One of the most common crops on earth is potatoes. To reduce labor costs and simplify the courtship of planting material, many manual and mechanical devices have been invented. In the industrial sector, these are tractors with various types of nozzles. In a personal household, a walk-behind tractor and hilling tools (hiller, plowman, row cultivator), which are completely realistic to make with your own hands, will be a good help. After all, using a cultivator, you can much more efficiently process a plot for potatoes.
Species of the Hills
The earthing tool can be bought at an agricultural equipment store or assembled with your own hands. It can be used for planting potatoes, beets, carrots and turnips. The most famous varieties of this technique:
- double row;
- rotary (active);
- single row.
Consider the features of each of them.
Lister with fixed and adjustable angle
They have a fixed width of soil and are used on very light motor cultivators with a capacity of up to 4 horsepower. Able to cultivate beds 25-30 centimeters wide, equipped with two side wings and a thin stand. The stand protects the equipment from overload and mechanical damage. This tool can only be used on dry soils, since adhering earth will counteract the work of moving structural elements. There are listering devices with adjustable width of soil treatment. They are installed on motor vehicles of greater power - from 4 horsepower. Such aggregates can be applied intransigently on wet soil.
The principle of operation is the activity of the propeller parts. Under their action, the soil is firstly dug up and weeds are removed, and after that the beds are loosened. These modifications are mainly practiced for front-wheel drive and two-speed cultivators. This is due to the fact that at the second speed the power increases to 180 rpm. As soon as the power level reaches its maximum, this tool can be used not only for earthing up the soil, but also for transferring the soil to the furrows from the space between the rows of landings.
Carries out the cutting of two furrows before planting crops, and is also used for earthing up and loosening the soil. Includes a frame on which 2 hillers are fixed. When processing the land, it significantly saves time, since it has two working elements. It is mounted on a walk-behind tractor by means of a hitch. Due to the fact that such a device requires a lot of resistance to operate, it is used in conjunction with lugs.
Instead of wheels, this gun is equipped with rotors with helical teeth. Demonstrates high productivity in the creation, loosening and hilling of potatoes. Suitable for use with 3-speed units (two forward and one reverse). In the first gear, the gun spuds the landing, and in the second gear it also throws the soil from the space between the rows of landings.
The most common type. It is applied to operation with light soil types. Ditching is carried out after completion of preparatory soil loosening by means of a cultivator.
How to do it yourself?
To create a hiller for a walk-behind tractor with your own hands, it is necessary to follow clear rules and it is advisable to develop or apply ready-made drawings. This will allow you to correctly and quickly mount all the elements so as not to correct the work in the future. On your own, you can make modifications to the lister (traditional) or disk appearance. To perform the work, the following tools and devices may be required:
- electric arc welding unit;
- electric drill with a set of strong drills of various diameters;
- a grinder and a number of discs and nozzles in the set;
- emery machine;
- workbench with a vise;
- various files;
- fasteners (rivets, nuts, bolts).
Making a plaster plow
Such agricultural equipment for motor vehicles is a classic unregulated device used most often. For its manufacture, it is necessary to sketch or apply ready-made drawing documentation, according to which it will be easy and simple to carry out all the activities.
- The base is built from an iron sheet 3 mm thick. She will face soil resistance, therefore, must be extremely durable.
- The holder is made of a metal strip, 4 mm wide, the spare part must be hardened.
- The field board is made of steel with a thickness of 5 millimeters. Its hardening is carried out in several steps by means of a gas burner.
- The rack is made of iron with a thickness of 8 millimeters, since it will be the component on which the entire load will fall.
- The wings for the guns are made of iron with a thickness of 2 millimeters, they must be consistent with the parameters of the selected scheme, since only in this way can they be docked to the base.
- Then they bend a little and boil to the base.
If you want to adjust the row crop, you need to fix the wings to the base by means of articulated joints. Rods for adjusting the angle are mounted in the tail of the base. You can also create a 2-row device, due to which the pace of work doubles. In this case, it is necessary to add traction mechanisms to the constructed structure, and create fasteners movable, which will make it possible to adjust the size of the rows.
Creation of a disk tool for hilling
Used discs of the cutter of a seeder or circular saws that are mounted on bearings are perfectly suited for the role of disks.
- Disks must be mounted at an angle, observing the distance between their lower points. In addition, the fundamental condition is their symmetry, otherwise the walk-behind tractor will somewhat divert to the side.
- All details must be connected by electric welding or bolts, the disks are interfaced with adjustable adapters.
- Lanyards (screw ties), racks and leash are also fixed.
- Next, you need to use a jumper with wings to fix the implement on the cultivator.
- An equally important factor is the competent choice of the depth of immersion and the angle of inclination; for this, movable components with bolt fastening are pressed onto the holder.
Creating propeller devices
To work, you need reliable thick steel, a grinder and a welding unit. The first axis is made, which must be adjusted to the cultivator. After you need to create a rack and base, which are welded. Immediately you need to choose the distance between the nozzles, the configuration of the lugs and the mounting angle, which will make it possible to extremely efficiently perform soil cultivation. For practicality, it is possible to make several bushings with holders and various sets of blades, which will make it possible to carry out various methods of earthing.
Devices for spuds from improvised means
It should be noted that a homemade hiller can be done without investing in the acquisition of iron. This will make it possible to reduce the cost of the gun to a minimum. It is acceptable to use a suitable iron product in the role of a starting material. For example, an unnecessary lid from an old pan.
The main thing, using a similar approach to business, to remember about the drawings and the required diameter of the disk. It can be at least 400 millimeters. This is due to the nuances of soil cultivation, taking into account the area of potato roots, planting depth and clearance. Basically, the maximum planting depth is 60-80 millimeters, the length of the roots is up to 200 millimeters. The cover is sharpened from all edges, slightly transformed by the method of bending and mounted on a walk-behind tractor.
How to mount an earthing tool on a walk-behind tractor?
Installation of tools for earthing up on a cultivator involves the competent adjustment of the slope of the field board and the depth of immersion, which should be less than that of the plow. Before you begin to use the hiller, it is necessary to do such activities.
- Mount the coupling device and wheels on the motor vehicles, then add the hiller.
- The walk-behind tractor is mounted on an equal plane, and the earthing tool is lowered to the ground and fixed to the coupling device.
- When installing equipment, you should watch that the rack of agricultural equipment is in an upright position. This will adjust the required slope of the field board.
- Then the equipment lands or plunges a little into the soil so that it is below the supporting plane of the lugs.
It is necessary to make a test hilling and to look: if the equipment is buried in the soil, take the rack forward, with a little toe up. When exiting the ground, the stand is retracted by lowering the sock. The main thing is to take into account the width of the rows, adjusting the existing structural elements.
As you can see, you can do it yourself using a listering tool for hilling, as well as a more intricate modification - disk. After performing simple steps, a few hours later a removable device is obtained that is suitable for many Russian walk-behind tractors, will greatly simplify the work involved in cultivating potatoes, and will not require large investments.
See how to make a disk hiller for a walk-behind tractor with your own hands in the next video.