The construction of a frame extension to a private house is a quick and economical way to increase the area of your home. Nowadays, structures of this type are beginning to be in great demand, since their construction does not require special skills, and building materials can be purchased at any building materials store. If you strictly adhere to the construction technology and correctly calculate each component of the extension, then it will serve for many years without requiring major repairs.
The extension to the house has its own characteristics, which depend on its purpose, since various requirements are imposed on the kitchen, porch, bathroom and additional living room. In particular, the extension of another residential building in complexity can be compared with the construction of a small house.
There are special requirements for the foundation, thermal protection of walls, floor and ceiling. With the construction of the summer veranda is much simpler, because it is a light unheated building, for the construction of which there is no need for a powerful foundation. In general terms, the design of the terrace is limited to the construction of walls, roof and floor. Although some homeowners prefer a glass porch. The main thing is that the extension does not stand out from the general style of the house.
Problems arise with the kitchen and bathroom, especially when the water supply system to the house is already connected and it will be necessary to carry out additional communications in the newly made rooms. Problems with the heating system may also begin. You should think about communications before building the foundation, so you can save money and time in the future. At worst, you should equip or at least outline the exit points of water and heating pipes. Regardless of what will be attached to the house, this process includes such standard steps as:
- foundation construction;
- the construction of the wall frame and its lining;
- roofing device.
It turns out that the extension of the additional room to the house with your own hands does not differ from the construction of any other structure. And the strength of the entire structure will be determined by the quality of the foundation.
Work on the installation of an additional room in the form of an annex includes the design procedure, selection of materials, preparation of estimates, distribution of communications, communication with the house, arrangement of space.
The creation of the project and the drawing, as well as the calculation of the extension to any house (old or newly built, log, cottage, switchboard, brick, wooden and others) begins after the type of structure and dimensions are determined.
In turn, when choosing an additional room, you can choose such as: porch, terrace, summer kitchen, living room, garage, porch, bay window, awnings. It is important to consider the condition of the adjoining walls and, if necessary, replace the decayed areas. It is necessary to adhere to a single style.
The dimensions of the extension from the frame should not exceed 2/3 of the area of the house. For example, the area of the veranda, as a rule, is approximately 20% of the area of the house. The main thing is not to disturb the exterior of the facade. To make changes in the structure of a residential building, permission from the Committee on Architecture and Urban Planning is required. All necessary drawings are prepared.
Ready-made standard projects are problematic to use, since you need to bind to the existing house structure and soil condition. They are taken as a basis, making changes of varying degrees of complexity depending on the needs of the customer, as a result, an extraordinary solution can be obtained.
The construction of the frame extension can be implemented by yourself, the main thing is to adhere to the advice of professionals in this matter. After the detailed design of the future construction is ready, you can begin construction. This process includes several critical steps that step-by-step instructions will help you get through.
Site preparation and foundation pouring
Before building the frame, you need a foundation. It can be lightweight, columnar or tape, but in most cases, the foundation is a tape foundation of a monolithic type, which is the most reliable and durable.
To create the foundation, you should perform such actions as:
- you need to mark the site. In the corners of the future building, small pegs should be driven in, tying a cord (fishing line) to them. This will clearly see the outline of the future foundation;
- it is necessary to dig a trench (ditch). Its depth depends on the dimensions of the base of the main house. The width of the trench should be 150-170 mm larger than the future walls of the annex;
- it is necessary to fill the bottom with small gravel or sand with a layer of up to 15 cm, carefully compact it;
- directly on a pillow of crushed stone or sand, it is necessary to lay a layer of waterproofing;
- on top of the waterproofing layer, it is necessary to arrange a reinforcing mesh to increase the strength of concrete;
- you need to fill the reinforcing layer 1/3 with the concrete solution, wait until the mortar sets, and then pour another solution at 1/2 the depth of the ditch;
- formwork should be installed. As a material for creating forms for laying concrete, you can use wood, metal, plastic, or combinations thereof;
- it is necessary to fill the upper part of the foundation and allow the concrete to dry. Depending on the weather, this will take about 14 days;
- after the solution is completely dry, it is worth removing the formwork and performing external waterproofing with rubber or roofing material.
Important: the foundation of the main structure and the annex must be common, therefore, even before the stage of pouring the concrete solution, it is necessary to determine the method of joining. If construction is carried out on unstable soils, for example, loose or clay, you need to give some time to shrink the foundation.
Articulation of an extension from the frame with the main structure
Regardless of the quality of the foundation, due to the difference in the magnitude of the load with which the house and the extension act on the soil, there is still the possibility that they will shift in relation to each other over time. Guided by this, experts extremely do not recommend a hard way to attach the extension to the main house.
It is more rational to use an abutment similar in principle to a groove-crest type coupling. For its installation on the wall of the capital building you need to fix two beams, and between them put a vertical beam, which is a component of the frame wall of the annex. Such a method of adjacency will create conditions for leveling mutual movements. Of course, a metal frame can be used instead of wood; in this case, all embedded elements should also be metal. Otherwise, you need to make an articulation on the bolts.
After the final leveling of the surface of the ground part, you can proceed to the construction of the walls of the frame extension. Their base is timber made of wood, treated with protective components.
The process of building walls is represented by the following algorithm of actions:
- need to do the bottom harness. You can connect the beam in several ways, but more often use the connection at an angle or use the half-board method. We seal the voids between the timber and the base with expanded polystyrene;
- to give the harness extra strength, corner joints must be secured with anchors or pins. To the plinth, the timber is fixed in the holes made in advance;
- floor boards are fixed to the lower harness with a step of 60–70 cm, they are best fixed using liquid nails or self-tapping screws;
- the frame racks for the walls must be mounted on metal corners and screws. They must be placed at a distance slightly smaller than the width of the thermal insulation;
- it is advisable to build the upper harness only after installing all the wall posts, so that the structure has sufficient rigidity by this time. The upper harness should be mounted similarly to the lower;
- so that the frame can be reinforced with diagonal bars.
Having finished with the construction of the walls, it is necessary to install the floor crate on the prepared logs of the lower base. For this, it is better to use ordinary boards 40 mm high. Finishing floor (topcoat) is best arranged only after wall cladding and roofing.
Important: during the construction of the frame base, it is necessary to apply the building level, since even a slight roll can provoke deformation of the entire structure.
Even at the stage of wall mounting, it is necessary to lay the ceilings every 60–70 mm and fix them to the upper harness using metal corners. At the same time, you can sew up the ceiling with sheets of thick plywood or boards, which will give the frame even more rigidity. After that, a layer of insulation must be laid on the draft construction of the canvas.
If you plan to use flexible material for the roof, then on the rafters you need to mount another layer of the crate for the vapor barrier.
Warming and finishing
After installing all the elements of the frame structure, you can proceed with the insulation of the extension. As insulation, as a rule, mineral wool, expanded polystyrene or ecowool is used. Insulation plates are arranged in several rows between the supports of the frame. Particular attention must be paid to the mating points of the plates to avoid gaps. For this, the insulation is shifted in different layers relative to each other.
In a similar manner, thermal insulation is laid between the ceilings and the floor. For extensions, it is advisable to carry out insulation from the outside. It does not reduce the useful area of the room and retains heat well. As soon as the thermal insulation is laid over the entire surface of the annex, you can do the device of vapor and moisture insulation. The material should be positioned strictly with villi towards the cladding, and the smooth side should be towards the thermal insulation surface. To protect from winds, the annexe is sheathed on the outside with a film or roofing material.
The walls of the extension must be insulated not only from the outside, but also inside. For this, a superdiffusion membrane (film), foil material and insulation are used. Superdiffusion membrane is a modern insulating "breathing" material. To save money, a plastic film is practiced instead, however, this material accumulates moisture, as a result of which mold forms on the walls of the house.
Foil materials are applied to the wall with an aluminum lap side and fixed with ordinary battens. At the final stage, the walls are faced with plywood, OSB boards or plasterboard. Subject to the entire technology of using the proper materials, a self-constructed frame extension will serve the owner for many years.
The classic veranda is a roof-covered frame structure built on a columnar or strip foundation. It can be represented by glass or partially glass walls. Statements that the veranda must be built from the same materials as the main house, with the advent of the latest styles and fashion trends in architecture has lost its relevance.
In this small cozy veranda, it turned out to equip a small living room with a reading area. Elements of interior decoration in rural style in this case were out of place.
See how to make wireframe extensions in the next video.