Houses made of timber are a very popular type of structures. The beam is easily mounted due to the rectangular profile, such structures are quickly erected, therefore this building material occupies a leading position in the segment of wooden housing construction. In temperate and northern latitudes, it is customary to insulate and clad timber.
Features of timber structures
Houses from profiled timber according to the construction technology do not differ from log houses. The material itself is very attractive. The building made of natural wood with a beautiful pattern of fibers looks organically against the background of the natural landscape. For low-rise private construction, sawn, glued and profiled timber is used, which determines the installation technology. Structures from timber are environmentally friendly, this material is breathable.
The cross section of the material is from 10 to 20 centimeters. The size of the cross section is the thickness of the walls. For cold climatic conditions this is clearly not enough, therefore, the walls inside and out have to be insulated so that the final wall thickness for the temperate climate is at least 40 centimeters. There is a need for facade cladding with insulation, which is performed with various materials that correspond to the style of construction. The disadvantages include the ability of wood to absorb moisture, the tendency to form corrosion from excessive moisture, and high combustibility. Exterior finish is designed to reduce the impact of negative atmospheric factors, to insulate and improve the safety of the home.
Suitable finish time
To finish the facades begin after the final shrinkage of the log house. Porous wood fibers absorb and give off moisture, this deforms and slightly changes the size of the wall, even if the tree was well dried before construction. Structures from timber are subject to shrinkage from several months to two years. The construction season also affects the shrinkage time: construction in winter will require 7–8 months, in summer - at least 12 months. The most intense deformation process is observed in the first three months.
There are some differences in these terms for different materials. Exterior decoration of the house from glued beams can begin as early as three months after construction, since this material was dried using special technologies in the production and does not succumb to atmospheric moisture and does not deform. Due to gluing the timber, the wood fibers do not curl in length. The rounded and sawn timber does not have these qualities, since the most dense wood of the outer layer of the log is cut during processing. This reduces moisture resistance and makes the timber vulnerable to rot and fungus. Experts recommend choosing the time of the end of autumn - the beginning of winter for construction because of the low cost of construction, then in the summer it will be possible to start installing windows, doors, and exterior and interior decoration without fear of cracking of the lining.
Types of materials
The finished blockhouse made of timber can be veneered on the outside with various types of finishes: stone, bricks, plastic or metal siding, flexible ceramics. You can apply a false beam. Each option has both advantages and disadvantages. The most expensive and durable finishing material is natural decorative stone; its laying requires special professional skills. Stone tiles are glued to the facade using the same technology as tiles in a bathroom or sauna using moisture-resistant adhesive components. Natural stone is a heavy material, so for mounting you may need special fasteners to give strength. Most often, only the basement of the building and some parts of the wall or porch with columns are trimmed with stone.
It is better to use an artificial decorative stone. It is not inferior to the present in aesthetic qualities, and even surpasses it in operational properties. The front surface of an artificial stone imitates any natural mineral that is more resistant to adverse mechanical influences. Its price is somewhat lower, but it is also an expensive finish. Compensation will be a long service life and a solid appearance of the house, the ability to pick up any shade of stone.
A common technique is to brick the masonry. It significantly increases the cost of construction, but the house will receive the necessary thermal insulation. The service life of the building will increase significantly, the flammability coefficient will decrease. Such houses maintain comfortable indoor conditions even in the northern regions. Facing the entire structure, even in half a brick, will require strengthening the foundation and professional skills of masonry.
A popular lightweight option is a decorative facade clinker tile that looks aesthetically pleasing in combination with wood. It has variations in thickness, appearance and size. During the manufacturing process, firing takes place, and the corner elements are extruded, which extends the life of the finish to several tens of years. Clinker tiles have irregularities on the back, due to which there is good adhesion to the wall surface. The front side imitates not only various types of minerals, but also bricks with a different range of shades.
Edged and unedged boards, false beams, wooden slats, block houses are the most common finishing materials in private wooden housing construction. Good thermal insulation properties, aesthetics of rural style and the beauty of natural wood attract the attention of consumers. The block house allows you to simulate structures made of solid logs. The wooden rail and the edged board neatly hide the insulation, do not violate the naturalistic natural style and are affordable and easy to install. Often the wooden finish is complemented by carvings, which very decorates the buildings in the Russian style.
Separately, you should pay attention to the unedged board. This material is worth a penny. But a well-trimmed edged board facade turns the house into a work of art. The board or slab is cleaned of bark, polished and sutured facades. A rough finish gives the building a rustic feel and becomes an aesthetic accent. Firing wood adds decorativeness, while increasing the durability and strength of the material.
With all the positive qualities of natural wood, it is not moisture resistant enough and lends itself to fungus. The replacement was plastic and metal siding. Metal siding is more suitable for industrial buildings, but can also be used in civil engineering. Modern technologies have allowed to give good technical characteristics to these materials: durability, moisture resistance, pigment resistance, variety of design, ease of self-assembly, affordable price category. The neat and aesthetic appearance of the house is guaranteed for ten years or more.
Flexible ceramics has become a new, technologically advanced material. The basis is clay with polymers. Flexible ceramics is characterized by durability, does not fade in the sun, is very convenient to use, moisture resistant and durable. This is a rolled material and the lining is similar to wallpapering. They can paste over designs with round shapes - columns, arches, arches, domes. Due to the presence of clay in the composition, it has breathable properties, but nevertheless, for most finishes on a wooden log house, a ventilated facade insulation is needed.
The plastered facade is a simple and dignified finish on the exterior walls. The work is simple but time-consuming, it is not difficult to master. It is a good fire protection, easy to repair. The plastered facade is combined with any design style. It can be done for painting or for decorative plaster.
The following types of decorative plaster are distinguished:
- mineral - this is a strong, resistant to the formation of fungus and mold cement mixture;
- silicate is made from liquid potassium glass. It is considered a breathable and durable material;
- Acrylic is made from synthetic resins, has a high coefficient of frost resistance. The presence of resin in the composition of the plaster gives it plasticity, with possible deformation of the facade, the surface is resistant to cracking.
Preparation for the exterior cladding of the facade begins with the impregnation of the beam with special anti-corrosion and fire retardant compounds. Without a thermal insulation device, a film or a special membrane is laid on the lap surface. Further, they are attached to the wall with a construction stapler, and the joints are glued with tape. A stucco mesh is attached to the film. Further, it is plastered and laid stone or tile.
For other types of finishes, they begin to insulate the outer walls. After fixing the film on the log house, the crate is stuffed. It is performed with a metal profile, and can be made of wooden battens. The profile or rail is filled in increments of 50 cm. Mineral wool or polystyrene is placed in the cells, so that 2-3 cm of empty space for ventilation of the facade is left to the edge of the crate. From above, the insulation is covered with a windproof membrane and covered with a stucco mesh for subsequent plastering and stone or painting stickers.
For the cladding of the facade, the second row of lathing is stuffed. This series will become the basis for cladding from siding, wooden boards or slats, flexible ceramics. In this case, the facing material is fixed with screws on the upper crate. You need to do the crate with such a step that it is convenient to fasten the trim elements.
Installation of cladding
There are two ways to decorate with stone or tile: with a joint (more decorative look) and back-to-back (a monolithic coating is obtained). Some types of decorative tiles can be laid with only one of these methods, it is worthwhile to ask in advance when buying, since the installation of a seam requires special skills and devices. If the stone is of different sizes, then at first some part is laid out on the floor, trying to achieve the maximum decorative effect by alternating parts of different sizes. Laying begins with openings and corners from the bottom up.
New technologies have made this process easier. Thermal panels appeared on sale - this is a finished insulation plate with an already glued layer of decorative stone. The look, color and texture of the decor can be chosen to your liking, thermal panels are glued directly to the facade. It is important that the surface of the wall is flat. For wooden walls, this material is not the best choice, since there is no ventilation of wood. Modular types of casing, siding, rail, lining are fastened with screws to the crate or special locks from the bottom up. The first row is installed at a height of 10-15 cm from the ground for air circulation under the panels, if the base is not provided.
Decorative plaster is applied to the rough layer. It can be smooth or have a textured texture. The relief helps to hide the irregularities of the facade. The optimal layer thickness for the facade is 1 cm. When choosing plaster for finishing the facade of a wooden house, it is necessary to be prepared for the inevitable appearance of cracks, since the tree has plasticity and is always slightly deformed.
Summing up all the pros and cons of finishing materials, we get a scale of preferences for choosing the decoration of external walls in decreasing order:
- a rock;
- decorative rock;
- natural board, rail, lining, block house;
- flexible ceramics;
- thermal panel.
Facing the house can be a harmonious addition to the surrounding landscape or its bright attraction.
The Scandinavian-style house with a bright contrasting finish looks stylish and elegant.
The blue color in the decoration of the facade successfully combines with rural style.
The style of minimalism today is at the peak of popularity.
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