Kalanchoe pinnate - a decorative indoor flower with healing properties. The leaves and juice of the plant are used in medicine and cosmetology. His other name is "surgeon without a knife." Hemostatic, anti-inflammatory and tonic properties are attributed to the flower.
Kalanchoe is unpretentious, and if you follow the simple rules of care, you can grow a beautiful evergreen bush that will become your home doctor.
Kalanchoe belong to the Tolstyankov family, its homeland is the island of Madagascar. In nature, the bush grows on slopes in depleted stony soil, reaches a length of 2 meters. In an apartment, its height is much less and depends on the conditions of detention. The stalk is hollow, fleshy, with growth lignified at the base. The leaves are bright green, oval in shape, located opposite each other. On the edges there are teeth, between which the children grow, with the help of them Kalanchoe multiplies.
A plant that is more than 2 years old often blooms. This happens in the winter, when daylight hours become shorter. The bush forms an arrow growing upward and extending beyond the leaves. Hanging flowers appear on it - light pink buds about 4 cm in size. Later, fruits are formed, which are small boxes with seeds.
Kalanchoe grows well in an apartment. In summer, the flower feels better on the west or east window, and in winter - on the south. Direct sunlight should be avoided, as they can leave burns on the leaves. The plant loves bright lighting, but the daylight should be short. This is especially necessary for the bush to bloom. For these purposes, after 17 hours, the pot with Kalanchoe is darkened: cover with a cap or put in the dark part of the room. In this way, you can achieve flowering at any time of the year.
There must be good drainage in the pot with the plant so that the water does not stagnate. Otherwise, rotting cannot be avoided. The soil should contain peat and sand, any land suitable for succulents. The root system grows rapidly, so periodically the flower must be transplanted into a more spacious flowerpot, it is better to do this in the spring.
Like all succulents, Kalanchoe accumulates moisture in the leaves and stalk, so watering should be moderate. It is difficult to identify the exact scheme, the frequency of soil moisture depends on many factors, for example, the temperature of the air in the room. Orientation is on the top layer of the earth, if it is dry - the plant needs another portion of water. Usually watered every 3 days in the summer and once a week in the winter. In this case, simple rules must be observed:
- water should be settled at room temperature;
- when watering, the leaves and sinuses of the bush can not be wet;
- the earth must be completely moist;
- due to drainage, excess water comes into the pan, which is drained half an hour after moistening the soil.
There is no need for spraying - Kalanchoe perfectly tolerates dry air. During the flowering period, a little more water is required, but be careful - it is better to under-fill the plant than to overfill. If the age of Kalanchoe is 2 years, and it has not yet blossomed, then this process can be stimulated by following these steps:
- shorten the plant daylight hours;
- reduce the temperature in the room;
- you can try to rearrange the flower pot on another window, but not on the north side;
- Do not forget about timely top dressing.
They begin to feed the plant in May and continue until mid-July; they do this with a frequency of once every 2-3 weeks. To stimulate winter flowering in November, feeding is resumed. Use any fertilizer for succulents, only the dose indicated on the package must be reduced by 2 times. In winter, feeding is not needed.
The plant will be grateful if, in addition to moderate watering and timely feeding, supplement the care with the following procedures:
- wipe dust from leaves with a cloth;
- remove diseased and damaged parts of the plant;
- loosen the soil;
- for the winter, rearrange the flower in a cooler room (15-18 degrees);
- after the Kalanchoe fades, cut off the wilted buds and arrange a plant rest.
With such care, the bush grows better, the leaves become larger and juicier, and this will allow you to cook more healing tinctures. Well, of course, do not forget about the decorative function of Kalanchoe.
The plant blooms beautifully and with decent care does it every year.
Thanks to timely pruning, the bush will acquire a neat shape, and the juice secreted by the plant is better distributed among the processes and leaves. Kalanchoe will look more alive and healthy, its resistance to various diseases and plant viruses will increase. The trimming procedure is done for different purposes:
- plant rejuvenation;
- giving the bush a beautiful shape;
- disease prevention.
As soon as the flower has taken root in the pot, 2 upper leaves are nipped at it, later shoots will form on this place, and the Kalanchoe will acquire a bushy shape. From spring to late autumn, the procedure is carried out several times as necessary. If the flower has already grown long shoots that clumsy awkwardly and spoil the general appearance - they are cut off. Do this with sharp scissors, pre-treated with alcohol.
Cuttings will be obtained from the removed sprouts; they can be planted next to the “mother” plant to give the bush a more magnificent shape.
After flowering, Kalanchoe needs pruning. They remove all weak, withered leaves, and most importantly - the peduncle. It is cut to the very bottom, otherwise a dry stick will stick out of the ground, which looks ugly. The trimmed bush is left alone for 2 weeks in a darkened place, then taken care of as usual. Pruning is not always possible, sometimes it is fatal for a flower. It is forbidden to do the procedure in the following cases:
- if Kalanchoe began to bloom;
- in winter;
- within a month after transplantation;
- immediately after purchase, as the plant requires acclimatization;
- when attacking pests - first you need to get rid of them.
In other circumstances, pruning is necessary, it allows the plant not only to look beautiful, but also to be healthy.
Kalanchoe pinnate perfectly reproduces, you can get new copies in different ways:
- by seeds;
- by sheet.
The easiest way to reproduce is by kids. So called small processes with tiny leaves and spine. They are formed on the leaves of an adult plant and, getting into the soil, take root, growing into a full-fledged bush. Not all varieties of Kalanchoe form children, because of this feature it is the cirrus species that is called the “live-bearing”. For propagation, it is necessary to gently pinch off the delicate sprout and plant it in a prepared substrate.
The seed propagation method is suitable when it is necessary to grow a large number of copies. To do this, the seeds are sown in a fertile substrate and covered with a transparent film. Watered with a spray gun, the soil should be constantly moistened. Once a day, aerate, raising the film for several minutes. After about 1-3 weeks, the first shoots will appear. Seedlings dive, and the most powerful specimens are transplanted into pots.
Sometimes you don’t want to wait until a plant of sufficient height is formed from a seed or a kid, then cuttings are used. Thanks to him, in a short time you can get a beautiful green bush. This type of breeding is usually used immediately after pruning. The tops, which were cut off, are divided into cuttings 7-8 cm long, while choosing healthy parts of the plant. They are left in the water until the roots appear, then transplanted to a permanent place of residence.
Grow new instances and using a leaf plate. Do it at any time of the year. A healthy leaf is plucked from the bush and deepened into the soil, covered with a jar from above. The earth must be well moistened. Roots will appear soon and a full-fledged process will grow.
If you do not want to tear off a leaf from the bush for these purposes, you can take the fallen, only it should be green, without signs of yellowing.
Pests and diseases
Kalanchoe feathery unpretentious, but still sometimes sick. It can be attacked by viruses, fungi or pests. The diseased bush begins to languish, lose leaves and, if not taken, dies. The faster you start treatment, the more likely it is to save the flower. When the leaves and stem are covered with brown and brown spots - this is late blight. It occurs due to high humidity, so when a disease is detected, watering should be stopped - the earth should dry well. Then fungicides are used, for example, Profit Gold or Previkur. These funds are diluted in water according to the instructions and spray them with a bush. In the future, it is necessary to revise the frequency of irrigation.
Sometimes, due to too hot and dry air, a white coating appears on the flower - powdery mildew. In this case, you need to ventilate the room more often or rearrange the flowerpot with the plant in a cooler place - in the spring-summer period a balcony will do. And if the leaves become sticky, pale spots similar to gruel are formed on them, which means that gray rot has struck Kalanchoe, in which case the plant needs replacing the soil. Both diseases are treated with fungicides and good care.
When the trunk blackens, and the leaves become smaller, then the flower is just cold. At a temperature of less than 15 degrees, the plant freezes and stem rot can develop. In this case, it is enough to revise the conditions of detention. But if the stem begins to rot, and round spots appear on the leaf plates, the flower cannot be saved. There is only one way out - to find healthy cuttings or children on a diseased bush and grow new ones from them.
If the plant turns yellow and the leaves dry, pests may have settled on it. They are brought in with poor-quality soil or fly into an open window. Sucking the juice from the stem and leaves, they can destroy the whole bush. Kalanchoe pinnate is attacked by the following insect species:
- mealybug (a plant affected by it looks like sprinkled with flour);
- scabbard (small round bugs visible to the naked eye);
- ticks (because of their vital activity, a thin web forms on the plant);
- aphid (this pest often hides on the inside of the leaf).
To get rid of the mealybug, the plant is sprayed with mineral oil, and the most affected parts of the bush are removed. It’s easy to get rid of the scale: the bugs are removed from the leaves, and their places are wiped with alcohol, then the plant is washed in soapy water. Ticks and aphids are afraid of soap solution, they can spray the affected plant. For this, 20 g of laundry or tar soap is mixed in 1 liter of warm water. It is cooled to room temperature and sprayed out.
After the treatment, it is necessary to do a routine inspection within a month, paying attention to the leaves and stem. If signs of a pest are found, treatment should be repeated. In advanced cases, insecticides are used , for example, Fitoverm, Actellik, and Haupsin. Processing is carried out on the balcony with gloves and a respirator. Good prevention of any disease is the right care.
Timely watering, comfortable air temperature and periodic pruning will allow the plant to be strong. In favorable conditions, Kalanchoe will live for a long time.
On how to achieve abundant re-flowering of Kalanchoe, see the next video.