A cozy house is impossible without a home garden. However, not everyone has serious enough knowledge in floriculture, therefore they prefer to plant beautiful, but unpretentious plants. One of these is peperomia (Peperomia), belonging to the pepper family. This representative of the home flora comes from the American and Asian tropics.
One of the characteristic features of the flower is low growth, rarely when the plant grows more than 20 cm. It belongs to the evergreen herbaceous perennials, although some representatives of the genus are closer to shrubs. In the natural environment, this green beauty is a tropical carpet and feels great in the shady areas. Distinctive features:
- thick shoots;
- fleshy-looking foliage may have a different shape;
- the color of the leaves can vary from green to gold and even brownish tones, they can be decorated with patterns and spots, straight lines;
- foliage of the peperomy of the carate has a corrugated structure;
- a small flower in the form of an ear of a cylinder;
- flowering goes into berries.
Types of peperomia - a great many. Botanists disagree, but on average there are 850 representatives. Caperata peperomia is the most famous of this series, it is also called shriveled or wrinkled. Peperomia in some of its incarnations is considered a spectacular decorative representative, it is planted in greenhouses, botanical gardens, used as an element of ampelic floral compositions and groups. All types of peperomia live well together, so many gardeners breed a variety of varieties, combining them into fancy compositions.
Botanists divide peperomia into three main types: succulents, shrubs and ampelous. Peperomia karate belongs to the bush type and came to us from Brazil. A wide selection of varieties makes this variety particularly attractive to gardeners. The most popular varieties include the following.
- Red luna Represents a magnificent bush of a bright shade of Bordeaux, a low-growing unpretentious plant.
- Teresa. The most magnificent representative of a karate, combines tones of silver and greenery. Also not tall.
- Abricos. The name speaks for itself - a shade of bright apricot is definitely present in the color of the foliage as a frame, the leaf itself is saturated green.
- Schumi Red. differs in soft oval leaves of a relief texture. Undemanding care. Flowering creamy milk shade of spikelet type.
- Schumi Sienn Sunset. The foliage is rosette, juicy, heterogeneous, marble-like, red and pink, the stem is short,
- Rosso. The leaves arrange their juicy rosettes in a star-like shape. One of the extra-decorative types of an unusual color combination: top - saturated green, bottom - juicy burgundy.
- "Emerald Ripple." Marble-spotted, low plant.
Conditions of detention
In general, flower growers attribute this representative of the flora to very convenient home breeding. There are some nuances that must be taken into account, but in general caring for a flower will not require too much effort.
Peperomia feels most comfortable in the light of scattered rays, ideally, it is necessary to protect the plant from the sun. Therefore, it is recommended to keep the flower on the windowsills from the west or east. If the room faces south, the flower must be removed from the window. In addition, paper or a translucent type of fabric will help to create diffuse lighting conditions. Feel free to use gauze, tracing paper, standard tulle. Take into account the variety: green-leaf representatives feel great in the shade, and decorated with variegated foliage optimally develop under diffuse lighting.
Particular attention should be paid to light in the winter months and off-season. Florists recommend equipping sources of additional lighting. Lamps should not be placed in the immediate vicinity of the plant, the distance should be at least half a meter. Lighting time - up to 8 hours a day. Artificial light is not an obstacle to growing this floristic specimen, but in this case it is provided with lighting for at least 16 hours.
The tropical flower does not tolerate cold and drafts, which is completely natural, given its origin. A warm climate is essential for the flower throughout the year. If we talk about the warm period, then in spring and summer it becomes comfortable for him starting from +20 C. In winter, the thermometer should not fall below +18 C. As for fresh air, the plant does not need it. It must be protected from drafts, it is not required to take it out to the street. Keep an eye on the temperature of the soil, as cooling threatens the root system with diseases. The minimum possible mark of the thermometer is +17 C.
Landing and transplanting
Florists consider planting a plant to be the most difficult stage in breeding this green pet. The health, development and even life of the plant depends on compliance with the rules of planting. The main difficulties associated with the landing, are the preparation of the soil, the choice of capacity. This flower is planted only in spring, using soil through which air circulates easily. The soil should be loose, nutritious, in this quality a clay-based substrate is excellent. It is recommended to buy special soil in specialized stores, especially if you are not professionally engaged in crop production.
The container for the flower should be a suitable size with a drainage layer at the bottom, the size of which cannot be less than 3 cm. In the role of a drainage material, use small brick, expanded clay, small pebbles. Then a plant is placed in the pot, soil is poured on top, which in no case can be crushed and tamped. In general, the planting procedure should not be accompanied by sudden movements that could damage the rhizome. At the end of the procedure, it is necessary to carefully moisten the green pet and take it to a permanent place of stay.
If you purchased a plant in a store, do not transplant it on the same day, it is better if you give a couple of weeks for the flower to adapt to new conditions. The transplant is also carried out in the spring:
- young plants - every year;
- three years old and older - once every two years.
Do not choose too deep containers, but in width they should be one and a half centimeters larger than the previous ones. If preparing the soil yourself, mix:
- one piece of sand;
- one part of peat;
- one part of humus;
- Three parts of the land are sheet type.
Do not forget about the drainage system at the bottom.
How to care?
In order for home planting to please a healthy and flowering species, it is necessary to competently carry out, although simple, but regular care, taking into account the characteristics of this type of plant. At home, these procedures will not cause any particular inconvenience.
Oddly enough, the tropical handsome man is not a fan of strong humidity, so it should be watered in moderate doses. The following irrigation frequency is optimal:
- summer - 3 times a month;
- winter - 1 time in 20 days.
Pay attention to the degree of dryness of the soil - it should not be overdried to the depth, otherwise this will lead to a loss of the effective appearance of the plant. If the soil has dried more than 3 cm down, you can water the flower again. Also make sure that the water is settled, not hard and warm, just above room temperature. Since the flower does not need abundant hydration, stagnation of water is unacceptable, this will lead to pathological disorders of the root system, rot and disease. A tropical guest is not afraid of drought, but is very sensitive to high humidity. To prevent this from happening, wait half an hour after moistening the soil and rid the tray of excess water.
As for air humidity, the ideal indicator of a hygrometer is 50%. Spraying and rubbing are permissible only in smooth-leaved varieties, occasionally and only in the summer. Shriveled foliage water procedures of this kind are contraindicated. Therefore, dust is removed with dry sponges as necessary.
In normal development, peperomia is not pruned; it is enough to pinch the top of the elongated shoots in the spring so that the bush is branched. Pinching is done about one fifth of the length from above. However, there are times when the flower goes bald, and then pruning becomes a necessity. After this procedure, new processes and stems are formed. When pruning, do not touch just a few leaves at the bottom of the plant.
In addition, shriveled flower species form a stump after a few years, after which the foliage grows smaller. In this situation, breathing life into the plant is simply necessary. To do this, the shoots are cut off from above and on the sides. They can be used as cuttings for propagation. Proper pruning and pinching can turn the bush into a beautiful ball.
The plant is fed twice a month during the most intensive development and growth, that is, from the beginning of spring to the end of summer. You can use any liquid mineral dressing, focused on home flora, succulents, deciduous plants. The main thing is to withstand a small dosage, about half less than usual. From September to spring, fertilize enough once a month and a half, and you can exclude this stage of care if the plant feels quite well. Observe the measure, as overfeeding can negatively affect the condition of the flower. Always moisten the soil beforehand, otherwise you can burn the sensitive root system.
This process is carried out in several ways:
- dividing the bush;
- by seeds;
- leaf (cuttings of leaves).
Seeds are sown in small containers in the soil of this composition:
- part of the sheet land;
- part of the sand.
Then cover with a glass lid, forming a kind of greenhouse in a mini-version, withstanding a temperature of at least +24 C. It is important to keep the humidity level at a sufficient level. Then the sprouts are pecked into boxes, in the soil of the same composition. It is necessary to organize the right lighting, while protecting the shoots from direct rays. After the sprouts have gained strength, they are transferred to pots with soil of the following composition:
- part of peat;
- part of the sheet land;
- half a sand;
- half of the turf.
If you prefer propagation of the vegetative plan, it is necessary to cut the stems and tops during the growth period. They must have at least one node, and if their size is small, then at least three. The soil composition is the same as when sowing, the creation of greenhouse conditions will make growth faster. You can also transfer the cuttings into water and put in a warm place until the beginnings of the root system. Further actions are similar to seed sprouts.
Leaf reproduction occurs in this way:
- leaves with petioles are transferred to sandy soil in a small container;
- form the conditions of the greenhouse;
- after the appearance of rhizomes, they are planted in a pot;
- the process is better to start in the spring.
Diseases and Pests
The development of room peperomy is sometimes impaired due to an insect attack or disease. Among the frequently attacking pests are:
- spider mite;
Actions when a malicious attack is detected:
- the foliage needs to be urgently treated with a sponge and soap solution;
- then use special equipment with any insecticide;
- you can get rid of the worm with medical alcohol and ear sticks.
In addition to insects, the plant can become infected with fungal infections, the likelihood of this increases if the plant is waterlogged. Be sure to urgently transplant the flower and stop hydration.
Signals to pay attention to:
- foliage turns brown - hypothermia, get rid of dry leaves and move to a warm, calm place;
- leaves fall - underfill, check the moisture of the soil and moisten as necessary;
- leaf lethargy, whitening, rotten spots, corking - excessive moisture in the winter;
- in winter, the leaves fall - the flower does not have enough heat.
For how to properly care for peperomia karate, see the next video.