David Austin reminded the world of the forgotten beauty of old English roses, which are distinguished by a strong aroma, large bud sizes, resistance to fungal and other diseases. Varieties of Austin are not included in the official classification of Rosaceae, despite the fact that there are already more than 200 of them and they are in great demand among amateurs and professional gardeners.
In 1950, David Austin in France noticed old rose bushes with a unique kind of flower and a pleasant strong smell. Inspired by its beauty, he wanted to create a modern variety that combines the characteristics of forgotten rose species and will meet the new requirements for plants, including resistance to adverse weather conditions. The main task was to give new bushes the ability to re-bloom, develop in different climatic zones. Ancient types of roses are distinguished by the absence of warm shades in the yellow palette, which the breeder also wanted to change.
Crossing of varieties Bel Isis and Le Grasse in 1961 led to the creation of the first Austin rose, Constance Spray. It belongs to the pion-shaped varieties. Large flowers of its cup-shaped form, they are pink in color and have a persistent aroma. "Constance Spray" opens buds only once a year, but has gained great love among gardeners and remains relevant and popular these days.
In 1984, about 50 plant varieties were already introduced that appeared through the selection of old species with hybrid tea roses , the floribunda group, and wild rose. Austin varieties in appearance resemble Damask, Bourbon, Gallic, Alba, but differ in a wide color palette, ability to grow on depleted soils, and resistance to poor environmental conditions. With external old-fashionedness, most of their species are re-flowering, some are capable of multiple continuous flowering. The main plus is reduced demanding for lighting, roses for development is enough 4 hours of daylight.
All Austin cultures have bud-shaped forms like those of old rose bushes - cup-shaped, rosette, pompon-shaped. Cone-shaped flowers (a form inherent in the tea-hybrid species) David rejected during the crossing. Each variety is distinguished by its rich aroma. The name "Jude Obscourt" is assigned to Austin's most fragrant rose; its smell can compete with real French perfumes.
Each year, about 4 new varieties of culture are recorded. Among them are scrubs, erect tall, dwarf bushes with small flowers, suitable for growing in closed ground, containers.
Advantages and disadvantages
The creator notes that all plants meet the following requirements:
- the purity of the color of the petals;
- strength of aroma;
- classic forms of buds;
- increased vitality.
The properties of Austin roses in different growing conditions may vary. The characteristics for central Russia are as follows.
- Frost resistance is higher than declared by the manufacturer.
- Plants often grow taller than indicated in the characteristics of the variety. This feature should be considered when planting, as replanting a 7-year-old bush will be problematic due to size.
- When cultivating a rose as a climbing plant, it is also worth being prepared to grow longer shoots than indicated in the description.
- After planting a rose bush for the first two years, the flowers are small, the branches are weak, easily bent. At the end of the adaptation period, all indicators return to normal.
The main positive aspects of English roses:
- resistance to frost;
- simplicity in leaving;
- the formation of flower buds along the entire length of the branch.
The disadvantages of some types:
- exactingness to weather conditions (rain, snow, hail and so on);
- fragility of young branches under the weight of blossoming buds;
- dark-colored flowers are prone to the formation of black spots on the petals.
The best varieties
The best varieties were named Lady of Shalott, Golden Celebration, Graham Thomas, Molineux, The Mayflower.
Lady of shalott
The plant is suitable for beginners. The flowers are painted in a peach-orange warm palette with a pinkish tint on the edges of the petals, terry. From 1 to 3 large buds are formed on each stem. The aroma is strong, reminiscent of apple blossoms and cloves. Rose "Lady Shallotte" blooms repeatedly, almost continuously.
The bush is branched, large, up to 2 meters in height, grows rapidly. It is successfully grown in Siberia and the Moscow region. For the winter should be covered with lutrasil. With a long heat, it can drop flowers.
The variety got its name because of terry saturated yellow flowers. Petals can be painted in pinkish specks, large roses, up to 16 cm in diameter. On the shoots there are up to 10 flower buds. In hot weather, flowers quickly fall and burn out. The stems are almost springless. In southern Russia, Golden Celebration is grown as a climbing rose.
- long flowering;
- fruit and berry aroma.
- medium disease resistance;
- reduced winter hardiness;
- low resistance to precipitation.
Rose bush with tea sweet aroma, large pure yellow peony flowers. On the lashes 3-5 flower buds are formed, on the average, a blossoming bud keeps on the branch for about 5 days. In a hot climate, Graham should be grown as a climbing rose or scrub. Winter hardiness is average, a garter of the branches to the supports is definitely needed. The bush is characterized by abundant flowering to the very frosts.
Plants of this variety are recommended to be planted in groups. The bush grows up to half a meter in height, under good conditions it can reach a mark of 2 meters. The flowers are bright yellow, bushy, rosette, their aroma has a musky hue. The stems are springless. Flowering duration - all season. In the suburbs and Siberia, the bush requires shelter for the winter.
The variety is distinguished by bright pink terry flowers of a saturated color with a strong aroma, blooms until the end of autumn. The bush is compact in size, but quite lush, sprawling. Mayflower is better suited for colder climates. In warm conditions, it is attacked by a spider mite. Blooms early, resistant to fungus, other pests.
Introducing several new Austin rose varieties bred after 2016.
Dame judi dench
The variety is named for actress Judy Dench. Its double flowers are painted in peach tones with a gradual loss of color intensity from the base of the rosette to the tips of the petals. The aroma is typical for tea varieties, but notes of cucumber, kiwi are felt. The plant grows to 1.5 m in height and width.
Musk rose hybrid. Petals have a lemon yellow color, turning into a white palette. The shape of the flower is pion-shaped, round. The bush is sprawling, up to a meter wide. Each branch has up to 5 flower buds. Flowering is long, plentiful. Lemon flavor with hints of green tea and honey.
James L. Austin
The flowers of this species are terry, saturated cherry pink. The plant blooms from June to October. The aroma is strong, berry, reminiscent of the smell of currants, raspberries. The bush is compact, suitable for growing in border compositions, containers.
The most suitable cutting varieties for home and market are Beatrice, Carey, Charity, Constance, Edith, Kate, Keira, Tess.
These species are distinguished by compact size of bushes, suitable for single and group plantings , unpretentious in care and resistant to winter frosts. Many stems form on the stems, with the exception of Beatrice. All flowers have terry, peony, large flowers. The color palette is mixed, from white-yellow to pink-gold shades, almost pure colors are Tess (burgundy) and Kate (dark lilac). Each variety has a unique strong aroma.
Before planting, it is necessary to process the seedling: perform pruning of the roots, disinfect open areas with a solution of manganese, soak the root system in water for about a day with the addition of “Kornevin” or other stimulants. A pit for planting is dug up with a size of 50x50x50 cm. The distance between the holes is at least 0.5 m, for climbing roses it should be increased to 100 cm.
In a separate container, the preparation of the nutrient substrate for the rose is carried out. Garden soil is mixed with peat, humus, mineral fertilizers are added in a ratio of 1: 1: 1. Plants are planted in a prepared hole, the place of grafting is located about 7 cm below the soil level. The roots are straightened and sprinkled with prepared soil. After planting, the bushes are poured with water, the fluid flow rate is 5 liters. Further, the soil is compacted to avoid cavities.
When the soil dries to a depth of three centimeters, the plant must be watered. The best time for this is evening. For every adult rose, there must be at least 10 liters of water, climbing plants absorb up to 15 liters
Top dressing of rose bushes is carried out for 2 years of life in the spring season. Nitrogen fertilizers are used during the growth period, nitrogen-phosphorus when buds appear. In the autumn season, potash fertilizers are introduced to help the branches of the plant mature and move the winter period.
Planting Rosaceae in Siberia is always made on the southern side of the site with the presence of partial shade. For roses, it is worthwhile to select places located on a small hill. The degree of soil freezing in such areas is lower, which will save the bushes from freezing the root system and the occurrence of fungal diseases. In Siberia, winds most often blow from the north, north-west or north-east side, so for roses it is worth building a fence or hiding them for various outbuildings.
In the Siberian climate, it is advisable to plant flowers in the spring period starting in May, when the soil temperature reaches 10 degrees Celsius. Grafted seedlings should be planted first, roses with a developed root system - from May 15 to June 15. This period is most optimal so that the process of trunk lumbering has time to end by the beginning of winter.
The soil should be loamy, acidic, with humus in large quantities. Before planting the plant on the bottom of the pit should be laid rotted horse manure. The most optimal ratio of soil composition: 1: 1: 3: 2: 0.5 (clay, sand, humus, peat, wood ash).
To grow these varieties does not require much effort. Austin roses are placed in places where the illumination is at least 4 hours a day. It is desirable that the site for planting the plant is not flooded with melt water in the spring.
Trimming bushes in spring and autumn. Weak, unripe shoots, diseased and old branches are removed. The formation of the crown takes place according to the following rules: the branches of a small plant are cut in half, in wide spreading bushes they are shortened by one third, the branched varieties of roses are trimmed by one fifth of the shoot length.
Regularly under the bushes, weeds, dry leaves, flowers are removed. The soil is swelling and loosening.
Austin roses are bred in two ways.
Fresh shoots are selected for this method. Each cut with the preservation of three sheets. The place of planting seedlings is chosen in partial shade, without weeds and with well-dug up soil. Before planting, the two lower leaves are removed, the shoot is buried in the ground so that one leaf remains on the surface. Each seedling is covered with a protective material - a half of a plastic bottle with an open neck, which is dripped with snow at the beginning of winter.
A year later, a complete rooting of young plants occurs. In the spring they are already transplanted to a permanent place, trying not to affect or expose the root system during the procedure.
This method is only suitable for mature plants. The selected shoot almost at the base with a staple is pressed to the ground, sprinkled with earth and well watered. After a year, when rooting, the lay is cut off from the mother plant and transplanted.
Preparing for wintering roses in the garden or plants placed indoors is done according to standard rules. English roses are not very resistant to frost, so they need protection and shelter for the winter. At a temperature of -5 degrees, immature shoots, fallen leaves and hills of the bushes are removed. Around the plant, a fence is made of foam, plywood, and plastic containers. The internal space is filled with humus.
Branched varieties of roses are pre-pinned to the ground, branches are covered with fallen leaves. Layer thickness up to 30 cm. Plants are opened after wintering at air temperature above 0 degrees.
Austin roses take root in closed and open ground, thanks to this they are universally used in landscape design to create mixborders, flower beds, hedges and other designs.
Weaving varieties are used in vertical gardening. Austin roses combine with evergreen shrubs, conifers.
The classic version of the flower garden consists of low-growing varieties located in the foreground, forming in the form of spreading bushes, and tall, straight-standing or climbing species.
All about the flaws of David Austin's roses, see the video below.