Any premises in which a person will live or for some time should be suitable for such use. The most important thing you need for a comfortable life is fresh air, which will be updated all the time, light and water. There is also such an important indicator as heat. If it is cold in the room, then it will be unpleasant and sometimes dangerous to stay in it, which is why it is so important to insulate the walls by doing this with suitable materials.
The process of optimizing the microclimate in a living room involves the use of internal or external insulation. For housing in which they do not live permanently, it is ideal to be insulated internally. This choice is due to the fact that the installation process is extremely simple and does not require significant costs, both financial and physical. The insulation for the walls is selected based on the tasks that face the construction.
Each option has different dimensions, weight and structures. You can choose exactly the material with which it will be most convenient to work. It is important to warm the house inside so that it does not overheat during the day and does not supercool at night. This is harmful both for the building itself and for those who live in it. There are standards according to which the temperature of the floor should not drop to more than +25 degrees, and the walls should not be colder +18 degrees. The optimum temperature in which a person can comfortably live is an indicator of +22 - +25 degrees.
With internal insulation, condensation forms between the surface of the insulation and the wall itself, which is associated with the difference in temperatures that collide with each other. In order for the walls not to get wet, it is necessary to install a vapor barrier layer that will regulate this process. After installing all the insulation components, not only the inside of the house will become more secure, but also the outside, because with temperature differences there will be no effect on the same brick, which can last longer.
In order to insulate the walls in the house, you need to properly distribute the preparation process for it, which includes:
- preparation and purchase of materials and tools;
- the process of fixing the vapor barrier and the manufacture of the frame;
- the process of laying insulation and finishing walls.
Of the materials for wall insulation, glass wool, slag wool, stone and basalt wool, polystyrene foam, foam, polyurethane foam and some other options are used. Part is used only for internal work, part is exclusively for outdoor, but there are those that are suitable in both cases. Sometimes sawdust is used for this, which can be insulated both walls and the floor, but often they prefer not to use this material because of its combustibility.
If the walls are insulated from the outside, then the siding, the euro-board or any other materials should be completely dismantled, after which the insulation is installed.
Only after completing this stage of work and installing the vapor barrier film can the panels be put back to give the house a beautiful appearance.
Most often, external insulation is used for a major house, where people live constantly. As for country houses or seasonal housing, it is enough for him to trim the inside. By installing suitable material on the walls, cardboard, fiberboard, plywood or even drywall sheets can cover it from above. The choice is made taking into account the cost of coverage and the funds that are available for repairs.
The materials that will be needed for insulation work include:
- vapor barrier film that resists moisture from the street and tends to get inside the room;
- a wooden beam from which a wooden crate is created;
- fasteners, the best of which are self-tapping screws;
- drywall for finishing. It is better to get a moisture resistant sheet.
To warm the house from the inside, you can use a variety of materials. The most popular is several options.
One of them is mineral wool , which is based on glass wool and stone wool. It has excellent thermal protection properties. For various works, there are products with a density of 50 to 200 kg per cubic meter. Thinner options are made in rolls, while denser ones are pressed into miniplates. Mounting occurs with dowels on a wooden frame. In this case, it is better not to use glue, which can lead to delamination of the product.
If we consider the features of mineral wool, it is worth saying that she does not like dampness. If the fibers get wet, they will lose their properties. If you install such a heater from the outside, it is important to make a good waterproofing. This material copes with its functions indoors. A particular advantage of the product is its incombustibility. When working with this material, it is necessary to use protective materials for the eyes and respiratory organs due to the large amount of dust and small particles.
Foamed heaters are also popular: expanded polystyrene / polystyrene and polyurethane foam. Expanded polystyrene is considered a convenient option for warming the interior of the room. Its advantage is lightness, good strength, ease of installation and moderate cost. This option is in no way inferior to mineral wool, but it is not afraid of moisture, therefore it can be used both inside and outside the building. It is better to fix the foam with self-tapping screws or dowels-nails, but you can also use the adhesive composition.
Of the minuses, only flammability can be noted, because this material can be used in places remote from sources of fire. Polyurethane foam is applied only with special equipment that allows you to allocate polyurethane foam. This option allows you to apply a solid layer, which is very firmly held on the surface. Among the shortcomings, only the high price for this type of insulation can be distinguished.
Among foil heat insulators , penofol is the most popular. The basis of the material is foamed polyethylene with metal foil. Penofol is very thin, therefore it allows you not to take the living space of the room. This material has a low coefficient of thermal conductivity, which means it retains heat well.
Loose heaters - this is a non-standard option for thermal insulation of a house. To do this, you can use expanded clay, ecowool, moss, needles from pine or spruce, hay, sawdust. A positive feature of this option is its environmental friendliness, but it can only be used for floor and ceiling. Of the minuses, a high risk of the appearance of rodents in this kind of layers can be noted.
Of the tools in use come in handy:
- mineral wool cutting knife;
- tape measure and pencil, which will be used for all measurements and marking;
- a screwdriver for fastening self-tapping screws;
- construction stapler, which is convenient in the process of attaching a vapor barrier film;
- protective equipment such as gloves, goggles, respirator.
The choice of tools and protective equipment directly depends on what it is to work with, which option of insulation will be chosen.
How to choose?
In order to choose a suitable warming of the country house, which will be located inside, it is important to know what to work with. If you need to insulate the second floor or instead of turning the old cold attic into a living area, it is important to choose the right type of insulation. It is important to analyze what material the house is made of. Wooden huts should have a breathable heat insulator, and brick or foam concrete structures can do without it.
When choosing material for working with walls, you need to evaluate its moisture resistance, which will be one of the main criteria. It is also worth considering heating. If the oven will work inside, the difference between the temperature on the street and in the house will become very large. Such a process will lead to the formation of condensate, which will act on the insulation and contribute to its soaking. Under such conditions, the material will not last long and will soon begin to deteriorate. To avoid such an outcome, it is necessary to use a vapor barrier film, which will protect the insulation sheet from moisture.
To choose the right insulation, it is worth paying attention to the indicators:
- thermal conductivity, which must be low in order to be able to maintain optimal conditions in the living room;
- resistance to frost - this is important for those cottages that are not heated in winter and the temperature in the house can be zero, which negatively affects some types of thermal insulation;
- ease of installation work, which is important in the case of a country house, work on which is often carried out by the owner himself, because the simplicity of all actions is extremely important in this case;
- pricing policy, which is especially important in the case of the arrangement of a country house, where materials are taken cheaper.
If, in addition to walls, it is also necessary to insulate the ceiling, then it is worth taking care of the availability of materials for this procedure. If in the house the attic rooms are converted into residential ones, then you can not do without finishing and using insulation. To cover the ceiling, it is important to choose materials that are resistant to atmospheric precipitation and to significant temperature extremes. The density of the plates must be high so that they can retain heat in the room without letting in external cold from under the roof. During the reconstruction of the attic, it may be necessary to insulate the floor, especially if it is on a reinforced concrete slab. To do this, you need to make the crate, lay the insulation, on top of which to place the covering material in the form of plywood, fiberboard and other things.
It is especially important to carry out work on the insulation of the premises, if the house is a switchboard.
In this case, almost all surfaces should be supplemented with a layer of heat-insulating material in order to create suitable living conditions inside the living space. Having the necessary materials for this process, you need to know how to use them correctly.
How to install?
If there is a need to do the installation of thermal insulation with your own hands, it is important to clearly understand the operation algorithm. The first thing you need to start with is the preparation of the walls, for which their surface is leveled and all problem areas removed. To properly insulate the interior of the room, you need to take care of the device of the waterproofing layer. If there is no suitable special material at hand, simple polyethylene is also suitable, which is attached using tape.
Step-by-step instructions in the case when you need to insulate a country house are reduced to the following points:
- Choosing a suitable insulation based on the material of the house and the place to be repaired.
- Installation of insulation boards in the required place. For a more reliable fixation, you need to smear the surface with glue.
- Plates are laid in a checkerboard pattern, and at the joints it is important to use a large amount of glue and mounting foam.
- Fixing plates with plastic dowels.
- Application of the surface layer of glue around the entire perimeter of the insulation.
- Cover the reinforcing mesh on the adhesive and immerse it in the adhesive substance with a roller.
- After the glue dries, the surface is plastered and finished.
The most convenient material for installation is penoplex, even a person without experience can work with it. If there is a desire to make the house so warm as to live in it all winter, mineral wool will be the best solution. Working with her is not much harder. The insulation process consists of the following items:
- preparation of walls, the elimination of any problem areas;
- vapor barrier of the surface;
- the manufacture of wooden crates in increments, the calculation of which should be based on the size of the mineral wool roll;
- laying material in niches;
- joints are glued with duct tape;
- applying a second layer of vapor barrier, which is fixed to the crate;
- finish wall decoration.
You can use a foil heat insulator as a heater. This is a relatively new material that contains a layer of foil on one or two sides. To use it on a wall, you must:
- prepare the surface;
- make a crate;
- put heat-insulating material in it;
- joints are glued with aluminum tape;
- finish finish.
If you want to use something else, then an excellent option would be wood-fiber boards.
This is the easiest option for wall insulation, which can even be done by an amateur, because the installation of thermal insulation material can be done on any surface, even with an old finish. The main criterion is the dryness and cleanliness of the walls.
The installation process is performed using special nails that have a recessed head. As soon as all materials are placed on the wall, on top of them you can use any necessary finish, stick wallpaper, plaster, paint, etc. The choice of insulation depends on professional skills, the need to create absolutely comfortable conditions all year round and in the cost of production. Everyone chooses the option that is most convenient for him from all sides.
Tips & Tricks
When planning to insulate the house from the inside, it is important to clearly understand the difference between the main options for materials that may be needed in the work. In the case when the product is vapor tight, it is enough to simply put it in the right place, but if it is not, it is important to use a layer of vapor barrier film. If this is not done, then condensation will begin to form between the insulation and the wall of the house, which will destroy the thermal insulation from the inside and all work will be in vain.
When installing the insulation, it is important to make a small gap between it and the future layer of decorative finish, so that the fumes that will appear do not affect the surface on both sides. The use of insulation indoors is appropriate if the house has sufficient dimensions, and if it is very small, it is better to add an additional layer of thermal insulation on the outside. Choosing a heater, you need to determine its thickness, which directly depends on the time you use the house. If this is only a warm season, it is not necessary to take thick material, and for a year-round stay it is important to choose the most overall products that will provide the best result.
For those cases when the cottage is used only in season, you can not spend big money on the fact that the house was capital. In this case, the materials should be taken cheaper than in a similar situation when the repair of permanent housing is carried out. You can do without insulation at all, but then the construction will stand out much less and soon you will have to build a new country house, therefore it is better to protect yourself from this kind of trouble.
About how to choose a heater for interior wall decoration, see the next video.