Poultry picking machines are widely used both in large poultry complexes and in farm yards. The devices allow you to quickly and accurately pluck the carcasses of broiler chickens, turkeys, geese and ducks.
Units for pen removal were invented relatively recently - in the second half of the last century, and the production of domestic samples did not begin at all until the beginning of the 2000s. Structurally, the pick-up machine is a cylindrical unit consisting of a housing and a drum placed inside it , inside of which rubber or silicone beating fingers are located. They have the appearance of spikes with a pimpled or ribbed surface. These spikes are the main working body of the machine. Fingers are endowed with a unique property: thanks to the rubber surface and increased friction, the down and feather adhere well to them and are held throughout the entire processing cycle.
Fingers differ in stiffness and configuration. They are located in a strictly defined order and each has its own specialization. When working, the spikes choose "their" type of feather or fluff, and effectively capture it. Thanks to this technology, the machine is able to remove up to 98% of bird plumage.
The material for the manufacture of the unit body is food grade stainless steel, and lightweight shades of polypropylene are used to make the drums. This requirement is a recommendation of sanitary inspection and is due to the fact that light materials are easier to control for pollution. In addition, polypropylene has antibacterial properties and is able to inhibit the growth and development of various bacteria - salmonella, E. coli, staphylococci and pneumobacteria. And also the material has high mechanical strength and withstands shock loads. The inner surface of the drum is absolutely smooth, well washed and not prone to absorb dirt.
The device is controlled by means of a remote control with a power indicator , a switch and an emergency switch located on it . In addition, most units are equipped with a manual start irrigation system that improves the plucking process, as well as rollers for transporting the machine and vibration dampers. The units are equipped with single-phase electric motors with a power of 0.7-2.5 kW and can be powered by 220 or 380 V. The mass of pickers varies from 50 to 120 kg, and the rotation speed of the drum is about 1500 rpm.
The essence of the work of picking devices is as follows: the pre-scalded carcass of a duck, chicken, goose or turkey is placed in a drum and the apparatus is turned on. After starting the engine, the drum begins to rotate according to the principle of a centrifuge, while the disks capture the carcass and begin to twist it. During rotation, the bird hits the spikes, and due to friction, it loses a significant part of the plumage. On models equipped with sprayers, if necessary, turn on the hot water supply. This allows you to remove very thick and deep-seated feathers, which greatly increases the efficiency of the process.
Advantages and disadvantages
High consumer demand and a large number of approving reviews of electric pluckers are due to a number of important advantages of this equipment.
- Due to the high thermal stability of materials, many machines can be used at temperatures from -40 to +70 degrees.
- Drums and spikes of devices are made from environmentally friendly raw materials and do not contain toxic additives and toxic impurities.
- The excellent plucking efficiency is explained by the high torque and powerful traction of the gearboxes.
- The presence of the remote control greatly facilitates the control of the process of removing the pen, making the use of the device understandable and convenient.
- The devices are quite mobile and do not cause difficulties during transportation.
- The units are equipped with a special nozzle for removing feathers and water, which greatly facilitates their operation and maintenance.
- Most models are characterized by high performance. Even the smallest device can pluck about 300 chickens, 100 turkeys, 150 ducks and 70 geese in an hour. For more powerful samples, these values are as follows: ducks - 400, turkeys - 200, hens - 800, geese - 180 pieces per hour. For comparison, working by hand, no more than three carcasses can be plucked per hour.
Despite the large number of obvious advantages, the drawbacks also have disadvantages. The disadvantages include the complete volatility of the devices, which entails the inability to use them in the field. There is also a high cost of some models, sometimes reaching 250 thousand rubles, while a removable nozzle for a drill or screwdriver costs only 1.3 thousand rubles.
Features of use
In order to pluck a bird with a machine, it must be properly prepared. For this, immediately after slaughter, the carcass is allowed to lie down for several hours, after which a couple of containers are prepared. Pour water at room temperature into one, and boiling water into the second. Then they take the carcass, chop off the head, drain the blood and dip it first into cool water, and then put it in boiling water for 3 minutes. While the carcass lies in hot water, the scavenger is started and heated, after which the bird is placed in it and the process of plucking begins.
If the picker does not have a spraying function, then in the working process the carcass is constantly watered with hot water. At the end of the work, the bird is removed, washed well, carefully inspected and manually removed the remaining feathers and hairs.
At the same time, the rest of the fluff is cauterized, then the burning residues are gently scraped off the skin from the skin. Having finished with feathers and down, the bird is washed again under hot water and sent for cutting. If there is a need to collect goose down, then plucking is done manually - using the machine in such cases is not recommended. Removing the feather is done as carefully as possible, being careful not to damage the feather itself and the skin of the bird.
Below are the most popular models of pick-up machines of Russian and foreign production.
- The Italian Piro is designed to pluck medium-sized carcasses. It can process up to three pieces at a time. The productivity of the device is 140 units / h, the engine power is 0.7 kW, the power source is 220 V. The unit is available in dimensions of 63x63x91 cm, weighs 50 kg and costs about 126 thousand rubles.
- The Rotary 950 model was developed by Italian specialists based on German technology and is manufactured in China. The device belongs to the category of professional equipment, so the time for complete processing of the carcass does not exceed 10 seconds. The mass of the device is 114 kg, the electric motor reaches 1.5 kW, and it is powered by a voltage of 220 V. The model is equipped with 342 fingers of different stiffnesses, is available in dimensions 95x95x54 cm and is capable of processing up to 400 carcasses per hour. The unit is additionally equipped with surge protection, has a European certificate and complies with all international safety standards. The cost of Rotary 950 is 273 thousand rubles.
- The Ukrainian model “Farmer’s Dream 800 N” is a very reliable and durable device. The percentage of carcass plucking is 98, the processing time is about 40 seconds. The device is equipped with an electric motor with a power of 1.5 kW, is powered by a 220 V network and weighs 60 kg. The device complies with all safety standards, can operate both in automatic and semi-automatic modes. Such a device costs 35 thousand rubles.
- The Russian Octopus car belongs to professional models and is equipped with a capacious drum with a diameter of 100 cm. The engine power is 1.5 kW, the mains voltage is 380 V, the dimensions are 96x100x107 cm. The weight of the product is 71 kg and its cost reaches 87 thousand rubles . The device is equipped with an external remote control and an irrigation system with manual start. At the same time, 25 chickens or 12 ducks can be loaded into the drum. In an hour, the device is able to pluck up to a thousand small chickens, 210 turkeys, 180 geese and 450 ducks. The payback period of the device is 1 month.
See the video below for an overview of the poultry picking machine.