Before starting the construction of a house, planting a garden, a garden and laying out flower beds, owners of suburban areas need to carefully level the entire territory. If this is not done, then all further efforts to improve the country house may go down the drain. Today, there are several methods for leveling plots, each of which has its pros and cons.
What is it and what is it for?
The alignment of the land is a tillage, thanks to which the territory acquires the desired relief. The most necessary is the alignment of the suburban area during the construction of the house , since a perfectly smooth surface is required to fill the foundation. If the territory is located on a slope, in order to level it, you have to additionally import soil. A huge role is also played by the leveling of the soil and the refinement of the yard territory in the country , the land in this case must not only be perfectly leveled, but also divided into sections for the lawn, garden and paths.
Do not do without leveling the cottage area and when planting the garden. If this is not done, then the moisture in the soil will be unevenly distributed, which will lead to either decay of the plant roots, or the pits will be too dry.
The most difficult is the alignment of the marshy area , since it must first be covered with drainage, then with plant soil and black soil. Autumn is considered to be a suitable time for preparing a garden at a summer cottage because the territory is being dug up, until spring the soil will settle under the influence of snow and rains, absorbing all the useful substances. Leveling the soil at the cottage is necessary not only for building a house, preparing a garden, but also for decorating the landscape design, since on the site you will have to arrange corners for relaxation and plant flower beds.
Elimination of small and large differences (in the form of depressions or elevations) will be needed when creating garden paths.
The alignment of a suburban area always begins with the collection of garbage to be removed from the territory. Then, stones, weeds and stumps are cleared. After completing the preliminary preparation, the site is allowed to stand for a week, then they start marking into even parts using pegs and a rope. The territory is carefully inspected, all the mounds are leveled, the pits are filled up . Additionally, a study of the composition of the soil is carried out , if the soil is infertile, then its upper layer must be covered and black soil added.
Today, there are several ways to correct a summer cottage, most often this is done using special equipment or manually . It is necessary to level the territory with the definition of its purpose (it can be used for construction, to design a garden plot, garden or to create landscape compositions). The nature of irregularities also plays a huge role in choosing a leveling method (an area with a slope needs to be additionally covered with soil at the level, and marshy areas with sand). Minor irregularities can be eliminated manually, by digging the site, in winter the soil is saturated with moisture and is easily leveled by the mill in the spring.
If the territory is large, then it will be correctly leveled using heavy equipment (tractors, walk-behind tractors).
In suburban areas, the area of which does not exceed 8 acres, loosening and leveling the soil is performed manually . This method is not considered costly, since only physical strength, a rake, a shovel and a pitchfork are required to work.
Manual alignment consists of several steps.
- Preparation . The territory is marked and removed from 10 to 20 cm of the upper layer of the earth, which is poured into bags and taken to the edge of the site for temporary storage. It is worth noting that the soil can not be stored in closed bags, as it can lose its fertility.
- Checking the horizontality of the site . To determine the deviations, you need to hammer the pegs into the ground, pull the rope and perform control using the building level. All pits are covered with earth.
- Tamping the soil. It is carried out using wooden planks or a hand roller. Then the previously exported earth is poured. If the soil is too dry, it is additionally moistened by pouring plenty of water. Then it is necessary to wait for the subsidence of the earth, it usually takes up to 3 weeks, dig a plot and level the soil surface with a rake.
To speed up the process of leveling large sections , an agricultural implement in the form of a cultivator or tractor is used . The first type of equipment is characterized by small size and affordable price (often cottagers rent motor-blocks for the period of preparation of sites). Such mini-tractors are easy to operate, the operator only needs to follow the device and hold on to special levers to control the process.
The use of walk-behind tractors has one big plus - when leveling the soil there is no need to remove its top layer. As for the minuses, this technique cannot throw large pits, this must be done manually.
Tractors often align areas with large areas . This unit has steel knives that remove and move the top layer of the earth. The tractor is capable of capturing large layers of soil, first the alignment is performed in one direction, then the equipment moves perpendicularly. Stony soil before plowing is cleaned with an excavator.
Upon completion of work on the site, you can not plant anything for 3 weeks and make sure that it is not overgrown with weeds (weeds must be removed).
The process of leveling the summer cottage is considered complex, taking up a lot of physical strength and time. Therefore, many landowners prefer to use the services of professionals who do everything quickly and correctly.
If alignment of the territory is carried out independently on their own, it is important to consider the following recommendations.
- Before starting all work related to the adjustment of the territory, it is necessary to determine in advance its purpose and the creation of separate zones (choose a place for the pool, the arrangement of the garden and for development). At this stage, it is necessary to carefully study the site plan and consult with a specialist in the field of land robot, since it is important to analyze the location of groundwater, soil composition and possibilities for further exploitation of the territory. In addition, the direction of water flow and the slope of the relief should be determined.
- Since the whole complex of land work is associated with the movement of land, it is necessary to assess the complexity of the implementation of this activity , taking into account the area of the plot, the relief and the desired result. Part of the work (alignment of small areas) can be done manually using shovels and rakes. For other manipulations, it may be necessary to use special equipment.
- The removed upper fertile layer of the earth can be stored for no more than a month , otherwise all aerobic microorganisms may die and the soil will become unusable (it cannot be enriched with oxygen).
- Leveling of the land should begin before the start of construction of the house, laying out garden paths and conducting all communication systems. This is best done in the fall, as the winter-spring period can be rich in rainfall and the soil will sag. In addition, the garden plot leveled in the fall during the winter is well absorbed by moisture and fertilizers, which will positively affect the cultivation of crops.
- Plots with large areas must be leveled using special equipment, which can penetrate to a depth of 30 cm. The tractor needs to walk along and across the territory, this will allow the earth to loosen well. If there is a need to move a large amount of land, it is best to use a bulldozer.
- If you plan to allocate a plot for a lawn for flowers, then you need to provide him with a perfectly flat surface . For this, levels are set, a check is made for the presence of curvature. In some places, you can remove the topsoil, then fill up all the holes and smooth the tubercles. If the earth is heavy, it is recommended to mix the top layer with peat and sand.
- To quickly level the area with a slope, you can use the removed topsoil from other sites, which is considered unsuitable for planting . At first, the slope places are covered with sand, then with earth. It is allowed to leave a slight slope, it is needed so that melt and rain water do not stagnate. To simplify the process of leveling sections with a slope, the square method will help, for which you need to drive wooden pegs around the perimeter of the territory and then add soil to the level of their height.
- When making landscape design on the site, one should not forget about such a main attribute as steps. They can be issued in the place where there are slopes on the site. If the territory is located on a hill, then one part of it can be leveled, and the other equipped with a staircase and railing. After the site is leveled, fountains, small ponds and statues can be placed on it.
You can watch how to align the plot correctly in the next video.