When ordering repairs from third-party organizations or purchasing a door unit, which includes both the box and the door itself, questions on the choice of load-bearing elements usually do not arise. A completely different situation is observed if you want to carry out repairs on your own. At the same time, massive structures require a particularly careful approach to fittings, so in this article we will consider suitable options for choosing door hinges for heavy wooden doors, as well as for metal and armored products.
Currently, door hardware is classified according to the following criteria:
- by design;
- by material;
- by symmetry.
In this case, door hinges are symmetrical:
Symmetry is determined in which direction the web mounted on the mount will open. The door installed on the left hinge mounted on the right side will open with the left hand on itself, with the right option everything is the other way around, but the universal model can be installed as you like.
Let us consider in more detail the most common materials and door hardware designs.
All considered designs can be made of various materials. Moreover, all models are made only of different metals - less durable materials simply can not withstand the weight of the structure. Theoretically, ceramics could hold such a mass, but in practice hinges are not made from it, since such a hard material is very fragile and will not withstand dynamic loads (like slamming doors).
In the production of loops, the following groups of metals are used:
It is best for massive structures suitable for ferrous metal products, characterized by low price and excellent durability. Slightly inferior to them are more aesthetic and expensive stainless steel options, which may need more. More expensive than stainless steel, brass hinges are also quite durable, but at the same time the most expensive. But the options for alloys need to be carefully studied - if silumin or powder metallurgy methods were used in the production of such a product, then massive structures should not be installed on it.
Now on the market there are a huge number of different designs of loops.
They can be conditionally divided into two groups:
Detachable fittings are usually two elements connected by a pin, which can either be mounted in one of them or inserted externally. This kind of loop is called a canopy, and the type of connection is usually called "father - mother." You can remove the door from the canopies by lifting it up. To dismantle a door from an integral hinge is possible only by unscrewing the screws on which the hinge is held in the box.
Let us dwell on the most common types of structures in more detail.
This option is well suited for a massive wooden door, but on metal products it will look extremely inappropriate. Unlike more modern fittings, in the outer hinge one of its parts is attached not to the end of the door, but to its outer surface, and has dimensions of several tens of centimeters. Outdoor options are most often made of ferrous metals by forging.
Canopies with a pin
This type was the most common in Soviet times, it is a detachable design with a pin, which is part of one of the two loop elements. In the second there is a groove corresponding to the pin. With such a fastening, the door is removed very quickly by lifting it up, so it is not recommended to install entrance doors on it. For massive interior doors, canopies can be used, only they do not look very aesthetically pleasing.
Canopies with through pin
This option is a modification of the previous one, in which the groove for the pin is in both elements of the loop, and the pin itself is inserted into them separately. The option in which the pin is attached with an easily unscrewable plug is great for passages between rooms, but for the entrance doors you need to find an option in which the plug is sealed or welded.
For doors made of heavy wood or made of metal, it is worth looking for a canopy in which bearings are used. It will cost more than the classic options, but it will last much longer and eliminate the risk of deformation of the mount during operation of the structure. At the same time, the doors installed on the product with the bearing will not creak.
This option is suitable only for wooden products, as it is fastened by screwing screws into the box or into the canvas itself. They are usually inexpensive, they look very beautiful, but even the strongest of them can withstand a load of a maximum of 20 kg. So it is worth using them only for interior passages, having previously calculated the mass of the structure. They must be installed strictly in one vertical axis, a play of even a few millimeters will lead to the need to dismantle the accessories in a couple of months.
This fastening option is used only for doors with a narthex (when the outer edge of the outer surface of the door covers part of the door frame). Usually their design is similar to the “Butterfly” or “father-mother” canopies, only both elements are L-shaped.
A door equipped with such a fastener can open in both directions: both “towards yourself” and “from yourself”. In a household, such a need rarely arises, but if you still decide on this option, then it is better to entrust it to an experienced master, because the slightest mistake during installation is fraught with an imbalance in the structure. Saving on the quality of such products is also not worth it - the load on them is much greater than on more familiar options. It is also worth choosing a model equipped with special springs that lock the door in the closed position.
These products are a modification of the canopies, in which the hinges are mounted not from the outside of the canvas and the box, but from the inside with the help of special bearing pins, which are installed in the holes pre-drilled in the canvas and box. Of course, these models are suitable only for wooden doors, and their weight should not exceed 40 kg.
These reinforced products have a complex structure, and their main advantage is that they are invisible from the outside, since all their elements are inside the box and the canvas. At the same time, they are suitable for both wooden and metal doors, and their bearing capacity (provided that they are made of high-quality material) allows you to install the heaviest metal, and even armored, structures on them. They are made exclusively from high-strength alloys or strong steels. It is better to entrust the installation to a professional - the home foreman will not have enough not only skills, but also tools (in the metal construction of the loop it is impossible to install without using a welding machine).
Calculation of the required amount
Regardless of the chosen mounting model, there is a rule that ensures the safe operation of the door.
The number of fittings is selected based on the mass:
- if the canvas weighs less than 40 kg, then two loops will be enough;
- with a door weight of 40 to 60 kg, three mounting points are needed;
- a door weighing more than 60 kg must be installed on 4 hinges.
How to choose door hinges and how they differ from each other, see the video.