
You can insulate the seams from the inside with your own hands, without the involvement of professionals. Such work can be carried out at any time of the year, there is a lot of space for tools and materials. Before proceeding with the thermal insulation of the joints, it is necessary to remove the old plaster or putty. If necessary, it is also necessary to dismantle the old insulation. You can not start thermal insulation without removing old materials. After all, their service life has already expired or the installation does not meet the requirements, as a result of which the efficiency of the new thermal insulation will be minimized.
After dismantling old materials, the surface must be carefully leveled. If the cavity between the plates is through, fill it with fastening mixtures. For such purposes, cement-sand mortar is best suited, which for a long period will close the gap and securely fasten the structure. The main problem with these defects is getting moisture inside, so waterproof mastics should be used.
The mixture is applied with a brush, spray or a special spray. After the material hardens, a waterproof elastic protection is formed, which, even after slight shrinkage or displacement of the house, will remain intact. If the seams are small, then the space is filled with sealant and then sealed with electrical tape.
Insulation during construction
Earlier, during the construction of houses, tow or rubber was used to insulate the joints. Today, a dowel, cement mortar and a swelling cord of hydrophilic rubber have come to replace these materials. But the work of these mixtures can not be called high-quality, during installation works there are still gaps, which in the future pass the cold inside.
Qualitatively fill the voids in the seams between the panels is only capable of mounting foam, which spreads evenly and completely fills the entire space, without the slightest gaps.
It is used in conjunction with sealants, which can also boast of excellent characteristics and durability.
Sealing joints of loggias and windows
The arrangement of loggias and balconies implies the presence of joints between slabs and walls, through which water gets inside during rain. Due to constant dampness, construction materials will gradually collapse, fungus and mold will form on the walls. If the loggia is not yet insulated, and cold air enters it, the furniture deteriorates, and the level of comfort inside is not at all what the residents expect. In order to prevent drafts and remove cold bridges, one must take care of high-quality thermal insulation.
The main reasons due to which water flows to a balcony or loggia include:
- poor sealing;
- damaged roof;
- bad ebbs or none at all.
To determine the cause, as well as plan a further plan of action, you need to invite a specialist to inspect the room. A prerequisite for thermal insulation is the processing of the joints of the wall and ceiling plate. If you ignore this process, in the near future, the water that will accumulate on the stove will start to get inside.
Sometimes people complain that after the installation of windows on the windowsill and slopes, water seeps out. This may occur due to the fact that between the tide and the wall there is no sealant at all or there are no tides.
Modern materials presented by well-known manufacturers allow you to quickly and, most importantly, efficiently, perform thermal insulation of the joints of panels. If you can’t do the work yourself outside, and ordering the services of specialists is not financially feasible, do not despair, because you can insulate the joints from the inside. To avoid unpleasant consequences due to improperly performed work, it is recommended to contact professionals immediately.
About the technology of insulation of interpanel seams, see below.