Welding work is an integral part of construction and installation. They are carried out both in small-scale production and in everyday life. This type of work is characterized by an increased degree of danger. In order to prevent various injuries, the welder must not only undergo appropriate training, but also acquire all the necessary personal protective equipment.
There are standard rules that govern the issuance of free ammunition to welders. These rules are developed and approved, they are binding. If work in the cold season is performed outdoors or indoors without heating, welders should be given a warm outfit with a special lining. To protect workers from frostbite in contact with frozen ground or snow, special litter is used, made of refractory fabrics with an elastic layer.
To protect hands, GOST offers several options. These are canvas gauntlets with or without leggings. The second option is split gloves, which can also be elongated. As special shoes it is allowed to use ankle boots made of yuft or other type of leather. It is important that special shoes have shortened shafts.
You can’t work in shoes whose sole has metal inserts, and any lacing is prohibited.
If during work there is a danger of electric shock, the welder must have dielectric gloves and a rug when sitting or lying down. These requirements apply to particularly hazardous areas and places where there is no automatic shutdown of open circuit voltage.
The administration of the enterprise is also obliged to evaluate jobs in terms of the risk of head damage. To avoid injuries, specialists must wear helmets. For greater convenience, there are special helmets with a protective shield. When there is a simultaneous welding job by several workers on the same vertical line, it is necessary to establish protection between them: awnings or blank decks. Then sparks and cinders will not get on the welder below.
Mask and respirator
The need to use a satellite for respiratory organs arises at those times when the maximum permissible concentration of hazardous substances in the air is disturbed in the room. When welding, gases such as ozone, nitrogen oxides or carbon can accumulate. There are situations when the amount of harmful gases is lower than the dangerous, while the concentration of dust exceeds the norm. In these cases, respiratory respirators are used to protect respiratory organs.
When the concentration of gases and dust exceeds acceptable standards, and work occurs indoors or in an inaccessible place (for example, a huge tank), welders must be provided with additional air supply through breathing apparatus. As such, it is recommended to use hose masks "PSh-2-57" or special breathing machines "AFM" and "3M".
The air that is supplied to the breathing apparatus through the compressor must be absolutely clean. No foreign particles or hydrocarbon are allowed in it.
The eyes of the welders must be protected from the adverse radiation of the electric arc, as well as from the hot spray that occurs during welding. For protection, various shields with a screen and masks with glass inserts are used. For categories of personnel such as a gas cutter or auxiliary worker, the use of special glasses is applicable.
Glasses completely cover the eye area, provide indirect ventilation. They are designed to protect the retina from ultraviolet radiation. Workers must also be wearing special glasses. Glasses often provide light filters, thanks to which the retina is not affected by ultraviolet and infrared rays, they do not blind eyes from visible radiation.
GOST contains standards for protective materials. Welders are shown to be at work in suits consisting of jackets and trousers belonging to the category “Tr”, which means protection against splashes of molten metal. In the cold season, workers are required to wear protective clothing with the protective properties of “Tn”. It is specially designed to protect against cold and frost. For example, “Tn30” means that the suit can be used at temperatures up to 30 ° C.
Usually a work suit is represented by a jacket and trousers. It must be sewn in accordance with GOST, not be too heavy and restrict movement.
Clothes specially designed for welding are always marked with the sign “Tr”.
This means that the fabric of the clothes does not deteriorate and does not catch fire from hot sparks. Most often, tarpaulin or leather is taken for sewing. The material is treated with special heat-resistant substances.
Lighter cotton fabrics are acceptable. However, they must be thoroughly saturated with a chemical compound that protects against high temperatures. To impart fire resistance, polymeric materials are applied to the skin. Acrylic resins are used for their manufacture. The resulting split must withstand high temperature conditions for at least 50 seconds.
According to GOST 12.4.103-83, in the warm season, welders must wear leather boots marked "Tr". Socks of such boots are made of metal. They are designed to protect against splashes of burning metal and sparks, as well as from contact with hot surfaces. In winter, they put on felt boots for welding.
All shoes should be made of natural materials. In addition, it is covered with a refractory chemical composition that cannot be burned with hot metal splashes.
How to choose?
Side effects such as burning sparks and pieces of metal occur during welding. Therefore, materials must be resistant to prolonged exposure to high temperatures. Inadmissible melting, which can lead to skin burns.
Safety precautions prohibit welding without special shoes. Here, special attention is also paid to materials. Since red-hot spray falls to the floor, the sole of the shoes must withstand the effects of high temperatures.
What should be the means of protection of the welder, see the video.