Creating a landscape design of your site or garden, you always want every plant to look harmonious and beautiful. Not all cultures can coexist together, forming an interesting ensemble. However, this does not apply to Japanese spirea - a plant that perfectly complements any composition, making it truly unique.
The homeland of Japanese spirea is, of course, Japan, although this plant is very popular in some other Asian countries. If you translate the name of the culture, it will become clear that the word "spirea" is similar to "spiral", and indeed, the branches of spirea interestingly twist, resembling spirals . The plant belongs to the pink family and is a slowly growing shrub.
In the wild, the height of the shrub can reach half a meter, but the "home" varieties have much smaller growth - about 25-30 cm. The main feature of the culture are unusual leaves. In spring, they can have a variety of colors in a warm palette: red, orange, pinkish. With the onset of summer, they become familiar green, and in the fall spring shades return again. The shape is completely different and depends on the variety, but there are always cloves on the edges.
Separately, it is worth telling about the shoots of spirai. Young specimens are felt, with a soft edge that they lose with age. At the ends of the shoots are large inflorescences, consisting of many individual flowers. The size of the inflorescences also depends on the variety, and the color, which can be red, white, pink. Nevertheless, all varieties have a long flowering, which cannot be regarded as an advantage.
Japanese Spirea belongs to the species that bloom in summer. This process begins around the middle of June, and ends already before the onset of cold weather.
In addition, spirea can bloom and reapply. However, it will begin to bear fruit only after 4 years of life.
Japanese Spirea has many interesting varieties, each of which deserves a separate consideration.
- Sparkling Champagne. A tall meter-long shrub, which in diameter can reach 150 cm. It has pink-white inflorescences, and the color of the leaves changes every season. The perfect solution for hedges.
- "Frobely." This variety is also very high. It begins to bloom in June, the inflorescences are pink, heavy, the leaves turn green, contrasting beautifully with the flowers. In the fall they turn red.
- "Janpei or Genpei." The second name of the variety is Shirobana. Very beautiful, medium height variety. Unlike many other varieties, the leaves always have a dark green color. But the real "highlight" of the variety will be inflorescences, which can include as many as three different shades. For this, “Shirobana” is popularly called tricolor.
- "Albiflora." This spirea grows to a meter and a half wide, but does not reach a meter in height. In summer, its leaves are green, and inflorescences are white. Autumn leaves turn yellow.
- Golden Carpet. Dwarf artificially bred variety. The shrub has a round shape, in height and in diameter about the same - about 30 cm. It blooms not too abundantly, but beautifully - with small pink inflorescences in the shape of a shield. Leaves are bright yellow, golden.
- Magic Carpet. It has a fairly dense and dense crown, in appearance resembling a carpet. A feature of the variety is the frequent change of color of the leaves, for which the plant is very much appreciated in landscape design. The flowers in this variety are small, in pink, and the culture grows to about 50 cm.
- "Nana." Another miniature shrub reaching no more than half a meter in height. It blooms until September, inflorescences have a bright red color. Leaves change their color from green and red to orange.
- Neon Flash ("Neon Flash"). Very beautiful compact bush, in length and width reaches almost a meter. Leaves change their color, flowering is plentiful, long. Inflorescences are saturated, bright, can have shades from lilac to deep red.
- Firelight. A bush of medium height, about 60 cm. Blossoms until September, the inflorescences are pink, cover the culture loosely. The shoots have a burgundy shade, very bright. This is one of the slowest growing varieties.
- Japaniz Dwarf. The name of this variety translates very funny - "Japanese gnome." Height - 30 cm, the crown has a spherical shape. Leaflets of saturated green color, small, and inflorescences are pink, corymbose.
- "Manon." Compact shrub with a round crown and leaves, seasonally changing color. Inflorescences are not too large, bright red.
- Golden Princesses. Very beautiful shrub, also round. Inflorescences have the shape of a ball, very dense, large. Coloring - from lilac to pale pink.
Growing rules and care features
The main advantage of Japanese spirea is its unpretentiousness in care. But in order to ensure healthy and harmonious growth in advance, as well as protect against diseases and pests, you need to carefully consider all stages of planting and further care for it.
Japanese Spirea is planted in open ground in spring or autumn. Most experts believe that spring planting will be more successful. After all, the seedling will have every chance to adapt to the new conditions, strengthen the root system, take root. In addition, spirea will be able to start buds, which in summer will bloom with beautiful inflorescences . Nevertheless, the autumn planting of culture also takes place, but it is advisable to carry out it only in regions with a warm climate.
In addition, it is important to do this before the first frost, otherwise young plants will die.
To grow spirea, you need to select sunny open areas. In such places, she will show her best qualities. However, it should be noted that the shrub will grow in partial shade, but you will not have to expect such abundant flowering from it.
Another caveat is the size of the area. A large area should be reserved for the planting of spirea, since the root system needs a lot of space for harmonious development.
Such a plant as spirea does not impose special requirements on the composition of the soil. But it’s better if the land is fertile. Well, if the acidity is slightly higher than neutral. For gardeners whose soil is drained, light, oxygenated, the easiest way. They don’t need to worry about fertilizers when planting. But if the soil is poor, then first, a couple of weeks before planting, it is fertilized with peat or a complex of mineral top dressing.
Before talking about planting, consider the rules for acquiring planting material. Here you need to be careful, carefully inspect the seedlings. They are acquired only in nurseries and primarily look at the roots, which should be slightly moist. The shoots must bend, because this plant is very flexible. If you still looked at something, then at home cut off the diseased roots with a sterile secateurs, but it is also worth doing with too long roots (they need to be shortened without cutting completely). Then the roots are placed in a container with a weak solution of manganese - this simple procedure will kill bacteria, if any.
While preparing planting material, you can do the holes. Pits are prepared 3-4 days before planting, and their size should slightly exceed the size of the root system of the seedling itself. The depth of the hole is usually about 40 centimeters.
Having prepared the pits, they begin planting seedlings. It is best if it will be carried out in cloudy, but not cold weather. The bottom of the hole is covered with a 15-cm layer of gravel or crushed brick. Then the plant falls, the roots will need to be carefully straightened. After this, the fertile mixture is filled, which consists of turf, peat, humus and sand in a ratio of 3: 1: 2: 1. The soil is laid carefully, gently tamping. The root neck should not be buried.
When a plant is planted, it needs to be watered. Enough one or two tens of liters per bush. Then experts advise zamulchivat trunk trunks with dry peat or sawdust . This will help moisture retain in the soil and nourish the roots additionally. After a few days, carry out another watering, but now add a little ammonia to the liquid. This will make the roots easier to bear stress. Important: do not forget that the root system of Japanese spirea is quite voluminous. Therefore, it is important to observe the landing interval.
Between each bush you need to leave a distance of half a meter, and between each row of plantings - 70 centimeters. If you have spreading, large varieties, keep a distance of one meter.
Watering is probably the most important point in caring for any plant. Particular responsibility should be shown in the case of newly planted sprays. Once every 14 days, the bushes are watered, each one and a half buckets are required. Water should be warm, settled in the sun.
In hot weather, the frequency of watering can be increased, it is impossible for the plant to need moisture. In the cool, on the contrary, the fluid supply is reduced, watering only when the soil dries. If the rainy season has begun, watering in general can be stopped. In addition, it should not be sprayed from the spray gun, and also irrigated by sprinkling. But loosening the soil after watering will be useful, as well as digging all the weeds nearby.
Japanese spirea can be fed in the first year of life, in the summer. At this time, it is important to use exclusively organics. Take a little water, dilute with fresh manure, and then 10 days insist in a cool place. Then you need to dilute the infusion in a bucket of water and water the culture. This event is done after the cropping procedure. In addition, before fertilizing, you need to water the bush with plain water, loosen, remove weeds . Small plants will require about 1 liter of fluid, large ones will need 3-4.
From the second year, mineral complexes can also be introduced. Unlike organic, minerals are used in spring, before flowering. Fertilizers for pink crops are suitable, which must be applied as described in the instructions. You can also additionally fertilize the plants with superphosphate, which is introduced with manure in the summer.
One bucket of infusion will need 10 grams of the substance.
Spirea grows well, so pruning is vital for her. Mowing the culture is carried out in the spring. Initially, in the first three years, regular pruning will be required, in which frozen, diseased and dried branches are removed. The procedure is done in May. A cardinal anti-aging haircut will be required for 4 years more. The bush is trimmed low, leaving 30 cm. Then top dressing is applied.
Subsequent haircuts are carried out, taking into account the purpose of growing the plant, which may be different: hedges, the design of paths, alpine slides, etc. Every 2 years, the shoots are pruned, since only young specimens bloom. After flowering, pruning is not carried out: this is relevant only for spring-flowering varieties of spirea.
Diseases and Pests
It is worth noting that spirea is rarely infected with diseases. But this happens, so it’s important to know in advance how to save and protect the plants. If you notice that the leaves of the spirea began to dry, curl, turn yellow, and the plant itself stopped growing, it's time to look for the cause. Viral and bacterial diseases need to be immediately “discarded”, since spirea almost never picks them up. Most likely, this is a matter of fungal infections, which mainly occur due to the gardener's fault: excessive watering, non-observance of the distance between plantings, and also due to external reasons, for example, high humidity and prolonged rainfall.
One of the most common and unpleasant infections is verticillosis, which quickly leads to death while ignoring the problem. Sick bushes are sprayed with fungicides, for example, "Fundazolum", as well as a solution of manganese. If this fails, the bush will have to be destroyed.
As for pests, there are more than possible diseases. In total, three main parasites can be distinguished.
- Rose leaflet. This is a small nocturnal butterfly that does not disdain anything. It harms both in the caterpillar stage and in the adult insect stage. Gnaws leaves, drinking their juices. Insecticides should be used to combat it.
- Spider mite. It begins to create its own colonies in May, and is fully activated in late July. He also nibbles the leaves, entangling them with a small cobweb. They are fighting with insecticides, Karbofos has proven itself particularly well. If not everything is already running, you can try a solution of laundry soap, which is sprayed with the culture. To do this, a quarter bucket of water is mixed with three tablespoons of grated soap and insisted for a couple of days.
- Aphid. A dangerous and very popular pest that drinks all the juices from shoots and foliage. Actellik can be used against aphids. Tobacco, pepper, garlic or soap infusion perfectly helps with folk remedies. It is also recommended to deal with the destruction of ants on the site.
In addition to insects, moles can also cause harm. They gnaw the roots of spirea, which is why the plant dries and dies. Few people will find the strength to catch and kill moles in themselves, and this is not necessary. It’s much easier to install such a tool as Krotogon on the site. It emits special sound waves that moles do not like. In addition, moles hate castor oil.
If you place the container with oil around the perimeter, the animals will have to look for another site for living.
Almost all varieties of Japanese spirea remarkably resist frosts. Many of them do not need shelter at all, but this does not apply to first-year seedlings. If in doubt, you can cover all plants, even adults, there will definitely be no harm.
How to cover:
- collect the shoots in a bunch and bandage;
- mulch the plant with a 10-centimeter layer of straw or sawdust;
- bend the beam and fasten;
- cover the plant with leaves, as well as branches, so as not to sweep the wind;
- with the onset of winter, the spirea is additionally covered with snow.
Japanese spirea can be propagated in several ways, each of which has its own characteristics.
Propagation by cuttings is a fairly simple method available to beginners. It is recommended to carry it out in early autumn. For cuttings, choose a sturdy stalk and cut it into 4 parts. Each of them should have leaves. Cuttings need to be soaked in water with a growth stimulant for a couple of hours, then planted in the ground, consisting of peat and sand. The container with cuttings is carried in a cool and dry place, covered with leaves and left for the winter.
With the advent of spring, the material will be ready for planting in open ground.
Another very easy method, in which practically nothing needs to be done. At the very beginning of spring, before the appearance of leaves, the branches that are closest to the ground bend and bend, firmly fixing on the ground. Bent branches need to be sprinkled with earth and do not forget to water. If everything is done correctly, by the beginning of autumn the spirea will please you with new bushes.
This is a rather unreliable method of propagating spirea, since the seeds germinate only half. Moreover, the technique is not applicable to all varieties, so most gardeners do not apply to it. However, if you want to try it, you need to know how to do it right.
In early spring, you will need to prepare boxes with fertile and high-quality soil. Seeds are placed in it, peat can be put on top. The container with seeds is covered with glass, and when the first sprouts appear, they remove it. Watered sparingly, protecting small sprouts from drafts and the scorching sun. When two leaves appear, the seedlings are dived, settling in separate containers. After a year, the culture can be planted on the site.
Landscape design application
Japanese Spirea is a very decorative, beautiful and delicate plant that will decorate the site both alone and in the company of other cultures. In autumn, they will delight gardeners with unusual colors of leaves, and in late spring and summer with airy inflorescences of various shades. Spirea decorate not only sites, but also city parks, walking squares near medical institutions, kindergartens and schools, private estates. These plants are appropriate always and everywhere. But they look especially beautiful together with conifers: thuja, juniper, small Christmas trees. No less magnificent compositions can be formed by combining spirea with lilac, lavender, rhododendrons, hawthorn.
If you want to create spacious, spectacular flower beds, then spirea can be successfully combined with lilies of the valley, tulips, violets, primroses, daffodils . An interesting solution would be a single spirea, in whose near-stem circle, periwinkles, a medunica, and cerastium are comfortably located.
Now let's see some beautiful examples of how effectively you can transform a site by just planting a spire on it.
- Japanese spirea "Golden Princesses" in an unusual design.
- The circular planting of culture is simple and aesthetically pleasing.
- Elegant track design with two rows of pink spires.
- Low compact "Country Red" in the city.
- Amazing landscape of light rose bushes.
- Aerial hedge formed from large white spirea.
- Compact bushes in the design of conifers are a great choice for a private garden.
In the next video you will find additional information about Japanese spiraea.