Many gardeners are wondering about how to plant and grow perennial lyatris correctly so that this plant grows quickly and gives lush, long flowering. This is not difficult at all - the culture is unpretentious in care and resistant to frost. However, in order for her to please you with her decorative look as long as possible, you need to know about the features of planting and caring for the lyatris.
For flowering, the lyatris needs at least 14 hours of light, and for the formation of flowers, the temperature should be kept at 10-13 degrees. However, as practice shows, the effect of temperature in the region of 5-6 degrees for 12 weeks has a beneficial effect on the duration of flowering and its quality. Based on these requirements, the optimal time for sowing the lyatris can be called autumn or early spring. This culture is not afraid of frost, therefore, with winter sowing in spring you can get strong and healthy seedlings.
Experienced gardeners prefer to plant seeds in the fall, and in the spring thin out seedlings, leaving only the healthiest sprouts. In the spring, planting is done after the earth has completely warmed up and the threat of return frosts has passed. So, in central Russia and in the suburbs, you can plant a flower in April .
Choosing a place and soil
Liatris prefers well-lit areas, since when growing in full or light shade, the decorative colors significantly deteriorate and the growth of the whole bush slows down. The culture can grow in any substrate, but fertile, water- and breathable soil with a slightly acidic reaction within pH 6.0-6.5 is considered optimal for it.
The crop can also be planted in dry sandy substrates, but there it will be weaker, the inflorescences will be smaller, and the flowering period will be shorter. Perennial does not tolerate swampy heavy soils, staying in them often leads to root decay. It is best to prepare land for them in advance. For this, the landing area is dug up with the addition of peat, a small amount of crushed clay, as well as any loosening materials, for example, perlite and river sand, you can also use composted pine bark.
How to plant?
The onions of the lyatris are planted to a depth of 10-15 cm, the interval between the holes is maintained at the level of 20-25 cm. You can buy planting material in any specialized trading enterprise, the tubers are not particularly susceptible to drying , because in any case they will sprout and, most likely, will give flowers already in the current season. Important: only the bulbs of the current season are suitable for planting.
In Siberian regions, gardeners often use seedlings in open ground for planting. The fact is that the spring period there begins much later than in the middle lane, so the seedling method will significantly accelerate the process of growing crops. To do this, you need to plant the seeds in small pots at the end of winter, while it is better to deepen them no more than 1 cm, and moisten the soil from the spray gun. In order for the plants to sprout as soon as possible, they must be placed in a warm, bright room in the house and watered as the substrate dries. As soon as the seedlings get stronger, they can be hardened. To do this, they are taken outside in the daytime. Keep in mind that this can only be done in favorable weather conditions. At the end of May, when the weather is already more or less settled, plants can be moved to open ground by the method of transshipment so as not to violate the integrity of the roots.
The distance between adjacent bushes should be maintained at a level of 15-20 cm.
Lyatris is popularly called the Indian flower . This nickname is due to the fact that this unpretentious plant, resistant to diseases and garden pests, its agricultural technology does not present any difficulties. That is why even inexperienced gardeners can grow it.
Liatris is very fond of moisture, although a short-term drought will not have a detrimental effect on him. For a crop, one watering of 5-7 days is quite enough, and if the weather is rainy, he does not need any additional irrigation.
Waterlogging the culture tolerates much harder - excess moisture becomes a common cause of rotting of the roots. That is why, even at the stage of preparing the site for landing, it is very important to equip a drainage trench for water drainage so that the water does not stagnate. Usually, the next day after watering, a crust appears on the soil surface, which prevents oxygen from reaching the roots and impairs the plant’s nutrition.
To prevent this, the ground near the bushes should be loosened after each wetting.
Fertilizing and fertilizers
3-4 times during the growing season, the lyatris must be fertilized. Mineral and organic compounds are suitable for the plant, such regular top dressing contributes to full lush flowering. In the spring, it is desirable to give preference to nitrogen compounds, they stimulate the growth of green mass and active growth. These same fertilizers will be optimal before wintering. In the summer, lyatris needs phosphoric and potassium preparations. Additionally, compost can be poured around the bushes - it contributes to better flowering.
We draw attention to the fact that complex fertilizer can be applied both in liquid and in dry form. It is advisable to carry out all dressings after rain or watering, otherwise there is a high risk of burning the roots. It is very important to avoid getting fertilizers on the green parts of plants (leaves and stems).
Pruning of the lyatris is most often carried out to design bouquets and flower arrangements. In a vase, they can stand up to 10-14 days. Slices are also often used for drying. In order for the lyatris to dry evenly, it can be tied up with a cut up on a rope, and then placed in a warm, dry, ventilated room.
All inflorescences must be cut off after flowering, otherwise the plant will lack the vitality to produce new peduncles.
Keep in mind that you do not need to cut the stems, but only the inflorescences themselves.
Liatris is highly resistant to frost, so the root part can be left in the ground for wintering - they do not require digging before frost.
At the end of autumn, the entire bush should be cut almost to the surface of the soil, after which it should be covered with mulch (it is best to use humus or peat) with a layer of 7-10 cm. In the northern regions with severe winters, it is additionally recommended to cover the bush with spruce or agrofibre.
When and how to transplant?
The transplant is tolerated completely painlessly, and these manipulations can be performed at any time throughout the growing season. Nevertheless, experienced gardeners believe that the end of April-beginning of May, as well as September, are optimal for replanting the culture. The rhizomes of the lyatris are shortened, with a large number of small roots, so it is easy to separate them. These manipulations do not present any difficulties: you need to dig a bush with a lump of earth, gently clean the rhizomes from the substrate and pour water, then carefully divide and seedlings at a distance of 35-45 cm.
When planting a tuberous root, it is very important to correctly determine where it is up. If the kidneys have not woken up at the time of transplantation, then you can put the planting material in moist moss, so as to awaken it.
The most popular varieties of lyatris are considered to be "Burning Star", "Flamingo", "Sparkler" and "Blue Bird". They can be propagated by seeds, as well as division. Let us dwell on each of them.
Liatris sets seed very abundantly, so there is no shortage of seed material. Before planting, seedlings should be exposed to low temperatures, thus natural stratification occurs. This procedure is optional, but the seeds in this case germinate better. If planting is done in autumn, then the seeds will winter in the soil and they will not have any problems with germination in spring. Keep in mind that seeds grow very slowly, and it will turn out to achieve the first flowering no sooner than after 3-4 years.
Plants can be planted in containers in advance, in this case all the main work needs to be carried out in January-February: seedlings are planted in multi-tiered trays and covered with a light layer of vermiculite - this will provide the necessary level of moisture and will contribute to better germination. During the formation of seedlings, the soil temperature should vary between 18-21 degrees, at night it is recommended to reduce the heating level to 6 degrees in order to accelerate the germination of seedlings.
The first sprouts can be noticed already after a couple of weeks, after which you should gradually reduce the heating to 15-18 degrees, and after another month you can picky seedlings in larger containers.
In the process of transplanting, you can divide the bush into two or more parts. Such manipulations are preferably carried out every 3-5 years. The optimal time for work is considered the beginning of spring or the end of autumn. The bush is carefully dug out and divided by hand with several parts so that each has a root neck with several bulbs. The places of cuts must be disinfected with crushed wood ash or activated carbon. For planting, they prepare landing holes with a depth of 25 cm, so that the roots fit completely in them. You can add a little humus to the ground.
This method of breeding lyatris can be resorted to every year. The tubers of this culture visually resemble flattened bulbs that are connected to each other by processes. These processes can be divided into two parts and thus obtain a new planting material, which in a year will give abundant flowering.
Bulbs are placed in the ground in holes with a diameter of 10-15 cm, after which they are covered with garden soil mixed with humus in a ratio of 2: 1. The first shoots appear within a month.
Diseases and Pests
Lyatris growing in comfortable conditions is highly resistant to diseases and attacks of garden pests. However, if plants are grown in a moist, dark place, then they are often affected by rust. In this case, it is better to choose another, more suitable place, remove all damaged fragments of the bush, treat with fungicides, and destroy plant residues by burning.
If no visible traces of the lesion are visible on the ground green part, but the plant itself looks stunted and oppressed, the root rot is most likely the cause. To revive the bush, you need to clean it from the ground, get rid of all damaged parts, withstand tuberous roots in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, and then transplant to a more comfortable place.
As for pests, the most damage to the plant is caused by mouse voles, who like to eat tubers, as well as wireworms and bears . In order to protect the roots from rodents, you can use the landing in a special grid. If the planting of the lyatris is too tight, then the plants become susceptible to fungal infections, so every 3-4 years it is necessary to divide the bushes, especially since in the old inflorescences the flower stalks do not grow up, but bend outward. This form does not add a special charm to the composition.
In the next video, planting, breeding and caring for the lyatris are waiting for you.