The floor in the bathhouse performs a number of functions that distinguish it from the coating in living rooms. It not only provides free movement with constant moisture, but is also part of the sewer system. Therefore, before installing such a floor, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the features of its installation.
Before choosing the floor for the bath, you need to consider some nuances. The first thing to consider is what season the premises will be in operation. If the bath will be used all year round, then showers, a dressing room, an additional steam room and rest rooms are usually placed in it. In such a bath, a capital floor is installed: an insulated coating with ventilation and drainage. It is enough to make the floor in the summer sauna leaking.
Installation of a leaking floor is carried out by laying boards measuring 1.5 meters by 50 millimeters. The boards are stacked on top of the logs - bars with a diameter of about 150 mm. When installing the log, it is necessary to take into account the type of base. For example, for a columnar foundation of a log it is necessary to lean on a mortgage beam. Logs are laid sequentially, starting with the shortest wall, the bars are placed at a distance of about 60 cm. The places of contact with the base are treated with bituminous mastic or roofing material to ensure insulation.
Next, a subfloor is performed - a layer of soil is laid on top of the boards. The material and its amount are selected based on the type of base soil. If the soil absorbs water well, then the subfloor is covered with a layer of gravel about 25 centimeters thick. Clay soils that swell when wet and poorly conduct moisture must be coated with a material that provides water flow. After laying floor boards, leaving a distance of 2 cm around the entire perimeter.
There should be a small gap between the floorboards. Plates are fixed on beams with nails. To provide protection against dampness and prevent the development of fungus, the coating is treated with drying oil.
Leaking floor is also called “cold” because its temperature is always low. The disadvantages of this coating - it is recommended to install it only in regions with a mild, warm climate. Rooms with such a floor are almost impossible to use in the cold season, because it cannot be insulated. However, there is an option to install the stove below floor level. This design allows you to warm the boards and better protect them from decay.
The process of creating a non-leaking floor is technologically more complex and resource-intensive. Before laying the lag, installation of the rough floor is necessary. Next, the wooden flooring is covered with layers of waterproofing coating. To reduce the leakage of heat from the premises, the floor must be protected with mineral wool or fiberglass insulation plates. So that natural heaters do not lose their properties under the influence of water, a moisture-resistant coating is laid on top.
The rough floor is poured with a layer of bitumen and prepared for installation of floorboards. The technology of laying boards depends on the purpose of the room. The floorboards in the steam room should look towards the incidence of the ray of light. In the dressing room, the flooring is laid in the direction of travel. It is important not to forget to leave a space of at least one centimeter along the contour of the room. This distance provides ventilation.
The Russian bath with a warm floor on the drainage device resembles a cake. The boards are placed at a slight slope, which provides a drain of liquid into the mounted collector. Further moisture flows out through the pipes and is removed outside the extension. The advantages of a warm floor are that the coating is additionally protected from the cold, the moisture removal system allows you to increase the shelf life of the boards.
What coverage to choose?
In the room of a classic Russian bath, there is high humidity, and the temperature can reach 65 degrees. Under such conditions, there is a high probability of rotting the floor, especially a wooden coating. It is important to understand that each room in the bath has different operating conditions and the coating material and operating technology can vary significantly in each room. In addition to individual characteristics, the floor should have some general physical and mechanical characteristics.
The coating must be resistant to a critical temperature difference: the floor interacts with hot water from above, and cold soil acts from below. Also, the flooring must withstand both mechanical influences and contact with chemical reagents of detergents. A mandatory characteristic of the coating is resistance to constant interaction with moisture and saturated water vapor. It is important to remember that floorboards should prevent slipping and not require special care. In addition to the above mechanical properties, the floor in the bath should look aesthetically pleasing.
The classic flooring is wood flooring. This method of laying the floor in the bath is used today. This is not only a tribute to tradition - wood has a high heat capacity and a beautiful appearance. A significant drawback of the boards is their low moisture resistance: the coating is rotten and requires additional protection. Before deciding to install a wooden floor, you need to familiarize yourself with the characteristics of each tree species. For example, moisture becomes too slippery when exposed to moisture.
Concrete flooring is no less popular compared to the plank counterpart. Cement screed has high mechanical strength, which ensures a long service life. It is important to understand that it is necessary to lay the topcoat on a concrete base. Masters advise using tiled masonry. Ceramics are easy to install and use. A significant disadvantage of the concrete floor is the need for thermal insulation. Also, such a floor must be laid under a slope to ensure drainage of water.
During the construction of baths, they increasingly prefer laying stone and tile floors. Ceramics perfectly imitate natural stone and have a relatively low cost. In addition, such a coating is durable and waterproof. An important point - the joints between ceramic fragments require additional processing to protect against moisture and prevent the formation of fungus.
For the right choice of flooring, you need to consider all the operational features of the selected room. In the steam room you can lay concrete, stone or ceramic floors - these materials can withstand extreme conditions. Do not use coatings containing formaldehydes. Under the influence of water and high temperature, such materials emit toxic substances.
If there is a desire to decorate the floor with paint or varnish, then some restrictions must be taken into account. The safest way to decorate a wooden coating is to use a water-based emulsion or dispersion acrylic paint. In the steam room, it is strictly forbidden to use oil paint or an alkyd composition.
The requirements for the floor in the washing room are not as high as for the coating in the steam room. However, the pouring coating must withstand prolonged contact with water and detergents. Floors must also withstand extreme temperature changes. Ceramics fully satisfies these requirements. Wood is also actively used in washing, but it must be treated with special impregnation or varnished.
The floor in the dressing room is practically not in contact with water and steam, so there is no need to increase its water resistance. There is a firebox in the dressing room, so the floor covering should have protection against fire and overheating. As a rule, boards are laid here. In front of the furnace, a metal plate of 60 by 90 centimeters is mounted. This device is necessary to protect the floor from falling sparks and fire.
In the relaxation room you can lay carpet or linoleum. The floors in this room should be comfortable and cozy. The main requirement for such a coating is that it should retain heat well. Since the rest rooms do not come in contact with moisture and do not withstand temperature extremes, they do not require additional protection. Also, they can arrange elevations on the floor or shelves for placing legs, which will add comfort.
Necessary tools and accessories
In order to get a high-quality floor with a long service life, it is necessary to observe the laying technique and the technology for preparing materials. The success of the installation largely depends on the right choice of tools. Sex can be installed under the guidance of a specialist or independently.
Some of the tools needed to install a concrete floor in a bathhouse:
- The correct screed can not be laid without the use of special rakes. These devices level the concrete mass during the laying process. It is important to understand that the coating should be as even as possible: violations in the technique can entail serious consequences.
- The laser or water level will help to get the surface of the necessary evenness. With it, you can also vary the angle of the boards. The grooves for draining the water should be smooth: a level difference is not allowed along the course of the fluid flow. Such moments must be corrected both at the initial stages of installation, and during the laying of plates.
- Craftsmen are needed to spread cement over the entire surface from the far corner of the room to the edges. Using trowels, an impregnation or varnish is also applied when finishing the surface. Masters come in both pointed and semicircular edges. The rounded edges of the tool do not leave visible marks on the screed.
- Grater for cement. This device is necessary to obtain a flat surface. It is necessary to make circular movements on the surface of the laid mass. With their help, excess material is also removed and an even coating is obtained.
- Smoothers are also needed to get a flat surface. Due to their design, they are able to cover and smooth a large area than graters or trowels. Smoothers are used for global work on rolling cement on the entire surface. Among these tools, angular type smoothing machines can be distinguished - they are used to obtain a smooth coating at the junction of the floor with the wall.
- To qualitatively mix expanded clay or expanded clay concrete, a concrete mixer and a container for the solution are necessary. Kneading technology depends on its composition and installation method. Before working directly with cement, you need to familiarize yourself with the technology and mode of preparation of the mixture. This process can be carried out manually, but there is a risk of getting a heterogeneous mass. An improperly mixed composition will not provide the desired performance properties of the floor.
- Also, do not forget about simple tools. The shovel will greatly facilitate the process of spreading concrete mass on the surface. A Velcro towel or any other rag material is necessary for cleaning tools during operation. Smooth screed will work only when working with cleaned equipment. Also at hand you must have a container of water.
For the installation of a wooden floor, a different set of tools is needed.
- Metal profile for laying boards. From small steel gutters, a special grill is mounted on which the boards are laid. Such a frame is necessary in order for the sauna floor to be laid evenly and held firmly. Profiles are sold complete with special fasteners.
- An electric screwdriver and drill are needed to fix the boards. They can be replaced with a metal hammer, but this will require a lot of time and effort. In addition to ordinary screws, staples are used to fix the boards.
- To obtain the required size of bars use an electric planer and a hacksaw for wood. The work of sawing wood is quite dusty, so the craftsmen recommend laying a rug or sheets of newspaper on the floor of the working area. This will significantly reduce the time for subsequent cleaning.
- In any job laying the floor can not do without a level. The laser device is much easier to use and helps to achieve even coverage or the desired slope.
- The finish wood layer often needs to be varnished or painted. To do this, stock up on rollers and brushes. Also, many materials are sticky and toxic, so all work must be carried out with gloves.
How to do it yourself?
The installation of a leaking floor begins with the installation of lags. It can be wooden bars or metal beams. Before installing the lags, you need to treat them with a special antiseptic that increases their corrosion resistance. The choice of antiseptics is great, but some prefer to use used engine oil as an analog. If wood beams are chosen for the lag device, then they must be dried. To do this, the wood is left for some time in a room with a moisture content of 10 to 12 percent. To save time, you can buy ready-made wood after drying in the chamber.
Logs are laid parallel to the smallest wall. If the room in the bath is large enough, it is recommended to create a frame of rigidity. For this, reinforced concrete piles with a step of not more than one meter are installed under the lags.
For the correct installation of the lag there is a step-by-step guide:
- Remove the topsoil from the installation site. Next, lay out a layer of sand or gravel with a thickness of 10 to 15 centimeters and reinforce the system with a grid.
- Piles of brick or fragments of a reinforced concrete slab are laid. This design will provide the base with the necessary bearing capacity.
- The system must be treated with bitumen mastic to protect it from water.
The fixed piles are covered with two layers of waterproofing. Sheets must not be laid too close to the walls. It is necessary to leave a gap of at least 4 cm around the entire perimeter. This will ensure ventilation of the resulting structure.
Next, a device for draining the water. Moisture must be removed from the foundation. In order to properly equip a drainage system, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the features of the base soil. If the soil absorbs moisture well, then from the entire area of the bath it is necessary to remove the layer of earth and fill the surface with crushed stone. On soils with low water throughput, you need to dig a hole about 40 cm deep and conduct a moisture removal system into it. A special clay backfill ensures even water flow. Floors with this method must be laid at a slope of 10 degrees towards the water intake.
Boards of the warm floor are treated - they are cut from the front side and leveled. A gap of two centimeters is left between the masonry and the wall for natural ventilation. Boards are laid at a right angle from the location of the lag. This technology provides the necessary strength of the future floor. The same distance must be maintained between the planks: craftsmen advise using fragments of plywood for these purposes.
Warm floors can also be laid on the logs. The previously described step-by-step actions are placed on bars or steel pipes. To obtain a surface tilt in logs, four mm millings are made. It is not allowed to cut logs adjacent to the walls. The floor drainage system is excellent. Between two supports dig a hole with a depth of at least 300 millimeters and with dimensions of 400 by 400 millimeters.
The walls of the resulting pit must be reinforced with concrete and coated with bitumen. Installation of the drain pipe is carried out at the bottom of the pit with an indent of two centimeters. The drainage pipe must be at least 15 centimeters in diameter. PVC is perfect for these purposes.
Boards are laid starting from the rough layer. This is followed by a waterproofing lap. Joints are smeared with a small amount of bituminous mastic or glued with tape. After fixing the waterproofing, a layer of insulation is laid. In this case, the craftsmen are advised to pay attention to mineral or ecological wool, expanded clay slabs. A more ecological type of insulation is a mixture of sawdust with PVA.
Between the finish coating and insulation it is necessary to lay a vapor barrier. It is also important to leave a gap of at least fifteen millimeters between the layers: an exhaust pipe is passed through the hole. Plates of the final layer should not have crevices at the joints, so builders prefer a tongue and groove board with a spike and a groove. You must remember to install the drain system.
Laying a concrete screed is carried out in several stages. The first concrete layer is poured with a height of not more than six centimeters and left not until completely dry. Heat insulation of standard thickness is laid on a slightly damp layer. To provide the coating with the necessary rigidity, the insulation is covered with a reinforced mesh. The last layer of pouring is laid at an angle of 10 to 15 degrees to ensure flow.
The finish layer, as a rule, does not exceed nine centimeters in thickness. Further, the surface can be decorated with ceramics or plank masonry. It is important not to forget that the coating must be resistant to temperature extremes and have the specified strength. After installing the floor, the walls are polished.
Boardwalk is perfect for leaking floor in the steam room. Wood has good technical characteristics and requires relatively low labor costs. Masters advise completely newcomers to stay on the device of a cold floor. There is no need to create a warmed “pie” foundation and laying utilities. Leaking floor in the steam room requires only a simple drainage.
The flooring does not need to be fixed to the logs, since the coating must be regularly disconnected and dried in the open. This design helps keep the material in good condition, even with frequent floor contact with hot water. The board requires replacement 4-6 years after commissioning. If, nevertheless, there is a desire to fix the coating on the lags, then the boards must be carefully treated with an antiseptic. A cold floor made of larch or pine is considered the most optimal of the price-quality ratio. Oak flooring does not have sufficient roughness and may result in personal injury.
Non-leaking wood flooring is suitable for year-round use. In the washing department and steam room, such a coating will last up to 10 years, if you correctly perform the construction of the draft layer and do not neglect the laying of insulating materials. Boards are not recommended to be coated with paints. The chemical composition can clog the wood pores, which will give the coating a persistent chemical odor.
Also, the paint does not protect the boards from rotting. Masters advise you to leave the surface clean, but sanded well. Natural wood has a pleasant smell, and the aroma of pine needles is considered beneficial for health. In order to protect the coating from decay, use special compounds. But an important point is the drainage device.
Concrete has a long service life, which makes it a leader among materials for floor installation in the bath. Properly laid coating can last up to 50 years, does not require special operating conditions. Concrete screed is not prone to decay, because in concrete the development of microorganisms is impossible. Care for such a floor does not require special measures or the purchase of expensive funds.
The screed can be poured and used as a finished flooring or laid on top of the tile. It is laid on the ground or logs. To strengthen the foundation for the device of a warm floor, the device of screw piles is often used. An insulating “pie” is already being installed on these piles and a screed is being poured. Concrete flooring requires a lot of time and resources, because it is a complex multilayer structure.
Before purchasing, you must familiarize yourself with the composition of the product. Some species contain crushed stone or gravel, so they can cause difficulties during the kneading process. A homogeneous mass will be obtained only using a concrete mixer or perforator. If there are no such devices, then the masters recommend purchasing a solution on a cement-sand base. This material is much easier to knead and pour.
The consistency and composition of the mortar largely depends on the conditions for the further operation of the cement screed. If concrete acts as a rough floor for laying boards, the mixture does not require special additives. If you want to lay ceramic tiles on the screed, add gypsum with an admixture of anhydrate to the solution. Concrete flooring is not recommended as a rough one for the installation of synthetic coatings. When interacting with critical temperatures, synthetics emit complex chemicals that can be hazardous to health.
When installing a concrete cover, proper waterproofing is important. The floor is located under a slight slope, and a special pit with a drain is mounted under the base of the foundation. Water moves through the gutter and soil and is removed outside the bath. Technologically competent installation of this system will protect the foundation from corrosion and allow the cement screed to serve for a long time.
Ceramics are widely used for laying cold floors. This material is not degradable by microorganisms and does not require special operating conditions. The tile is resistant to critical temperature changes. The coating is also resistant to moisture, which allows you to lay it everywhere in the bath.
Designers note a wide color palette of this material, so they often use it to create decor in the relaxation room. The tile is environmentally friendly, does not emit harmful substances and does not have a chemical smell. Ceramics are laid directly on the bulk concrete floor.
The screed does not always provide a smooth coating and requires additional measures. The surface roughness must be minimized, since this work requires effort and time. A tile laid on a screed with bumps will not last long. Water can enter the voids, which will lead to the appearance of a fungus between the joints of the mosaic. The gaps between the fragments must be treated with a special tool both during installation and during operation.
A significant disadvantage of tile is its high thermal conductivity. So that the temperature in the steam room does not fall, proper thermal insulation is necessary. Another significant drawback is the trauma of the varnish coating. It is necessary to purchase a tile with a rough surface so that it does not become slippery when in contact with water. Today, there are many ceramic tiles that mimic a stone coating.
Designers highlight a pebble-style mosaic. In addition to aesthetics and beauty, this coating has a massage effect. Such tiles will be an excellent solution when designing a relaxation room in a marine style. Small stone particles are complemented by turned glass inserts. Sparkling inserts have a beautiful sheen and interestingly reflect light.
To increase the service life of the ceramic coating, it is coated with glaze and fired several times. In addition, the masters advise giving preference to thick tiles. Such material is resistant to temperature fluctuations. Do not buy tiles with a large number of pores - it is less durable. Clinker mosaic or porcelain stoneware should be preferred. Carefully monitor the surface texture: glossy gloss should be avoided.
The heated concrete floor creates a comfortable microclimate. This option is necessary when installing a cold floor, especially in a cool climate zone. Also, the underfloor heating system heats the surface from the inside, drying out the material. This system allows you to get rid of dampness and increase the life of the floor covering. It is important to understand that such a heated floor is quite difficult to install for a beginner. Requires instructions from the wizard and control of the installation process.
Underfloor heating - a system of pipes or cables through which warm liquid moves. Convection provides uniform floor heating around the entire perimeter of the room, regardless of the location of the heating device. Pipes experience strong internal pressure, so the surface must be reinforced additionally. The contours themselves are easy to install, but require reliable attachment to the rough surface. For the device of such heating, pipes without joints and joints should be purchased.
The distance between the contours is called the masonry step. It must be maintained during installation. Violation of the step leads to uneven floor heating. A similar gradient is noticeable when in contact with the floor. You should also carefully choose the flooring in the case of underfloor heating. Ceramics have the ability to heat up quickly, so masters do not recommend using the tile as a finish layer. Preference should be given to wood paneling.
To date, there are two ways to install a warm floor. The water system is carried out by circulating the heating fluid from the pump through pipes. The coolant in this design can be both plain water and special non-freezing compounds. The water system consists of a boiler, manifold and pipes. It is difficult to install, and it is not cheap. However, such a system can reduce heating costs. Water floor heating is often used as additional heating in apartments and houses.
Another way to install a heated floor is an electrical system. Such “cable” floors are easy to install, but their price is completely dependent on energy tariffs. The cable converts electricity to heat and heats the surface evenly. To control the floor heating, temperature sensors are mounted. It is important to remember that such a system should not be combined with wooden materials, since there is a high probability of overheating of the wood and the occurrence of a fire.
Installation of each type of heated floor requires master control. The floor is laid on insulating material. Vapor barrier is an equally important layer when installing a warm floor. After laying the contours, the surface is poured with a cement screed.
All pipe joints must be additionally fixed. It is important to remember that after laying the cement layer it will be impossible to make adjustments. Otherwise, it will be necessary to completely remove the masonry, re-clean the surface and eliminate violations in the installation of the contours. It is important to lay pipes on a perfectly cleaned surface. After making adjustments, the surface is poured with a new layer of cement mortar.
Before use, the floors are pre-tested and heated in accordance with the instructions. The problems are fixed and the system is checked again. The cycle must be resumed until the required temperature is reached. Only after the final tests, the cement screed is leveled and the installation of the finishing floor covering is started. It is important to understand that each joint of the material requires careful processing. Water floor heating will last a long time if all its features are taken into account during installation, for example, steam and hydro insulation of the floor.
For the manufacture of high-quality coatings, masters advise listening to some recommendations. The causes of floor damage can be different, but many can be prevented if you do not violate the technology of laying the coating. The choice of quality material also plays an important role.
When installing the lag, it is important to install waterproofing between the posts. Such a coating will protect the frame from rot and rapid destruction. In the opposite case, the foundation will quickly collapse upon contact with water. Columns should also be made of materials with high frost resistance and water resistance. Water can accumulate in the soil, which will lead to corrosion of concrete and subsidence of the structure.
Wood floors must not be installed without ventilation. Its scheme provides for gaps around the entire perimeter, all depending on the type of layer to be laid. It is not always possible to correct the violation after laying the finish coating, therefore it is necessary not to violate the technology at each stage of work.
Floor boards should not be less than 35 millimeters in thickness. Such a board will withstand a critical load and will last a long time, in contrast to the analog of a smaller thickness. All floor boards must be cut to the same dimensions. This will not only simplify the installation, but also provide the necessary evenness and surface slope. In cold periods, this coating will retain heat longer.
Installation of a wooden floor should only be carried out with stainless steel fasteners. Metal structures can be further treated to protect against rust. Since the coating is regularly subjected to interaction with water, it is necessary to pay increased attention to the choice of metal structures and fasteners.
The floor of the washroom is always slightly below the level of other rooms. The steam room and the relaxation room should rise a few millimeters.
Before you begin to lay boards, the coating must be processed. The material is impregnated not only with a mixture to protect against moisture, but also with a substance that protects from fire. The latter is especially important when installing a warm electric floor. All floor components must be protected against fire. These indicators are prescribed in regulatory documents and must be confirmed by certificates of materials.
Masters advise giving preference to a tiled floor. This combination reliably protects from natural phenomena and the negative effects of the bathhouse. The coating is easy to install and use and will save on hiring workers.
When arranging a steam room, it is necessary to properly arrange a ventilation system. Otherwise, water vapor will accumulate and destroy the ceiling and walls. Rooms with poor ventilation require constant ventilation after use. Only in this case the room will last a long time. To ventilate outward in the attic, a pipe must be drawn through which water vapor and smoke will be removed from the room. With a monolithic foundation, craftsmen advise making holes from the ventilation pipe outward.
To reduce the audibility when moving around the bathhouse, it is necessary to lay a layer of fiberglass under the finish flooring on the waterproofing layer. Fiberglass can be purchased on a roll, as the material is produced in the form of a wide ribbon. The joints of the coating can be connected with tape.
For information on how to make the floor in the bath with your own hands, see the next video.