For several millennia, clay remains the main building material. During this time, mankind made many discoveries, developed unique technologies. However, for construction, ceramic brick remains the classic material. Its performance can be safely called unique.
What it is?
A single brick has several names that determine its further use:
The product has a smooth surface. For individual construction, sometimes a brick with a corrugated surface is used. Manufacturers produce these beautiful products with a hollow core of up to 70%.
The volume of 52 products occupies one square meter. To fill a cubic meter, 512 pieces are needed. Unary material is divided into several groups:
- with technological holes.
The product is available in several brands: M75, M200. The number indicates the strength of the material. The higher it is, the stronger the product. For the construction of a small one-story building, the brands M75 and M100 are suitable. When multi-story buildings are being built, products of higher strength are used. Only brands from M125 and higher are able to withstand heavy loads.
Ceramic single brick never rots, it is not subject to destruction by various microorganisms. When building a house from single elements, it is allowed to use reinforced concrete slabs for overlapping. The small dimensions of the brick make it possible to use this building material to create complex structures. And already built buildings are decorated with such a brick.
Builders use ceramic products for different purposes. They are divided into several types:
The most economical is a hollow product. The unit is much more economical than a full-bodied option. The product is light in weight, low frost resistance. Moreover, the thermal insulation increases significantly due to the presence of several holes in a single brick.
There are no pores in a full-bodied product, therefore, such a building material is distinguished by several technological parameters:
- high strength
- frost resistance;
- resistance to mechanical stress.
One of the disadvantages of a single ceramic brick is poor thermal insulation, since the material has a low porosity.
Facing (figured brick) is mainly used for decorative purposes. Curly facades are made from this material, round arches are decorated. For these purposes, both types of bricks are simultaneously used: hollow, solid.
Ceramic single building brick is divided into several groups.
- Standard. Walls, partitions and other similar products are made from it. For processing it is necessary to cement the walls with subsequent plaster.
- Facial. It is used to decorate the front side of the facade.
- High strength. It differs from other products in high strength. It has a high density, has excellent waterproof properties.
The main distinguishing quality of a single brown (red) brick is considered increased strength. This building material has a high resistance to internal loads, tending to destroy the structure of the product. The product is indicated by the letter "M", showing the value of strength. For example, M100 means that with strong compression, the brick is able to withstand a pressure of 100 kg per 1 square. centimeter.
Another important parameter is bending strength. A solid block of the M100 brand, according to the current standard, must freely withstand a fracture pressure of 22 kg per square meter. centimeter. Hollow bricks can withstand only 16 kg.
With such a difference in the strength index, products of the same brand have the same characteristics. When designing a building, not only the tensile strength is taken into account. A few additional parameters are taken into account:
- type of solution;
- brick grade:
- solidification conditions;
- seam quality.
For the construction of the building, a brick is selected that has certain moisture absorption properties. This building material is not afraid of temperature changes. Brick freely withstands sub-zero temperatures, is not afraid of heat. Moreover, its technological characteristics retain their original value for a long time.
A ceramic single brick, if struck, should ring loudly. This is a sign of quality firing. A brick having fused edges with a prominent black core is burnt. This material is used only to create the foundation for low buildings. It is absolutely not suitable for laying walls.
The mass of a full-bodied standard single brick does not exceed 4 kg. Its density determines the degree of pressure that one cubic meter of a product can withstand under strong compression.
A single ceramic block is considered a classic building material used for the construction of various residential premises.
The reliability of the product, its high characteristics have been proven for centuries. For so many years, a single brick has become a recognized leader in the construction of various structures.
Environmentally friendly substances are used for the production of ceramic products:
To obtain high-strength ceramic bricks, no additional impurities are used in factories.
High strength distinguishes this building material. Its value reaches the level of natural granite. It is not difficult to build a building with a height of about 1 thousand meters from ceramic full-bodied bricks.
This material is distinguished by its durability. Brick-built buildings hundreds of years ago stand today. They are so durable that they can be freely operated. Brick buildings have a huge warranty period of about 100-150 years.
A single brick freely tolerates high humidity. It dries quickly. Thanks to its “breathing ability”, a favorable climate is always preserved in the room.
Brick has a low moisture absorption value. It does not exceed 6%. This building material is highly resistant to aggressive environments. He is not afraid of acids and alkalis.
Brick is considered a fireproof material. It does not burn. Even with very severe frost, the properties of bricks remain unchanged. Buildings made of this material boast excellent sound insulation.
Walls made of single ceramic bricks do not require additional insulation. They are so warm that they do not need to be wrapped with mineral wool or other insulating materials. A favorable microclimate is always created in the building. Due to the capillary structure, the room is naturally conditioned.
Due to its high strength and reliability, red brick buildings do not need major repairs for a long time.
This building material has found wide application in the construction and decoration of a variety of structures:
- foundation construction;
- installation of interior partitions;
- installation of supporting structures;
- exterior cladding of buildings;
- construction of fireplaces with subsequent decoration;
- masonry stoves;
- indoor decoration.
In practice, the walls of the building are erected from a single brick, and various partitions are mounted. Large construction organizations prefer to work with such material. It turns out reliable and beautiful buildings, which are likely to last a hundred years without repair.
Overall dimensions of a single brick
When the conveyor production appeared, there was a need to standardize the dimensions of the brick. In the last century, the mandatory size was established in the USSR: 250x120x65 mm. The mass of the product should not exceed 4.3 kg. Nowadays, standard dimensions are set by GOST.
In European countries, Russian brick has the designation RF. The most popular brick sizes in Europe are:
Their dimensions are slightly smaller than that of a classic Russian product. In the West, several sizes are available:
- 240x115x71 mm;
- 240x115x52 mm;
- 200x100x50 (65) mm;
- 250x85x65 mm.
In the last decade, a single ceramic block with a length of about 500 mm can be found on the market. Therefore, before starting construction, it is necessary to foresee in advance what sizes of the product must be used so that a situation of “unsuitable size” does not arise in the masonry.
In European countries, the DF brand is the optimal size for building construction. The masonry of such a product meets architectural classics. However, the size of the NF makes it possible to save the solution. This size allows you to quickly build walls on a large area. On one square meter is placed 60 "thin", as well as 50 "normal" products.
For the USSR, accelerating the pace of construction, while saving material, was considered the most important task. Therefore, starting from the 30s, buildings began to be erected from blocks with dimensions of 250x120x88 mm. A little later, a double brick appeared. Its dimensions reached 250x120x138 mm.
These products were made hollow. This made it possible to reduce the mass of brick walls. For multi-story buildings that do not have a concrete frame, this reduction is of great importance.
To give the building a decorative look, quite often brickwork was created from two types of blocks. Standard products were used in conjunction with bricks, characterized by increased dimensions.
Currently, a block 250x85x65mm (0.7NF) is widely used. The fact is that a facing ceramic product can be used without additional thermal insulation. But the fundamental requirement remains to reduce the pressure on the foundation, especially when it comes to restoration work in the old building. Custom sizes help solve this problem.
Builders consider ceramic products to be the most suitable material for facing work. To implement the architectural concept, it is necessary to have products of different colors, all kinds of shapes and types. For these purposes, the industry produces several types of building blocks:
- artificially aged
These beautiful products blend perfectly in masonry. They do not reduce the durability of the building with the mandatory observance of a single size.
The use of one standard size makes it possible to accurately calculate the required amount of material for the construction of the building. Moreover, the error will be minimal. A house built of a ceramic block will be warm, reliable and durable.
About the types of brick, its characteristics, brands and methods of application, see the video below.