Agricultural work in the garden, in the garden can give people joy. But before you enjoy the result, you will have to make a lot of effort. Homemade miniature tractors help simplify your life and increase productivity.
Design Features and Dimensions
Of course, this technique can be bought in the store. But the costs in this case are often excessively high. And what’s the most annoying, for the largest land, where powerful machines are required, the cost of the purchase rises sharply. In addition, for those interested, enthusiastic about technology, preparing a 4x4 mini-tractor in itself will be enjoyable.
But it must be borne in mind that with independent work you will have to carefully consider all the nuances. There is no point in making the design worse than on factory models.
First determine what kind of work to be performed on the site. Then a suitable attachment is selected, the optimal placement and methods for attaching it are determined. It is customary to divide home-made mini-tractors into the same parts as their "store" counterparts:
- frame (the most significant part);
- power point;
- Gearbox and gear unit;
- steering block;
- auxiliary (but no less important) details - clutch, driver's seat, roof and so on.
As you can see, most of the parts from which homemade mini-tractors are assembled are taken ready-made from other equipment. Can be used as a base and cars, and other agricultural machinery. But the number of permissible combinations of components is not so great. Therefore, it makes sense to focus on ready-made combinations of parts. As for the sizes, they are chosen at their discretion, but as soon as these parameters are fixed in the drawing, changing them becomes extremely imprudent.
Most experts believe that it is best to use designs with a swinging frame. Yes, and experienced craftsmen prefer just this option. Motoblocks are taken as a basis.
Despite the apparent cumbersomeness, these mini tractors are quite efficient and work very well. The main thing is that each component should be placed in its strictly designated place.
Tools and materials
Frames are often made from traverses and spars. The spars themselves are made up of channels and steel pipes. Cross members are made in a similar way. In this regard, the preparation of any mini-tractor is not much different. As for motors, any version that is powerful enough will do.
Nevertheless, professionals believe that the best option is a four-stroke diesel engine, cooled by water. They save fuel and are more stable in operation. Gearboxes and transfer cases, as well as clutches, are often taken from domestic trucks. But keep in mind that the individual components will have to be adjusted to each other. For this purpose, you will have to use a home lathe or turn to professionals.
Bridges are taken from the old motor technology almost unchanged. Sometimes only they are shortened a little. In this case, metalworking equipment is used. Wheels are sometimes removed from cars, however, their diameter must be at least 14 inches (for the front axle).
By installing smaller movers, farmers will often be faced with plunging a mini-tractor into the ground. If you put too much chassis, maneuverability will deteriorate. The hydraulic power steering helps to partially compensate for this drawback. Whether to remove it from old cars, or do it yourself, is up to the master to decide. As for the driver's seat, this is an optional, but very important element.
If you take the old walk-behind tractor as a basis, then you can take it ready-made:
- clutch system;
- wheels and half shafts.
But the frame from the walk-behind tractor can only become an integral part of the mini-tractor frame. Using it, you need to watch so that the mounts for the motor and gearbox are ready. If a cultivator is taken as the basis, they refuse a powerful frame, and 10 cm square pipes are quite enough. Preference is given to square shape because home mini-tractors often drive on bad roads. The size of the frame is selected in accordance with the size of the other parts and their severity.
A simple type of transmission involves the use of a belt clutch placed on the gearbox. In a more sophisticated version, the torque is transmitted using propeller shafts. However, the consumer has no choice - it all depends on the features of the motor and on the wheel formula. If an effective breakable frame is used, then in any case it will be necessary to install cardan shafts. It should be borne in mind that with self-production it is difficult.
Management is created according to the standard scheme, they just take parts from any car. Since the steering wheel load during the operation of the mini-tractor is less than that of a passenger car, you can safely put the used parts. The fastening of the column, lugs and other components occurs in the same way as on a car. But the tie rods are shortened a bit to fit the narrowed track. To work, therefore, you will need:
- Angle grinder;
How to do it yourself?
A makeshift mini-tractor fracture is a kind of classic in a similar technique. Therefore, it is worth starting the review with it. There are 3 different options for how to implement a similar scheme:
- use a walk-behind tractor and put a factory frame on it;
- assemble the product completely from spare parts;
- take the walk-behind tractor as a basis and supplement it with spare parts from the conversion kit.
It is extremely important to prepare drawings before starting work. In the absence of work experience and technical drawing it is better to turn to professionals. Ready-made schemes distributed via the Internet cannot always guarantee an optimal result. And their publishers, especially the site owners, are not responsible. An articulated ligament must be provided between the parts of the frame.
The engine is placed in most cases in front. For the manufacture of a frame, a channel from 9 to 16 is usually used. Only occasionally use channel number 5, however, it will have to be strengthened with transverse beams.
Cardan is often used as an articulated binder on a mini tractor with a breaking frame. They are removed from the GAZ-52 or from the GAZ-53.
Connoisseurs recommend putting four-stroke engines on home-made equipment. Power 40 l. with. It is enough to solve most business problems. Often engines are taken from Moskvich and Zhiguli cars. But you need to pay attention to gear ratios. Effective cooling is also required. Insufficiently well-cooled engines will lose power, and their parts will quickly wear out. To make the transmission, it is advisable to use removed from the truck:
- power removal shaft;
- clutch system.
But in finished form, all these parts for a mini-tractor will not work. They will need to be improved. The clutch and the motor will be qualitatively connected only with the help of a new basket. The rear segment of the flywheel will have to be shortened on the machine. In the middle of this node, a new hole must be punched, otherwise the fracture node will not work normally. The front axles are taken ready-made from other cars. Intrusion into their device is not recommended. However, the rear axles should be slightly improved. Modernization consists in shortening the axle shafts. The attachment of the rear axles to the frame is carried out using 4 steps.
The size of the wheels on a mini-tractor, used only for moving goods, should be 13-16 inches. But when it is planned to carry out a wide range of agricultural work, movers with a radius of 18-24 inches should be used. When it is possible to create only an excessively large wheelbase, it is necessary to use hydraulic power steering. A hydraulic cylinder is a device that you can’t do with your own hands. The only way to get this part is to remove unnecessary equipment.
In order to maintain the working pressure at the right level and circulate a sufficient amount of oil, it is necessary to put a gear type pump.
It is important in the manufacture of breaks to connect the gearbox with the wheels mounted on the main shaft. Then it will be much easier to manage them.
The operator's seat is taken from cars, it does not need to be redone. The wheel is set so as not to rest against it with your knees.
When installing control systems, it is necessary to ensure that all of them have free access. A high-quality fracture, even if it is assembled from old spare parts, should produce up to 3000 engine revolutions per minute. The smallest permissible speed is 3 km / h. If these parameters are not provided, you will have to redo the mini-tractor after a test run. If necessary, adjust the transmission.
Specialists note that all drive wheels should, if possible, have separate gearboxes and hydraulic distributors from 4 sections. This solution allows the assembly to abandon the installation of universal joints and the use of differentials on the rear axles. You can only load the mini-tractor after a successful break-in. In many cases, miniature tractors are made from Niva components. In this case, sequentially:
- assemble the frame;
- they put the engine;
- mount the transmission;
- mount the steering column;
- fasten hydraulic components and wheels;
- equip the brake system;
- put the seat and the truck.
The classic approach to arranging the frame based on the "VAZ 2121" implies an all-welded construction. Making it relatively easy. However, the maneuverability of such a system is small, which is especially felt when the mini-tractor turns or rides over rough terrain with cargo in the back. Therefore, the increased complexity of assembling the fracture is fully justified by the large cross-country ability and the reduction of the turning radius.
Crossbars act as stiffeners. Longitudinal spars are set so that a rigid steel box is formed. It is necessary to provide brackets, fasteners, without which the body will move unpredictably. A pair of half-frames are welded together. A part is placed at the back 0.6x0.36 m, and at the front 0.9x0.36 m. The channel of the eighth size is taken as the basis. A couple of pipe sections are added to the front frame. These segments will allow you to install the motor. A metal stand with a thickness of 0.012 m is placed on the rear frame. An equilateral corner is used to strengthen it.
Behind the rack, a rectangular block is welded, becoming the rear hitch for auxiliary tools. And on top of the front half frame mount the support platform for the seat. Steel forks should be welded to the central parts of both half-frames. Front mounted hub, removed from the front wheel of the car. Then it will move in two planes.
You can use parts from the "Lada". The motor is taken from a variety of models in this series. The front suspension is necessarily strengthened, and the power plant is placed under the operator's seat. The engine must be covered with a casing. When drawings are being prepared, the exact location of the fuel tank must be indicated. To save it, you need to use a shorter frame, but when shortening it you must not forget about the shift of the bridge.
Homemade mini-tractors with an Oka engine also perform well. If you assemble such an apparatus according to the scheme, you get a compact product. An exact scheme is also needed to determine the need for channels, corners and fasteners. The seat is made of any suitable item. The front axle is made of steel bars with a minimum thickness of 0.05 m.
Regardless of the nuances of the design and the selected models, work on the mini-tractor with caution. Every time before starting it, it is necessary to inspect all parts of the machine, to check their suitability. First of all, the serviceability of the brake system should be assessed. The stop is made only at low speed, and the motor can only be turned off when the clutch is depressed and the brake is gradually released. Emergency stop only in a critical situation.
Both the driver and passengers can only ride in adapted seats. Do not rely on traction rods. Riding on slopes is allowed only at minimum speed. If the engine, lubrication system or brakes are leaking, you must not use the mini tractor. You can only attach any attachments to standard mounts.
An overview of the do-it-yourself mini-tractor, see the next video.