Today, plaster is one of the most popular materials in the field of repair and construction work. Unlike many options, these compounds are affordable and easy to work with. Particular attention should be paid to such a view as improved plaster. The peculiarity of this option from the standard mixture is the presence of additional components that ensure high performance properties of the material.
What it is?
Improved plaster - is not a special type of finish with the improved substances that make up this mixture. The material is based on standard components, without the presence of modifiers. It is just an intermediate option in the classification of putties: it occupies a standard position between a simple and high-quality mixture. The difference between all types of coverage is determined by regulatory documents - SNiP and GOST.
Simple - it is most often used for decorating non-residential premises, when there are no increased requirements for smoothness and leveling of the wall surface. It is intended to apply only 2 layers - spray, primer.
Improved - it is used as the interior decoration of residential buildings, when it is necessary to make the walls extremely even or the surface will be coated or lined with tiles, mosaics, etc. Puttying is carried out in three layers: spray, soil and varnish.
High - quality - plaster implies, in addition to three layers, applying another additional primer. Thus achieve perfect smoothness of the surface of the walls.
And yet, in comparison with many other finishes, putty has high mechanical stability. Microcracks rarely appear on surfaces treated with improved plaster. In addition, the material provides high moisture resistance to the walls, which allows it to be used in different rooms.
In addition, PVC glue is often used as part of improved plasters, which acts as an additional bonding component. Versatility lies in fire resistance. Even with direct thermal exposure, the surface retains its original structure.
Features and composition requirements
Before you familiarize yourself with the composition of the improved plaster, you should understand what the differences between this option and other types of finishes are.
In this case, you need to pay attention to the following features:
- after processing with improved plaster, the coating becomes even and smooth;
- To achieve the desired result, a small layer of material is required - up to 1.5 cm;
- with improved plaster finishing works are much faster than with simple.
It is worth noting that immediately after the application of such putty, the surface can be painted or glued with wallpaper. Additional manipulations are not required, as plaster significantly improves the properties of the coating.
Please note that when working with these formulations, it is possible, but not necessary, to use beacons. In this case, the thickness of the elements must fully correspond to the finish layer, otherwise the application technology will be violated.
It is worth paying attention to the fact that the thickness of the layers must comply with SNIP standards. According to its provisions:
- for brick and reinforced concrete - up to 0.5 cm;
- for wooden walls, including shingles or metal mesh - 0.9 cm.
Designed to prepare the surface and increase adhesion before applying subsequent layers, so the wall is pre-cleaned, dust is removed. The mixture is prepared in the consistency of liquid sour cream. Then all cracks and troughs deeper than 5 mm are filled. Concrete contact is necessarily applied to concrete walls at this stage.
Primer for each layer:
- for heavy cement mortars (for rooms with a high level of humidity) - 5 mm;
- for lightweight - gypsum, lime (for dry rooms) - 7 mm;
- the thickness of all layers (up to 3 is allowed) - not more than 10-15 mm.
This coating should completely finish the surface leveling. A rather thick solution is used - until the consistency of the test. Each subsequent primer coat is applied after the previous one has completely dried.
Coating - no more than 2 mm:
For this layer decorative plaster can be used. It is applied to the already dried up, but not to the end, previous layer of soil. Dried soil is wetted to increase adhesion.
The thickness of all layers of improved plaster should not exceed a value of 20 mm. Particular attention should be paid to the quality requirements of these plasters. The composition used for spraying and priming should pass through a grid with cells with a diameter of up to 3 mm. As for the coating solution, this refers to holes with a size of up to 1.5 mm.
In the sand that is used to prepare the composition, grains must be present. The permissible size of each particle for spray and soil is 2.5 mm. In the case of finishing, the indicator should not exceed 1.25 mm.
Improved plaster is used both for living rooms and for public premises, increasing the protective qualities of surfaces. The composition provides a high degree of adhesion to various surfaces and finishing materials.
The advantage of improved plaster is that it is suitable:
- for brick, concrete, wood and mixed substrates, consisting of different materials;
- for decorating walls, window openings, facing cornices and columns;
- as a leveling layer for ceilings in rooms for various purposes.
The technological process is not particularly difficult if you follow the sequence of steps. First you need to do the preparation of the foundation. Dust and dirt are removed from the surface so that there is no further difficulty with adhesion. After this, minor defects and cracks should be removed.
Many experts recommend using a penetrating primer. Wall treatment must be carried out before applying the plaster, which will increase the adhesion of the surface with different compositions. It is worth noting that you need to proceed to the next steps only after the surface has completely dried.
Then you need to do the mixing of the components for cladding. The ingredients are slaked lime and sand base. Their ratio with water should be 1: 1.5.
Professionals recommend using another common method. For the solution, it is necessary to prepare sand, cement and water. As a bonding component, PVA glue is used. In this case, all the ingredients individually will be much cheaper than the finished solution.
For mixing, you will need a container into which water is poured - 20 liters. For such a volume of liquid, approximately 200 g of the adhesive component is used, the proportions can be changed if necessary. Then, all the components are mixed, gradually pouring sand and cement into the container. The mixture must be thoroughly kneaded to obtain the composition of the desired consistency.
Thanks to the application of this method, it is possible to make the plaster layer a little more. Permissible thickness - 80 mm. In this case, the application can be performed without a frame device, which greatly facilitates the work. Also, this will avoid the occurrence of bumps.
The next step is to spray using a weak solution. This period of work is one of the most important, because this is how the surface is prepared for priming. Due to the presence of a liquid consistency of the composition, it is possible to quickly and easily fill all defects on the wall. Machining ensures maximum surface evenness.
The next step is to apply the primer. For work, you need a trowel, which in the process is placed at an angle of 150 degrees. First, the application is performed with lateral movements, and then from the bottom up. The average thickness of the soil ranges from 12-20 mm. A rule is used to determine evenness. To eliminate defects, a solution is mandatory.
The final stage is a cover. This layer is applied in accordance with a special technology. In the process, it is necessary not only to smooth, but also to wipe the surface. Basically, a special pneumatic bucket is used to cover this layer.
Soil that has already managed to dry out must be moistened with a small amount of water. Using a brush, a coating is performed in several layers. After drying, it is rubbed with a wooden trowel, firmly pressing the tool to the surface. First, perform circular movements, after - horizontal and vertical.
Such work is difficult, especially if the plastered layer is processed on a grid. Performing nakryvki requires certain skills and a lot of experience. If you use a ready-made solution, you should strictly adhere to the instructions specified by the manufacturer.
Tips & Tricks
If you are working with improved plaster for the first time, it is advisable to use several useful recommendations from professional masters. For example, during the preparation of the solution instead of cement, gypsum can be used. Also, a little PVA glue - 100 g is added to the composition. This improves the strength and quality of the finish layer.
When spraying, pay special attention to irregularities. After thorough processing, you will get a reliable coating without the presence of small cracks, which often complicate further processes.
To determine the evenness of the soil after application, the rule should be applied horizontally to the wall. Then the tool is used vertically and diagonally.
About the requirements for the composition of improved plaster, see the next video.