In order to immobilize something with something, we most often use wire. Why? It is able to reliably and firmly connect two surfaces, two corners or two peaks.
What it is?
A wire is a thin metal product that has no length limitations and, when subjected to mechanical or physical stress, bends plastic at different angles. The wire is made from a mixture of various materials by pressing or rolling. The main diameters range from 0.0005 to 1.7 cm. Their functions include the following:
- mechanical support;
- electrical conductivity.
The term “wire” itself has the meaning of a bundle of threads, for example, it can be cable wires or metal ropes.
In accordance with the current GOST, the following types of wire are distinguished .
- Copper-plated . This type is used when working with compounds containing carbon or alloy steels, often called color.
- Aluminum composition. Designed for welding with alloys of aluminum, manganese, silicon and magnesium.
- Stainless steel . Suitable for fastening metals with chromium or nickel in the content.
- Powder - combined with carbon steel. Compounds occur during the heat treatment.
- Titanium . To work with titanium metal, most often welding with such a wire is carried out by experienced welders, with special instructions attached.
- Brass . Work with brass and bronze.
- Steel . Directly designed for welding with steel.
- Twisted . Bonded with elastic and soft metals.
- Calibrated . Used in the production of materials with impurities of various compounds.
- Zinc . Zinc alloy welding.
- Molybdenum . Such a product has found its application in areas that impose requirements on the size of parts and the resistance of materials with high temperatures.
- Surfacing It is made of special materials, the features of which allow you to participate in the welding process in the manufacture of metal structures.
- Plastic Practical to use, does not rust, very resistant to chemicals and fertilizers. Therefore, it is often used in the garden and in the country.
- Platinum . A coil of such wire is quite expensive. It is used in devices and appliances where durability and uninterrupted operation are required.
- Cable car . It is used for the production of wire fencing type "Egoza".
- Twisted . This type is used in almost every field. Since such a wire is very strong and durable.
Each type of wire (aluminum, lithium, powder, etc.) is subject to marking in accordance with GOST (state standard). This aspect is important because only alloyed has about 80 brands. Sv-06Kh19N9T (sv is the name of the species; the remaining letters and numbers indicate the composition of this compound) is the letter used in electric welding (06 is the percentage of carbon in the product (0.06%); X is the presence of chromium (19%); N - nickel (9%); T - titanium). Since, after “T”, no numbers are set, this means that the percentage of titanium is not more than 1%.
Thus, each type of wire in its certificate has this code, by which it is possible to find out the composition of the material . For products made of brass alloys, the code is simpler (2.5 L70) - the numbers in front indicate the diameter of the wire. As a result, we have before us a brass product having a diameter of 2.5 mm. In aluminum markings according to GOST 7871 (Sv1002, SvA3K) the same system works.
Aluminum wire is made strictly from welding pure aluminum, or its mixtures (a special adapter is used). This process is carried out in semi-automatic welding under gas pressure. Often used wire - Amg6, AMG3, AMg5 (GOST 7871). The production of steel wire is carried out in a high vacuum environment in special furnaces, due to which the alloy is obtained. An electroslag remelting method is also used. The choice of creation method is prescribed in the contract between the issuing manufacturing company and the consumer.
Copper-coated wire contains alloyed and low-carbon steel as part of its alloy. On the basis of the prescribed GOST 2246, the buyer must present a special permit, then complete the order. In the production of this type, electric arc welding is used.
Flux cored wire (self-shielding) is presented in the form of a powder that is poured into a tubular, metal product coated with two layers with bends. The content acts as a flux. There is a percentage ratio varying between 15-40%, specific data are indicated in the certificate. The main purpose of this wire is welding in carbon dioxide, it is also possible in a normal environment. The powder mixture in its content can have 5 types:
- rutile (organic compound);
- rutile fluorite (mixed);
- rutile with an admixture of inorganic elements.
Flux cored wire is often used in the construction of structures with special conditions (under water, in vacuum).
By sectional shape
Each type of wire differs in its cross-sectional shapes.
- In the form of X "X-shaped."
Before choosing the type of wire, you should also familiarize yourself with the chemical composition, since when connecting one alloy with another, a process of oxidation or deformation is possible. Also, types of wire of different chemical composition are used in different fields, for example, solid bronze wire of a special chemical composition is used in mechanical engineering, but its soft version of a different composition is used in applied art. This happens with other types, for example, with lead wire.
According to their molecular content, the wire is divided into the following types:
- low carbon compounds (up to 0.25% carbon content);
- high carbon alloys (above 0.25% carbon);
- alloy steel wire;
- having highly alloyed mixtures;
- alloys that respond to properties (anticorrosion, increased heat resistance, heat resistance, precision).
By type of final processing
The final processing of metal wire is an important element in its manufacture, as it directly depends on further operation in welding. Types of final mining differ:
- subjected to high heat treatment;
- released under the action of mechanical stress (it is considered to be stabilized);
- not passed high heat treatment;
- hardened and tempered;
- cold drawn;
- cold rolled;
- thermally drawn.
By type of surface
The appearance of the surface is responsible for the further physical contact of atoms of one alloy with another. Incorrect selection of species may result in corrosion. The following surfaces exist:
- without additional finishing after deformation of the metal;
- fitted, mainly occurs after grinding and turning at an intermediate size;
- polished using special means (polish);
There are also special wire surfaces.
- Metal surface . It incorporates elements: brass, aluminum, copper, zinc.
- Non-metallic. Its surface is filled with polymers and phosphates.
- Bright . Caused by the presence of color discolouration that has undergone heat treatment.
- Black . Also exposed to high temperatures, but the surface has a coating of scale.
The wire should be selected according to their functions and purpose, they are distinguished in this way:
- domestic use;
- reinforcement of reinforced concrete products (preliminary stress is required for the applied structures);
- for welding purposes;
- for surfacing;
- use as a rope;
- when working with flexible drafts of centralization of arrows and signals;
- string making;
- iron nets;
- in telecommunications (overhead transmission line);
- for wires;
- cables and cords;
- as a heater and resistance element;
- for coefficient of elasticity;
- in achieving the necessary elasticity with heat treatment and linear expansion;
- harmonic signal control;
- structural (various layout);
- apply as mounting material (packaging type);
- cotter pin;
- printing (covers multiple aspects of application);
- Byrd application.
Dimensions and Weight
Dimensions can also differentiate. There are only 9 groups, the coil of wire of each of which has a different weight and thickness from the others.
- The first group is less than 0.01 cm.
- The second group is from 0.01 to 0.02 cm.
- The third group is 0.02 - 0.04 cm.
- The fourth group is 0.04 - 0.08 cm.
- The fifth group is 0.08 - 0.16 cm.
- Sixth group 0.16 - 0.4 cm.
- Seventh group 0.4 - 0.6 cm.
- The eighth group is 0.6–0.8 cm.
- Ninth group from 0.8 cm and above.
The wire is used mainly for technical and decorative work . Its main role is as a material in the manufacture of various building elements. These are steel ropes, metal cords, metal nets. In thermoregulatory devices (electric furnaces, heaters, thermal motors,) the protrusion wire as a heat-conducting material. Measuring tapes are installed in springy, heating elements - membranes.
In a variety of fasteners: nuts, bolts, washers, rivets and others. In the creation of pipes, flattened tape is used. It is an element of saws for metal and wood, bushings for bicycle rollers and motor chains, cable insulation, and production of razor blades. The main applications are:
- metal processing industry;
- production of building materials;
- in various industries;
- the field of metallurgy;
- oil and chemical structure.
The choice of wire is not the easiest, since there are a huge number of types and classifications, so if you do not need this product for domestic use, then approach the selection responsibly, using all the tips.
In the next video you will learn how to choose a wire for a welding semiautomatic device.