Each person used the system for draining water in the toilet at least once in his life. However, not everyone knows how it works. It is a mechanism that is mounted on the inside of the drain tank. For complete comfort when using this plumbing device, you must correctly select, install and configure the mechanism. All these nuances will be described in detail below.
The dual-action drainage system is characterized by: drain / overflow mechanisms connected in one device. The functionality of the water supply and discharge system is needed for several parts to work in an interconnected mode.
Different mechanisms look different, although it is safe to say that the difference between them is not very large.
We describe the standard equipment.
- Bulk (inlet) valves. They are constituted by a threaded pipe, which is inserted into the bottom of the tank or into its wall. The thread makes it possible to tightly contact it with the tank with the help of nuts, which ensures the absence of leaks. The opening / closing for the water intake is controlled by a locking mechanism that is attached to the beam.
- The rocker is a lever to activate the intake valve, it is adjusted. The free end of the rocker arm is fixed, or equipped with a float (hollow plug made of plastic), or a control valve. When the inlet valve is triggered, or when the float pops up, the rocker arm rises, and the free gap of the filling hydraulic valve is blocked.
- Drain - in the normal position, it is blocked by a valve / plug. A valve / plug is a flat or semicircular flexible plate that connects an articulated type connection to the main structure.
- At the top is a push-button or lever mechanism that controls the drain valve. When it is used, the upper device is lifted by means of a rod (rods are ropes, or levers, or a plastic frame are rods), and a passage for flow opens. Pouring occurs with sufficient intensity to flush everything that is in the sink into the sewer pipes.
A different arrangement of these elements is allowed. Old models equipped with old water intake systems, equipped with overflow tracking systems and flushing systems controlled by a lever / buttons were installed as separate mechanisms. Today they are issued as a single complex. They are easier to install and maintain, but repairing them is much more difficult.
Drain system device
Drain tanks are not very complex in design. These are ordinary water tanks, inside of which a mechanical locking system is inserted.
How does such a system function:
- discharge is controlled;
- it is controlled how the tank is filled when water is drained into the sewer;
- stops entering the water tank when a certain level is reached;
The functioning of the filling mechanism of the water tank:
- Through the filling valve, which is located in the bottom of the tank or in its wall, water is drawn inward.
- The process of increasing the water level in the tank is monitored by safety-control mechanisms (float, valve). When the water reaches a certain level in the tank, it stops flowing, as the filling hydraulic valve is blocked.
The functioning of the drain device of the water tank:
- If you need to drain the water, you should press the button at the top of the tank or pull the chain - depending on the device. So, the hydraulic valve in the bottom opens and water flows.
- Exactly the same principle applies to devices where two buttons are provided. If you press a small one, a small amount of water mass is released, and when you press a large one, the tank is completely empty. Two-button mechanisms are more economical, they help regulate the amount of discharged fluid, so almost all modern models are equipped with a similar device.
- When the water is released, its level becomes lower, and control mechanisms are activated to automatically open the intake hydraulic valve.
It can be said that, according to a similar principle, any plumbing and lowering plumbing system functions, and this does not depend on its complexity. Of course, there are small details, but with an understanding of the general principle of operation, it will not be difficult to install or quickly repair an unfamiliar system and repair the breakdown.
Features of choice
To comfortably use the toilet, one of the important points is to have a convenient drain, so you need to carefully choose the models of plumbing.
There are factors that deserve special attention.
The filling valve has two placement options:
- Bottom - the location of the pipe in the bottom of the water tank. In this case, the tightness of the connection is very important. Two gaskets are responsible for it.
- Side - pipes and valves are led into the tank through the side wall, the hole is located almost on the upper edge of the wall. This passage is conditionally sealed, since the maximum water level, as a rule, does not reach it.
Considering all the "pros and cons" of the connection options, we recommend options with water supply from below, as it is more efficient and comfortable. It creates less noise when the tank is full. Anti-splash systems are used for the same purpose, their shut-off valves are more reliable in operation.
The disadvantage of such a connection can be called the presence of gaskets, since their broken tightness will immediately entail the most sad consequences.
Vintage plumbing using leverage or a chain of a la Tips pattern.
- Plumbing equipment, which was used during the USSR, was equipped with a lever to which a chain or cord was attached. Today, with modern plumbing, this can only be found except in plumbing equipment, in the "old" style.
- The button is a universal solution in any system. The advantage can be called a short stroke and the ability to control the volume of the drained liquid.
- In the dual-mode tank, respectively, the two-button option is used. One is made responsible for the discharge of certain volumes, and the second - so that the tank is completely empty. Such systems save water, but at the same time both its setup and repair are more complicated.
Push-button toilet systems operating in two modes can be single-button or two-button. You can pay attention to the types of mechanisms that provide overflow control.
There is a much wider variety of options, but for simplicity we dwell on the following classification:
- The simplest varieties of types of hydraulic valves are floats. The float system can be characterized as follows - the shutoff valve is controlled using the rocker / balancer, or levers that are associated with the hydrofusion.
- The membrane system can be characterized as follows: when the filling of the tank is completed, the membrane is subjected to water pressure, and it, in turn, uses a locking device. Nowadays, the popularity of plumbing with membrane-type devices is growing, but more and more often they are beginning to recommend abandoning them in favor of lever systems.
An analysis of the technical and operational characteristics provides the following information:
- The membranes fail suddenly, and it is not always possible to guess this moment, at some point the overflow lock is simply turned off. If there is good soundproofing in the bathroom, it is too late to hear the babbling sounds of water pouring on the floor, and the consequences can be extremely deplorable.
- If the mechanism breaks, then it will be difficult to repair it, even if there is a spare membrane. Also, a lot of time will take to adjust the mechanism after the membrane has been replaced. And even this is not a 100% guarantee of the accurate operation of the diaphragm valve.
It can be considered the optimal way out in case of such a breakdown not to replace the membrane, but the entire system at once, even with a simple float type.
When these or those lead to the need to replace the drain valves on their own, to do this is quite realistic.
Work should be in accordance with the algorithm.
- A filling corresponding to the connectors of an existing tank is purchased. A very important parameter will be where the inlets are located (top, side), their sizes, the different diameter of the drain hole and the overall dimensions. It would be ideal if the names of the manufacturer of the toilet and the filling for the tank match.
- Water is blocked, all liquid remaining in the tank is removed.
- The drain button is recessed, the locking ring is carefully twisted. Now we can disassemble the tank cap.
- The water hose is disconnected.
- The nut that secures the nozzle is unscrewed, and it is removed.
- When the version with vertical eyeliner from the bottom is implemented, it is recommended to place some jar under the hole where the residues that did not spill out when draining run off.
- The entire "filling" is dismantled, it should be removed.
- Fasteners are unscrewed, with the help of which the tank was fixed, it is dismantled. The bottom of the drainage device is removed along with gaskets that provide sealing of the connection.
When dismantling is completed, the inner surfaces in the tank and the openings of the bowl are wiped to remove plaque. Along with this, the channels of the lateral parts of the bowl, which provide drainage, are cleaned. During operation, such places are inaccessible, but here it is quite possible to carry out preventive measures.
Of course, you will have to perform the reverse sequence of actions for the reverse installation of the mechanism:
- Install the bottom of the drain system in the hole, not forgetting the gaskets.
- Reinstall the water tank, align and secure with the fixing bolts. Low-quality fasteners usually rust, so all rusty parts are recommended.
- The installation of the “filling” of the drain device should be completed by fixing it in the drain hole.
- Insert the water filling valve into the side wall and secure with nuts and rubber bands.
- To the outlet pipe of the loading hydraulic valve, connect the water supply. Turn on water and check function.
- If necessary, adjust the overflow height level (approximately 2 cm below the level of the upper hole) and the rod that connects the drain device and buttons.
- With the correct functioning of all systems and in the absence of leakage, you can proceed to installing the cover. Fix it by screwing the bezel of the buttons.
The existing design differences of the tank options and their “fillings” cause small deviations from the algorithm, although almost all tanks are designed according to similar schemes, therefore they mount the tank fittings in this way.
Exceptions can be made for built-in toilet models, which have a tank located inside the wall in a sliding niche.
Therefore, if such a device is available in the apartment, it is not recommended to engage in self-repair, but to entrust this complex operation to specialists.
Valves for a drain tank are inexpensive. Despite this, they sometimes manage with simple repair measures instead of buying it or purchase some separate parts, and only then change them with their own hands.
If a malfunction occurs, open the tank, gain access to the internal mechanism and look at the cause of the breakdown. Even with a superficial acquaintance with the system, a few drains or sets of water in the tank are enough to understand the reasons.
To quickly diagnose and fix the problem, see the table.
No overflow control trip
- Most often, the rocker or the flexible lever that holds the float is skewed. When the skew is eliminated, the movement of the float along the normal path is restored, the system is restored in working condition.
- Diaphragm models can leave the valve open, even if the rocker is in its highest position. If there is such a defect, it is necessary to adjust the membrane or replace it.
- Another reason may be damage to the float with a violation of its tightness - water gets into it. In this case, water is temporarily drained, and the place of damage to the float body is poured with a moisture-proof sealant. Most likely, with such damage, it will soon be necessary to replace the float.
- If the result fails after all these actions, the problem is most likely in the inlet valve itself, and it will have to be replaced entirely.
Leakage valve leaking
- This occurs, as a rule, if the sealing gum is worn out. If the leak is small and the gasket is relatively new, you can fix the problem by tightening the mounting nut.
- If it is impossible to further tighten, you will need to deal with the removal of water from the tank, disassembling the valve and replacing the gasket, which ensures the tightness of the connection to the tank.
Damage to the button draining the water (does not return to its original position)
- The most common reason is the skewed lever that connects the button and the drain valve. When the skew is eliminated, the mechanism begins to function correctly.
- Another common cause is the breakdown of some plastic part. To eliminate the malfunction in this case, you will have to change the drain mechanism entirely.
- When the tank is used for the first time, the cause of this situation is an incorrectly adjusted system. To eliminate such a problem, it is necessary to install and fix the drain cup at the desired height level, which corresponds to the level of the tank height.
When the drain tank is filled, there is a weak pressure of water
- Under normal pressure of the water supply system, it is necessary to dismantle the water supply hose and clean it, remove obstacles blocking the hole.
- If it is impossible to clean the hose, you will have to purchase a new one and replace it.
- If the problem cannot be solved by cleaning, inspect the inlet valve. To do this, you must force the maximum opening of the intake valve and check its throughput.
- If necessary, you can adjust the overflow system, clean the inner chamber of the valve, or replace it completely.
From time to time, the water level of the tank has to be adjusted for various reasons: if it constantly leaks, or in order to save, or to increase the flushing capacity.
To achieve this, a number of measures must be taken.
- The old systems used side water supply and used ordinary thick metal wire as a lever (to connect the valve and the float). To change the level of the float in them, in order to block the water inlet with the membrane, it is enough to bend it. When bending upwards, the amount of water required to close the valve increases, correspondingly, knocking it down - it decreases.
- Modern systems, in which a lateral approach is implemented, like a lever, not a wire is used, but a plastic rod and, of course, it does not bend. The required amount of water in the tank is achieved by adjusting the position of the float. This part is secured with a threaded connection or latches, which must be released to move the float. To increase the volume, you need to move it towards the valve body to reduce the length of the lever.
- Systems in which a lower water supply is implemented, adjustment is simpler. It is necessary that the plastic rod, which limits the amount of water, connecting the lever and the float is longer or shorter. The stopper is standardly equipped with a thread for fixing the float, and a standard plastic nut is used to adjust the height of the level.
See how to adjust the fittings in the drain tank in the video below.