The tile is a reliable and durable finishing material, through which you can decorate any interior of the home. It is made from clay mixtures of various additives subjected to calcination at high temperature. This gives it strength, improves operational and quality characteristics.
During the finishing work, you have to drill the tile: this is necessary to form different holes that simplify the installation work of certain nodes. The quality of the hole depends on the correct drill.
Tile is mainly used for wall cladding, it is not able to withstand high loads and is inferior in thickness to its analogue for flooring. Drilling this material without the formation of chips and cracks is a relatively complex process. Only the master can do this the first time. This is due to several technical features of tiled products.
After sintering, the clay is compacted, which does not allow to easily destroy the bonds between the components of the raw material.
To form holes, it is necessary to use mechanisms in which the hardness indices are much higher than that of ceramics. In this case, the processing should be performed relatively accurately (at the optimal speed of the tool used).
Top layer smoothness
On top of the tile is covered with a special protective coating, which prevents the destruction of clay under the influence of moisture. The surface at the beginning of drilling is rather difficult to drill, this can lead to slipping of the working tool.
They solve this problem in various ways, among which the simplest is the formation of an entry point with a light blow and the destruction of the upper layer.
It is necessary to drill the material very carefully and carefully: all bonds between the components are non-flexible and quickly break down along certain lines. This may cause cracking.
Based on these properties, it can be said that tile drilling should be performed as accurately as possible and only using special mechanisms . This will allow you to get a flat end and make the surface visually more pleasant against the general background of the cladding.
Types of Drills
Ceramic tiles can be drilled after laying and immediately before gluing a piece onto the surface of the substrate. The modern market offers several types of tools that can be used to process such material. All types of such products can be divided into several categories.
The working surface of this tool resembles a spear, therefore it is called lance-shaped. So that they can drill a hole, the product is made of tungsten carbide. Such material is characterized by high hardness, unique performance, and allows you to quickly and accurately drill holes.
The disadvantage is the fact that the product has a limited service life and can only drill a few holes in the tile.
Such a tool resembles a conventional metal or wood product. At the end of the device there is a special victorious soldering capable of withstanding high loads. These tools are not specific: their main purpose is to drill concrete.
If you need to form several holes in the tile, they are the best option. Their cost is slightly lower than spear-shaped counterparts. A good drill is suitable for making 2-3 holes . If you need to make a hole in a tile already glued to the wall, then you won’t have to change the tool: it can also be used to drill a hole for a dowel in a concrete frame.
Similar designs are made in the form of small cylinders, the upper surface of which is covered with diamond chips. Such a tool is obtained by sintering metal and piece diamonds of small diameter. For processing tiles, these drills are the best option. They withstand high loads, suitable for materials of various hardness and thickness.
The disadvantage of diamond drills can be considered a relatively high cost, which is impractical for multiple holes.
Crowns and ballerinas
These tools are used to drill holes in a tile for a mixer or water pipe. Technical crowns are a type of diamond drill, differ only in the increased diameter of the working surface.
Ballerinas do not form a hole during drilling: they only remove the upper hard layer during circular motion. They are recommended to be used when the tile has not yet been fixed to the wall with tile glue.
Choose a drill
They drill a tile when it is necessary to install a structure of a round or semicircular shape of a certain diameter in a particular place. The most common task is to drill the surface under the dowel, which is used as a support or fastener. There are also non-trivial tasks that can be solved with the help of non-standard approaches and tools.
Obtaining small holes is the main task in the operation of ceramic tiles. For such purposes, almost all types of drills considered earlier are used. Similar tools allow you to form a round hole.
Their diameter can vary from 4-5 mm to 12-15 mm . In this case, the size of the drill depends on the manufacturer of this product. There are modifications in which the diameter can vary in increments of 0.5 mm, other models are produced on the basis of inches.
It is important to consider the units of measurement in order to choose the most comfortable and suitable option.
Of the big
Sometimes, when working with ceramics, installation involves the passage of water or sewer pipes through the material. The diameter of such products is much larger than conventional drills. Solve this problem with crowns. Outwardly, they do not have a twisted surface, like a drill. Drilling is carried out due to the solid top layer, which is in contact with the tile. Depending on the material used in the manufacture, the crowns can be divided into 2 groups: victorious and diamond.
Winning crowns are complemented by soldering from winnings. Such designs come in various sizes, they allow you to form holes with a diameter of up to 15 cm . It’s easier, faster and more reliable to lay a pipeline, in the process of creating which different types of pipes are used. The disadvantage of this tool is the limited service life. Using the winning crown, you can drill up to 20 holes, after which the top layer begins to wear out quickly.
Diamond crowns are similar in shape to winning analogs. However, here, as a cutting surface, fine diamond chips are used, which are soldered to the frame. The diameter of the crowns can vary in a fairly wide range. On the market you can find models in which this value can exceed 25 cm. But only specialists professionally engaged in repair use such products. This is due to the high price, which does not allow the average buyer to purchase goods for one-time household use.
One of the universal tools for drilling large-diameter holes are ballerinas. They consist of a central tip, as well as a cutting tool that moves along a special bar. Their advantage is the fact that a specialist during the finishing work can make a hole of a non-standard diameter (which is not always possible with crowns).
If it is not possible to purchase a crown for large holes, you can try to shape it using ordinary small diameter drills.
To do this, draw a circle of the required parameter on the tile surface. Then, along the line along the internal axis, many holes are drilled that are closely located to each other. Upon completion, you should carefully knock out the inside of the tile and smooth the ends with sandpaper.
Ceramic tile drilling is a relatively simple process. It should be carried out exclusively with the help of a quality tool of well-known manufacturers, whose products have a positive assessment of the masters. The quality of the hole directly depends on this: it should look beautiful and look even.
How to choose a drill?
Processing of tiles can be carried out by several types of electric tools. The best option is a drill, which allows you to solve several problems. When choosing such a device, it is important that it meets several basic requirements:
- It is preferable to use a drill that is equipped with a function of changing revolutions . This reduces the risk of microcracks or splitting the material in half.
- You can use a puncher to drill holes for pipes or sockets if it allows you to disable the function of an impact drill, as well as adjust the spindle speed. In this case, it turns into a conventional drill, but only of higher power.
- It is desirable to have a cooling system and conductors . These attributes are optional, but professionals use these assistive devices. The cooling system is a special container with water, which is automatically supplied to the end of the drill during its operation. Conductors are ordinary suction cups that simplify alignment and fixing of the drill on a smooth surface.
We control the process
The technology for processing tiles requires constant monitoring of the process, as well as the condition of the drill. To accurately drill a quality hole, you should be guided by a few simple recommendations:
- Cool the drill constantly . If this is not done, it can burn out. If you do not have an automatic water supply system, you can replace it with a regular bottle, in which several holes should be punched in the cork. Periodically remove the drill and wet it with liquid.
- Do not press hard on the drill . Excessive loading may cause cracks or deformation of the drill.
- Do not use reverse mode when pulling the tool. Such an approach will lead to the formation of chips on the upper surface of the tile. Sometimes this can cause cracking of the material.
- Try to hold the drill exactly at right angles to the plane of the tile. If you do not have experience, you can use special stands or clips that simplify this procedure.
- Drill the tile at the minimum speed of the drill . Try not to increase them during operation: this will lead to overheating of the drill or destruction of the material.
The algorithm for processing ceramic tiles using various drills is almost identical. There are some simple tips that will simplify the solution of this problem:
- Using crowns, they must be watered. This will reduce the temperature, and also extend the tool life by several times.
- If you drill a tile often, to simplify this operation, you should make or purchase a special template. It is a small board made of plastic or wood, inside of which several holes of different diameters are cut. By placing this template in the right place, inserting a crown or drill, you can more securely fix the tool, not allowing it to move during operation.
- To prevent the drill from slipping off, masking tape should be glued to the surface of the tile. The tool will attach more firmly to the tape, which will form the center of the future hole.
- Try to place all the holes in the seams between adjacent tiles. This will not only simplify drilling, but also will not destroy the decorative surface of the tiles.
- If you use special drills for ceramic tiles, it is important to monitor the depth of their drilling. When the material is drilled not fixed, you can drill about 2/3 of the thickness, and try to carefully knock out the rest. When wall drilling, it is necessary to ensure that the drill does not pass through the concrete. This significantly reduces the quality of the work surface or may render it unusable.
- Before starting work, it is advisable to wet the ceramic tile in water for about 30 minutes. During this time, the water will soften the material and make it more malleable for processing.
- Try to drill holes at a distance of at least 2-5 cm from the end of the tile. If you need to make the hole especially close, keep in mind that this approach can lead to chips or cracks.
For the process to be extremely simple, accuracy and patience should be shown in the work.
Hurry can damage the material . It is important to observe safety rules. This will eliminate injury and will allow you to make high-quality holes in the process.
Next, see a workshop on drilling tiles.