Motoblock - a device that has entered the daily life of Russian farmers and gardeners since the 1980s. Given the characteristics of the domestic climate and soils, it is appropriate first of all to choose domestic equipment. In this regard, it will be useful to get acquainted with motorized blocks such as "Oka".
Appointment and technical characteristics
It is possible to use the Oka motor-block for the most different needs. The company that manufactures these products has been operating since 1966. The accumulated experience has allowed us to create an apparatus capable of:
- to plow the earth;
- to transport soil and household, construction waste;
- move fertilizers, pesticides;
- to clear the site of snow, various dirt;
- to harvest root crops.
The difference between the individual modifications of the Oka is mainly related to the installed motors. Their greatest effective power can be 6, 6.5, 7 and 8 liters. with. Regardless of specific modifications, chain reducers are used. The dimensions of the MB-1 model are 150x60x105 cm. The operational mass of this walk-behind tractor does not exceed 90 kg, and its ground clearance is 14 cm.
Motoblocks "Oka", produced and sold now, for the most part belong to the glorious family "MB-1" , which has proven itself well. As with other devices of this kind, an oil change is recommended after the first 5 hours of use. Then the intervals increase to 25-30 hours. The use of mineral oil for carburetor automobile engines is allowed. In the latest version, which appeared in 2010, a cable control was introduced that provides instant emergency engine shutdown.
Almost all produced models belong to the MB-1D branch. A striking example is the MB-1D2M16 model. This walk-behind tractor is equipped with a Chinese engine of the Lifan 177F brand with a total capacity of 9.0 liters. with. The unit is designed for 2 forward and 2 rear speeds. The plowing strip can vary from 72 to 113 cm. If you make several passes, you can reach a depth of 30 cm. A V-belt scheme is chosen to transfer the force generated by the motor to the working parts. The chain gearbox can operate at two speeds. From 1.5 to 2 liters of gear oils are used to fill the gearbox.
The package includes:
- pneumatic wheels;
- 4 loosening milling cutters;
The engine, which drives the walk-behind tractor and auxiliary tools, runs on gasoline, has a four-cycle cycle of action. With a cylinder volume of 270 cm3, the capacity of a gasoline tank is 6 liters. Forward and backward transport speeds are 9 km / h, minimum - 3.6 km / h. The wheel diagram of the walk-behind tractor is 2x2. Thanks to the clearance of 14 cm, he confidently drives through any minimally groomed summer cottage. In order for the block to be able to rotate at the command of the steering wheel, a radius of at least 33 cm is required. The track size is adjusted in steps. Due to the extension cords, it can be increased from 31 to 59 cm. The nominal number of cutters is 4; if this is not enough, you can add 2 more.
There are 4 knives per cutter. Brand warranty for walk-behind tractor is 18 months. The MB-1D2M16 model, like other versions, is assembled in the Kaluga Region. The motoblock is able to efficiently process up to 50 acres of land. In larger areas, its characteristics are already insufficient.
By design, the device is classified as a milling motor cultivator with a power take-off pulley. Due to the variety of compatible equipment, a lot of work can be done on the site all year round, and not just agricultural. The engine supplied from China is optionally equipped with an electric starter. At the request of the consumer add reduction gears to the kit.
To equip the MB-1D2M13 model, the designers chose the Japanese Subaru EX17 engine, designed for 6 liters. with. The gauge, plowing width and plowing depths are the same as those of model 16. There are no differences in the organization of the clutch and gearbox as standard. The capacity of the gas tank is 3.6 liters. To refuel the engine consume another 0.8 liters of engine oil. 4 or 6 milling cutters can do from 40 to 100 revolutions per minute. The total mass of the device does not exceed 90 kg. The walk-behind tractor is given a 24-month warranty. The manufacturer promises that long-term work can be carried out on medium-sized lands. Important: the engine may change in some versions, therefore it is recommended to carefully check its modification in the technical data sheet.
Standard motors from the EX Premium series are classified as professional power plants with significant performance, designed for long-term operation. Despite their increased power, they are relatively small. Japanese developers are actively using the latest technological advances to radically improve their product. High engine performance is achieved:
- the use of cast iron sleeves obtained by precision casting;
- installing a long-running fan;
- optimization of the overhead valve actuator, resulting in a low noise level;
- improving the geometry of the combustion chamber and increasing the starter spool (all this facilitates starting even in extreme frost).
The total mass of the “13th” model motor is 15 kg. For him, it is advised to use gasoline without the addition of lead. In the modification "MB-1D1M1" the tension of the belts is even stronger, because its engine produces 8 liters. with. Importantly, 100% of the details of this walk-behind tractor are made on the territory of the Russian Federation. Therefore, full maintainability is ensured.
Important: although the motor is not made in Japan, as in the previous case, but in Russia, it is selected very carefully. On a walk-behind tractor you can even plow heavy virgin lands. Thanks to a well-thought-out belt coupling and a chain gearbox, it is possible to provide 2 forward and 2 rear speeds, with a width of the processed strip from 57 to 72 cm. MB-1D1M1 is capable of plowing the ground to a depth of 30 cm. If the cart is attached to it, the travel speed reaches 10 km / h The capacity of the fuel tank is 3.6 liters.
The model MB-1D1M19 also deserves attention. For its configuration, an advanced Lifan engine is used, issuing 7 liters. with.
The shipment kit includes by default:
- wheel axle extensions;
- pneumatic wheels for these axles;
- milling cutters for tillage;
- auxiliary wings;
- plow deepener (opener).
Of course, the manufacturer has the right to change the configuration as necessary, without notifying consumers. More importantly, another - the motoblock of this model is quite multifunctional, copes well with virgin soil and with previously cultivated land. It can be successfully used in areas up to 20 acres inclusive. The manufacturer claims that contactless electronic ignition will allow you to easily start the walk-behind tractor in any season. A proven decompressor is used to optimize manual start.
The special design of the muffler makes the engine less noisy than other domestic models. The motoblock is designed for a pair of front and a couple of rear speeds. Handles are adjusted exactly to the height and size of the operator. The adhesion of pneumatic tires to the surface is enhanced by a high tread. The walk-behind tractor can be used as a drive for a water pump.
Advantages and disadvantages
The Oka motor-block of the MB-1D1M10 model differs in simplicity, but at the same time it is equipped with a power take-off shaft. Using this shaft, you can attach accessories of the same brand. The MB-1D2M16 model is designed to work in large areas, in gardens up to 50 acres. Regardless of the specific version, motoblocks of the Kaluga plant can be considered a good choice for cultivating land in personal subsidiary plots.
The advantages of the devices are:
- minimum noise level;
- reliability of motors;
- rational choice of speed modes for specific modifications;
- relatively small size and weight;
- minimum turning radius;
- low maintenance and service requirements.
Problems may be associated with poor wear resistance of drive belts. However, the basic package always includes their additional sets, so troubleshooting is possible. Moreover, the design is very simple, and repairs do not even require contacting service organizations. And the lightness and compactness of motoblocks simplify their movement and storage. In sum, the positive qualities far outweigh their negative side.
The scheme of the device and the principle of operation
Now it will be useful to see how it all works. One of the most popular modifications of the Oka walk-behind tractor comes with a Lifan engine. It is characterized by efficiency and at the same time high functionality. To transfer power and reduce engine speed, the MB-1 gearbox is installed. This device can operate effectively over 3500 hours. The early versions of the walk-behind tractor were equipped with gears with needle bearings. Newer gearbox variants are already ball type. Changing one type of gearbox to another is easier and safer than trying to replace the bearings themselves. Fill the gear units with only the oil specified by the manufacturer. But no less important is what attachment the force will be transmitted through the gearbox.
A milling cutter is usually included in the basic supply, but its role is limited to pre-cultivating the land, preparing the site for planting various plants. At the Kadvi plant, they prefer crow's feet mills that can grind even a strong soil layer to a state of fine dust. For each of the 3 sections of the soil cultivator, there are 3 sharp steel knives. The plow is also suitable for plowing the land, but not for preparation, but for the very planting of plants. To attach the plows to walk-behind tractors, use coupling devices. They are either included in the package, or are purchased separately.
With the help of the so-called okuchnik (or otherwise a plow), you can:
- spud already developed plants;
- cut furrows for planting;
- improve aeration of the earth.
Since considerable effort is required when milling and plowing even “light” land, it is recommended to use weighting agents. They are specially designed to complement the wheels. Most often it is necessary to weight those models whose mass does not exceed 120 kg.
To perform other functions are used:
- potato planters;
- tuber diggers;
- freight carts (trailers);
In order for all auxiliary equipment to work normally, drive belts are used - 1 each for forward and reverse. They interact with their respective pulleys. Of the parts included in the belt drive, clutch is formed. Working together with the gearbox, it acts as a transmission. Belts and other components are designed so that the walk-behind tractor remains stable when the speed changes, and so that the power changes smoothly.
Crucial in choosing a walk-behind tractor, as always, is its power. The fact is that it depends on it whether the device can plow the virgin soil, or is it only capable of working on already ennobled land. Of course, the soil structure also plays a role. To solve a wide range of problems, experts recommend models with power take-off shafts. Important: if the main job is milling land, you need to choose a lighter machine.
For light and medium motoblocks, chain reducers are recommended. Worm options are used much less frequently, and only on the lightest machines. As for motors, one of the best types of products is from the Lifan company. These are first-class products, which are much more perfect than Russian products, and no worse than adapted to local conditions. Japanese engines are the highest quality, but they are the most expensive.
Before starting any field work, you should run in the motor. Do this for at least 30 hours, but only under a limited load.
Before starting daily work and upon completion:
- check oil and fuel levels;
- evaluate the quality of joints and couplings;
- measure the pressure in the wheels.
When work is temporarily suspended:
- the walk-behind tractor is cleaned and washed;
- dry it in the shade;
- lubricate all the main components;
- put the device in storage.
Specialists recommend, of course, to use only officially supplied original spare parts. To improve the operation of the device, a speed shift roller may be refined. More precisely, a handle is attached to it, which makes it more convenient to work. A special bolt is introduced into the steering gear. Most often they try to upgrade the hub assembly by manufacturing differential hubs (the so-called unlockers). They can be made from the front hubs of Zhiguli or Moskvich cars. Be sure to cut and hone the "ears". If the bolts are very rusty, they are cut off with a “grinder”. But we must remember that the nozzle of all elements on the axis should be as dense as possible.
Consumers rate the Oka motoblocks unconditionally well. The "middle" class of devices from this brand is especially popular. Last but not least, the latest versions are significantly improved compared to earlier versions. But cutters like “crow's feet” require the use of an additional retractable section. Improving the design or optimizing for your needs are possible without any problems.