Any modern repair involves the use of paint and varnish material. In some cases, with its help, most surfaces are finished: floor, walls, ceiling. In other cases, only some decorative elements.
The main thing is to choose the right paint so that the new repair lasts as long as possible.
Paint is able to change any apartment beyond recognition. As a decorative coating for walls, it can be of various types in color, texture, degree of gloss. You can always choose the material that meets individual needs. In addition to its aesthetic properties, paint can be used as a means to protect surfaces from certain environmental factors: moisture, sunlight, mold, fungus, wear, corrosion.
Paint is a universal coating. It can be used to decorate both the inside of the house and the exterior. Any surface can be painted: wood, paper, metal, glass, concrete. When choosing in favor of a particular product, you should carefully study the features of using a particular paint indicated on the packaging, the ability to paint various surfaces with it, and additional properties.
The pros and cons of coloring
Among the variety of options for decorating the room, the paint stands out for its positive aspects. The following factors speak in her favor:
- The durability of the coating. Compared to other types of finishes, paint can remain on the walls unchanged for quite a long time - about 10 years.
- Resistance to wet cleaning, including the use of chemicals. However, special mention of this should be on the packaging.
- Cost. Painting walls is cheaper than many other coatings.
- A variety of options. Paints are represented by a wide palette of various colors. In addition, they can be mixed, combined in one room at once several types, highlight individual elements with contrasting colors.
- Easy to apply. It is not necessary to invite a specialist for staining. There is nothing complicated in this process; you can repair the room on your own.
- Ease of updating the room. If the painted walls or its elements soon get bored, they can easily be repainted in other colors without resorting to global changes.
- Easy to care. Almost all paints withstand wet cleaning.
In addition, if a chip or crack forms on the wall, it is easy to mask it, unlike, for example, wallpaper or tile.
The following points can be mentioned as the minuses of the painted surface:
- A perfectly flat surface is required. Any irregularities will be visible through the paint coat. The exception is relief wall decoration.
- Wall treatment takes much longer than, for example, wallpapering. The surface should be perfectly flat, without cracks and seams, additional putty, primer and grinding are necessary.
The modern market offers a wide selection of varied colors. They vary in many ways. Sometimes it’s quite difficult to make a choice so that the purchased product fits perfectly in all respects. All colors can be classified as follows:
- Interior and exterior. They differ in the possibility of painting surfaces outside or inside the house. For apartment renovation, only interior paints are used.
- Moisture resistant and non-moisture resistant. They differ in the features of contacting with water, they are used depending on the humidity of the room. For bathrooms and kitchens, only moisture resistant paint is used.
- Vapor permeable or vapor tight. The vapor-permeable paint is made of a "breathable" material and is suitable for rooms in which a large number of people often gather.
- Paints vary in varying degrees of wear resistance. Especially this criterion applies to painted surfaces, which are planned to be periodically subjected to wet cleaning. In this case, the paint must be waterproof.
- Paints differ by the opacity criterion. This criterion shows the paint consumption per 1 m2 and affects the number of cans that will be needed for repairs.
- Paint may or may not have the property of thixotropy. Its presence means the variability of the structure of the paint under the influence of various environmental factors. For example, thixotropic paints after opening the can and contact with air do not flow, do not drip from the brush when painting, and do not leave streaks on the wall. In addition, no precipitate forms in the bank.
- Glossy or matte paint. It differs only in external characteristics and is selected depending on the taste of the buyer.
- Embossed or plain. In addition to aesthetic preferences, relief paint is able to hide irregularities on the wall, while for a normal surface it should be perfectly even.
- Hypoallergenic and common. Hypoallergenic paints in their composition do not have organic solvents, as well as chemical ammonia compounds. When applied to the walls, they are practically odorless, dry quickly and are ideal in residential areas for children or people prone to allergies.
Paints vary in composition:
Water based (emulsion or water dispersion)
This paint dries quickly and has no smell. All water paints are divided into subspecies depending on the binder - the polymer: polyvinyl acetate, acrylic, latex, silicone.
- Polyvinyl acetate is the most affordable option, suitable for painting surfaces only in dry rooms.
- Acrylic paint after drying leaves a solid film and is suitable for coating any surface: wood, plastic, metal, brick. It is resistant to damage, moisture resistant, dries quickly, does not emit a pungent odor, is resistant to sunlight and has a persistent color. Such a coating has a high degree of elasticity, it is able to stretch and contract without forming cracks.
Acrylic based material also has disadvantages. It is quite thick, so in the process of staining on the surface may remain traces of the brush. Therefore, it is better if the paint contains substances that prevent this. Acrylic paint can not be applied to another coating, while the wall should be perfectly smooth and sanded. In addition, the acrylic product has a rather high cost, due to its durability and resistance.
- After drying, the latex paint leaves a film on the wall, which covers any relief. All such paints are glossy to one degree or another; they are characterized by a high level of wear resistance. The surface painted with latex paint is easy to care for. For it, periodic washing with a damp cloth and a soap solution is suitable. Acrylic prevents the formation of mold and fungus, retains color for a long time.
In addition, over time, it does not swell, does not crack, does not become brittle.
- Silicone paints are more often used for external work or in rooms with high humidity: in the kitchen, in the bathroom. After drying, the surface is not wetted by water, repels it. This paint has a high level of vapor permeability. In addition, it can hide some irregularities on the wall, correct small cracks and chips. However, it is one of the most expensive paint products on the market.
All water-based paints have a vapor permeability property and are easy to clean.
Such paint is durable, practical, and can be used for both external and internal works. However, oil paint has several disadvantages: it is vapor-proof, long-drying, has an unpleasant odor. For modern repairs, such paint is practically not used.
Based on alkyd resins
This is a quick-drying paint that forms a durable film on the surface. It is rarely used for the repair of residential premises, as it emits a very unpleasant odor. It is excellent for coating metal surfaces, performing an anti-corrosion function.
A separate group stands out for modern paints that form an unusual coating on the surface: heat-insulating, graphite, marker, with magnetic properties, imitating stone or metal, fluorescent.
- Heat paint can fully replace any insulation. It forms a coating 2-4 mm thick on the surface and allows you to save money on traditional insulation. In addition, with the help of paint it is possible to cover inaccessible places, as well as uneven surfaces, which makes the process of wall insulation easy.
- Graphite paint creates an unusual coating on the walls that mimics a slate board. One of its significant advantages is the anti-corrosion effect. In addition, it is durable, resistant to mechanical stress, and also safe for health. Designers often use it to decorate children's and bathrooms.
- Marker paint forms a hard coating on the walls that resembles a marker board. On such a surface, you can draw with markers, and then easily wash off drawings and inscriptions. Such paint can decorate not only walls, but also some elements of furniture and other parts of the interior.
Its excellent use is the use of a perfectly smooth surface for showing films using projectors.
- Magnetic paint - An excellent modern solution for walls. Magnets are easily attached to such a coating. To hang pictures or photographs with such paint on the wall, glue or nails are not needed. This material is great for nurseries, offices and classrooms, schools and kindergartens.
- Paint that simulates other materials can save on the purchase of real stone, brick or metal. At first glance, the difference is almost imperceptible, and time costs will be reduced significantly.
- Fluorescent paint allows you to create a coating that glows in the dark when exposed to ultraviolet rays. With it, you can paint the entire wall, although most often it is used to highlight only some elements, as well as create whole pictures. It can be visible in the light or appear only in the dark. This solution is suitable for entertainment venues or for apartments in which owners love original solutions and experiments.
It is better to decorate the interior with water-dispersion paint - the most harmless in composition. But choosing its color correctly is not as simple as it might seem at first glance. An important role is played not only by individual color perception and preferences, but also by a number of other factors: the combination of the colors of the interior as a whole, the size of the room, its purpose.
When choosing a color scheme, you can be guided by some rules:
- Evaluate the room and its compatibility with the selected shade. It is important to keep in mind the level and characteristics of lighting a room, as it can affect the color of objects.
- For a harmonious perception of the interior by a person, no more than three colors can be used. Otherwise, objects will ripple in the eyes, creating a feeling of congestion. Different shades of the same gamut are not considered separate colors. In addition, black and white are considered neutral and are an exception to this rule. They can be combined with any colors and can be used in any interior.
- From the whole variety of colors you need to choose one dominant.
- Bright colors are not suitable for painting large surfaces.
The best option is to highlight individual small elements.
- To make the surface original, it is not necessary to use staining with various colors. You can diversify a plain interior with a combination of a variety of textures and patterns. This can be achieved, for example, using different rollers for staining.
- If the apartment has adjoining rooms, they can be visually combined using the same colors for decoration.
- For the ceiling, it is better to choose the color of one gamut with the walls, but somewhat lighter. Selected colors should be combined and in harmony with each other.
- It’s worth choosing the color of the room, taking into account the entire interior as a whole, including furniture, textiles and decor.
- It’s quite difficult to make a choice in a store, since artificial lighting on a display case sometimes distorts colors, which can later vary by several tones in a home environment.
- When choosing a color, it should be borne in mind that different surfaces affect it differently: smooth makes the tone lighter, rough - darker, matte - makes even cold shades warmer, glossy - refreshes all tones, including cold ones.
- To give the room originality, you can apply contrasting coloring of adjacent walls in bright colors.
- According to the rules of design, the walls are only the background of the entire interior. You can use the original technique - on the contrary, highlight the walls with bright colors or drawings, and make the furniture and decor in the room an addition to them.
Each color has a different effect on a person, on his perception of the surrounding space:
- White. Makes the room visually larger, more spacious. However, you must observe the measure in the use of white. Its excess can make the room uncomfortable, boring, create the feeling of being in a non-residential premises - office or hospital.
- Red. May cause aggression, anxiety or passion and arousal. This color is great for the bedroom. However, his search in the room can lead to fatigue, the best option is to highlight them only some elements.
- Green, blue. These are colors that are close to natural, natural - sky, water and leaves. Such a room helps to relax, positively affects the human psyche.
In such a range you can design a bathroom.
- Yellow. This color can remind of sunlight, give a feeling of security and confidence. In yellow, you can decorate the living room or dining room.
- Brown and gray. These colors can help concentrate on important matters, on your thoughts. The room, decorated in brown, always looks expensive and elegant.
- Orange. Promotes a charge of positive energy. But its excess can cause the opposite effect - contribute to drowsiness and lethargy.
- Purple. Helps to tune in to mental work, calms the nervous system. It is better to choose for children's rooms.
- The black. May provoke depressive states. But in moderation, the black color helps to give the room a solemn and solid look.
In order to create a comfortable, cozy, neutral in terms of mental impact, it is better to use warm, pastel shades - beige, sand, light coffee, gold, lilac. To get the opposite effect, for a room where you can recharge with energy and positive, you need to choose bright colors: red, green, blue, orange. Cool shades of blue, emerald, white color will help to add freshness to the room.
Using the right color, you can visually correct the imperfections of the room:
- For a small area, it is better to choose light shades, combining them with bright lighting. This technique visually expands the room.
- To visually increase the height of the ceiling, you need to paint it white. To enhance the effect, you can add a white skirting board.
- If the ceiling seems too high, visually making it lower will help coloring it in a dark color, and the walls in light.
- Visual expansion of the space contribute to the cool color scheme.
- For small rooms, techniques that combine contrasting colors are not suitable.
- In a small space, you should not draw attention to the walls, making murals or other bright elements on them.
- For a large room, use dark shades in combination with blue.
- Warm colors: red, orange and yellow will help to visually reduce a large space.
The purpose of the room does not have the last effect on the choice of color for it:
- Hall or living room. Depending on what people most often do in this room, you can choose the color scheme. Deep shades help to relax and tune in to watch a movie, bright accents contribute to a fun pastime, a warm red and orange palette is conducive to communication. For this room, where a large number of people often gather, original solutions and painting surfaces with unusual colors are suitable: with sparkles, multicolor. Among modern design options, the ceiling is painted in interesting colors. The paint can be glossy, pearlescent, fluorescent.
- For the design of the dining room, soft, muted colors are suitable that will contribute to a quiet meal and not distract attention.
- For the bedroom, pastel colors are good, which will set to rest, help restore strength.
- For the bathroom, the best option is a blue and green palette, but keep in mind that green tones can distort other colors. This should be considered for women who do makeup in this room.
- The kitchen can be decorated with any color you like. It should be borne in mind that too light shades are easily soiled, and in this room, surfaces often get dirty. For those who monitor their weight, blue is suitable, it dulls the feeling of hunger.
Choosing paintwork in the store, it is important to initially present the desired effect, the future room and how the new paint will look in the interior. There are several design techniques with which you can transform the most ordinary space:
- Separate the room horizontally. This option is suitable for the classic style of the room. Usually the lower part of the walls is painted with darker paint, and the upper one is lighter. This technique is only suitable for rooms with high ceilings, as it visually lowers them, making the walls shorter.
- The selection of individual elements of the interior. One of the latest trends in design is painting one of the walls of the room in a darker shade or in a contrasting color. Sharp transitions and experiments are well suited for living rooms or children's rooms, for a bedroom it is better to choose more relaxed solutions. In addition to walls, one can distinguish niches, protrusions, and shelves in such images. Original decor - highlighting the contour paint of the contour and the corners of the walls.
This technique allows you to visually expand the room.
- The strip around the room. A horizontal wide strip allows you to highlight certain elements on the wall and is most suitable for corridors - narrow rooms where you can visually lower the ceiling, making the wall wider. This technique is performed at eye level and draws attention, for example, to hanging pictures. In the nursery, in this way, one can distinguish the child’s work, letters and medals.
- Strip wall painting. It’s not worth decorating all the walls in this way; it’s enough to select only one of them or its separate part. The main condition is that the colors of the stripes must be combined with each other, and also in harmony with the rest of the interior. Strips do not have to be in different colors. You can choose a combination of stripes of the same color with a glossy and matte effect.
- Painting the wall or its parts with the original drawing. Using paint, you can create any image, making the interior unique. For this purpose, it is better to invite a specialist who draws well. Wall painting is perfect for children's rooms or living rooms, where many people often gather.
- The use of Venetian paint (plaster). This technique creates the effect of marble coating on the wall. To make it look really beautiful, you need a special skill to apply it. Most often, a special master is invited for this purpose. In addition, the material itself is not cheap, so this coloring is considered elite, emphasizes the status of home owners. It is possible to use such plaster both for internal, and for external works.
- Using textured paint. With the help of this technique, a relief surface of the walls of a wide variety of types is created. Thanks to the addition of various fillers to the paint, you can create simulations of various surfaces: stone, wood, textiles. In addition, there are textured paints with glitter and gloss. One of the original varieties - atakama - reflective paint, which after application to the surface creates an optical effect of velvet on the wall.
- Use of mosaic paint. It is a mixture of the base with interspersed particles of various colors, sizes and shapes. Depending on them, a certain visual effect of the coating is created: silk, textiles, marble chips, cork tree, starry sky, raindrops, abstract blots or regular geometric shapes. This paint has many advantages: environmental safety, original design, durability, strength, anti-mold and antifungal effect, moisture resistance.
Due to the fact that the paint lies in a thick layer resembling plastic, with the help of such a coating it is possible to hide small irregularities and cracks on the wall.
Manufacturers and reviews
When choosing paint, the most important criterion is its manufacturer. Well-known and trusted brands value their reputation and try to produce really high-quality products, producing both elite and budget options.
Buyers consider firms from Europe to be the best manufacturers. The leading position in consumer reviews is held by Italian brands. Such paint is considered the highest quality, saturated in color, durable. Such companies from Italy are popular in the domestic market:
- Oikos. It has very high quality products, existing on the market for about 20 years.
- San Marco - has been manufacturing the entire line of top-quality finishing materials for over 50 years.
In addition to Italian products, there are many European brands producing a quality product. These include German paint Dufa, Wandfarbe, Superweiss, English Johnstone's, Dulux, Finnish Tikkurila and Polish Sniezka.
Russia is quite popular as a country producing paints and varnishes in the market. The best brands are Admiral, Eurolux, Nevsky paints, Yaroslavl paints.
Based on the reviews of satisfied customers, we can distinguish TOP-10 of the best manufacturers:
- Marshall and Export-7 - Turkey. The products of these brands are of high quality, wear resistance, can withstand cleaning using chemicals. In addition, the paint is economical in consumption.
- Finncolor - Finland. The manufacturer produces high-quality paint for external and internal works, as well as a special series with antifungal and anti-mold effect for wet rooms.
- Emplis - Russia. The company occupies a leading position among domestic brands. The paint of this brand is of high quality, suitable for painting any surfaces, wear-resistant.
- Alpina - Germany. The company manufactures paints that repel dirt with anti-mold and antifungal effects, which is ideal for kitchens.
- Dufa - Germany. It produces paints characterized by high resistance and durability.
Among all the variety there is a special line of paints that, after drying, leave a velvet coating that is pleasant to the touch on the wall.
- Tikkurila Harmony - Finland. This brand is one of the most often bought among paints and varnishes. Paints of this company have a high degree of resistance to damage, and also make it easy to create various decorative effects on surfaces.
- Beckers - Sweden. The company produces paint and varnish products for any surface that meets all quality and environmental standards.
- Dulux - England. The company produces paint for any room, which has a long service life, resistance to moisture and a wide selection of various options.
- Sherwin-Williams is an American product of high quality. Its peculiarity lies in the unique packaging, which, thanks to its tightness, preserves the paint in an unsurpassed form.
- Parkerpaint - America. The products are distinguished by a wide selection of shades of paint, high quality and a reliable, durable coating for any surface.
Criterias of choice
To choose a good paint, you can be guided by several criteria:
- Harmlessness. For all residential premises. Particular attention should be paid to the composition of the material and its effect on humans.
- Manufacturer. Well-known brands, as a rule, offer really high-quality products.
- Easy to apply.
- Drying speed.
- Resistance to environmental influences, wear resistance. It is important to evaluate not only the possible mechanical effects on the painted surface, but also the amount of sunlight (the paint may fade, instead of the initial shade, acquire another), the humidity of the room.
- Material consumption. It is difficult to correctly calculate the amount of paint immediately, especially if the painting will be done manually. It is better to take the material with a margin, otherwise there is a risk of not choosing the exact same shade later.
- Features of care for the painted surface. You need to pay attention to whether the paint tolerates wet cleaning, contact with chemical cleaners.
- The ability to apply paint on a specific surface. Different types of paint fall on wooden, metal, paper surfaces in different ways, and also differ in the features of application on the floor, walls and ceiling.
- Cost. Most often, the price of a paintwork material is an indicator of its quality. Cheap options do not last long and have a number of other disadvantages.
- Features of the room that is supposed to be painted.
For wet rooms (kitchen, bathroom) the paint should be moisture resistant, for children - made of materials safe for health, for the living room - vapor permeable.
Features of wall painting
Painting walls is a difficult and time-consuming process. It has its own characteristics depending on the type of repair and purpose of the room. Repair can be overhaul or cosmetic.
During major repairs, the preparation of walls for painting takes a significant part of the time. They should have a perfectly smooth surface, without roughness and roughness, otherwise any imperfection will be visible through the paint layer. This is especially true for water dispersion paints.
To paint lay evenly, and the result is high-quality, the process of painting walls should be done in several stages:
- Preliminary alignment. For this, the wall is usually plastered with a gypsum mixture. For large volumes of work, a mixture of cement and sand is sometimes used. To perform this stage efficiently, mesh reinforcement is applied to the wall. This prevents cracking and increases the service life of new repairs.
- Padding. A primer layer is applied after each stage of processing the wall, as it provides adhesion of materials to each other.
- Putty. This stage is worth starting when the previous layer becomes completely dry. Depending on how well it was made, the layer of putty depends.
- Grinding. After drying of the previous layer, the surface is polished, then a layer of non-woven or glass fiber is applied to it. This is followed by another putty and grinding. Only then can you start staining.
In the process of redecorating the stages are reduced. It is no longer necessary to carry out such thorough surface preparation.
To paint the walls in the room you need:
- Prepare the room: remove all furniture, what cannot be removed from the room, cover with polyethylene, remove wall decor, switches and sockets.
- The wall is treated with a bristle brush and then wet cleaned.
- The surface is covered with antifungal and anti-mold solution.
- Putty. At this stage, minor flaws of the wall are eliminated - cracks, bumps.
- Application of paint. It is worth doing this very carefully, immediately eliminating any shortcomings: leaks, going beyond the necessary boundaries, since after drying the material it will be very difficult to do. Tools must be of high quality. If you use, for example, a cheap roller or brush, they may leave fibers or hairs on the surface.
From this, she will not look as attractive as she should.
Paint is usually applied in several layers. After the previous layer has dried, a new layer is applied in the opposite direction. On the product can usually indicate the features of each paint specifically.
In the bedroom
For painting walls in a bedroom, it is better to choose a paint based on water or acrylic. There is no increased humidity in this room, so the new wall covering will last a long time and will not begin to wash off.
Acrylic paint has a long service life and is inexpensive. To put it on the wall, you do not need special skills, it is quite unpretentious in work. Waterborne paint is also inexpensive, but differs by quick drying and a slight smell. However, if the wall can be mechanically damaged in the room, it is better to give preference to the first option. Aqueous solutions are less practical and less resistant to scratches and chips.
Particular attention should be paid to the selection of colors. It is better not to use bright colors in the bedroom, the interior should set you up for rest and a good sleep. You can combine several colors of muted shades, decorate the walls with geometric patterns. Combining the use of different types of brushes and rollers, you can create abstract, original patterns on surfaces. Applying several paints on one wall, you need to make sure that they are compatible in composition.
In the bathroom
Choosing bathroom paint as a wall decoration is a cost-effective solution. Coloring will cost many times cheaper than buying tiles or tiles.
When choosing paint for the bathroom, you should carefully study the label. It must be indicated on it that the material is resistant to high levels of humidity and temperature extremes. It is best to choose a mixture based on latex or silicone. So the wall will be covered with a thick, sealed layer of reliable coating. In addition, such paints can easily be wet cleaned, including the use of chemicals.
The color scheme can be any in accordance with individual preferences. You can experiment, choose bright shades. Warm colors are best for this room.
To save money, you can focus on a domestic product, the quality of which will not be inferior to its foreign competitors.
Useful Care Tips
After the interior design work is behind, you need to follow some recommendations for the care of painted surfaces, so that the new repair lasts as long as possible:
- After applying to the surface of the material, it must be allowed to dry for 2-3 days. However, its full drying occurs only after 2 weeks. During this time, the walls should be treated with increased care, not to overthrow them with wet cleaning.
- Periodically, painted walls should be wiped with a slightly damp cloth. Do not use powder or soda. This will lead to stains and the coating may break.
- The painted ceiling can only withstand dry cleaning. To do this, you can use a vacuum cleaner or brush.
- After the appearance of contamination on the wall, it must be removed immediately, until it is deeply absorbed into the paint layer. You can use an ordinary damp cloth for this. Otherwise, the stain may not be wiped off and surface repainting will be required.
- Difficult stains can be wiped off with a dishwashing detergent. But its excess can lead to surface damage. After the stain disappears, the wall must be wiped with a damp cloth.
- If the paint is of high quality, it will lie on the surface in an even, smooth layer, and dirt will not “stick” to it. In this case, the number of wet cleanings should be reduced. Poor-quality paint forms a porous surface, which is more easily contaminated, holding dust in the pores. It will require more frequent washing and, accordingly, can last a little less than the more expensive one.
- If waterborne paint was used, the rag should be almost dry, water should be used to a minimum.
- If the oil is oil-based, a special solution must be used to wash such a surface. 1 tablespoon of ammonia is dissolved per liter of water. After treating the wall with this liquid, it must be wiped dry. All movements should be vertical only. Perform preventive wet cleaning more often than twice a year.
If contamination forms on the wall, it can easily be removed with an eraser or bread crumb.
Beautiful examples in the interior
Modern design offers a wide selection of different applications for paint in the interior.
Finishing with bright, contrasting shades of one of the walls. An abstract drawing combining several colors at once will look original.
To make a bright wall look organically in the interior, it can be supplemented with a ceiling plinth and some furniture elements in the same color scheme.
An excellent solution is to highlight one of the walls not only with a contrasting color, but also with a relief surface.
Painting adjacent walls in contrasting colors is the choice of people who are not afraid of experimentation.
A soft gradient, smoothly turning into a white ceiling, visually raises it, creates a feeling of lightness and airiness.
Horizontal stripes make the space wider. This technique is only suitable for rooms with high ceilings.
Vertical stripes visually make the ceiling taller, but can narrow the space.
See how to choose the right paint color for walls in the next video.